Roundworm and Rotifers

nematoda
PHylum of round worm
-have pseudocoelooom
-bilateral symmetry
-cylindrical, unsegmented worms that are tapered at both ends
-found in marine, freshwater and land
-some are parasites on plants and animals
-have adaptations that allow them to live in many places
body structure of roundworm
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-free living eat tiny invertebrates and decaying plant and animal matter
feeding in roundworm
they have a pseudocoelom (gut is seperated from rest of body)
-the digestion movement is a one way path with 2 openings
digestion in roundworm
none
hey depend on diffusion to move nutrients and gases through body and remove waste
respiratory in roundworms
none
hey depend on diffusion to move nutrients and gases through body and remove waste
circulatory in roundworms
-more complex have excretory ducts that enable them to converse water for living on land
-some complex have flame cells
excretory system in roundworms
-ganglia and associated nerve cords coordinate stimuli responses
-sensitive to touch and chemicals
-some can detect light
response to stimuli in roundworms
muscles throughout body that cause them to move in a thrashing matter
-hydrostatic skeleton
movement
Thisis fluid within a closed space that provides rigid support for muscles to work against. The pseudocoelom acts as thisin roundworms.
hydrostatic skeleton
reproduce sexually
-females produce eggs; males, sperm
-internal fertilization
-in free living, larvae hatch from fertilized eggs
-in parasitic ones, its a lot more complicated, involvng a host
reproduction
1/2 of speicies parasite
-these can cause disease due to carelessness and poor sanitation
diversity of roundworms
CAuses trichinosis
Thisis a disease that can be contracted by raw or undercooked pork and porkproducts, or wild game thatisinfected. The larve then mature and femalesburrow eggs into the intestinal walls of mammals. After the eggshatch,the larve burrow into muscles wherethey form cysts, causing muscle pain. This disease can be prevented by cooking meat properly.
Trichinella Worms
-common in warm climate where people go barefoot
-when it comes in contact with skin, it cuts its way inside, travels in bloodstream to luungs and then to the windpipe where it is coughed up and swalloweed
-then it moves to small intestine, where it attaches to wall and feeds on blood and tissue
-it can be prevented by wearing shoes
hookworms
most common worm infection
-eggs of these worms are found in soil in tropical areas
-enter through mouth and live intestine
-occurs when unwashed veggies with contaminated soil are consumed or when contamined hands are put in mouth
-prevent by washing hands
aSCarid worms
most common infection in US
-common in children
-at night, females pinwheels move from anus to skin where they lay eggs
-when skin is scratched, eggs get on hands and other things that come in contact
-they can survive on any surface for up to 2 weeks , waiting to be ingested
PINWORMS
-cause elephantiasis
-livein tropical areas
-mosquito is host. when they suck bllod of person with this the worm embryos go to their bloodstream
-they grow ito larvae and our transferred back to humans
-adult worms accumilate in lympathatic system and disrupt flow od lymph (tissue fluid between cells)
-this causes lymph to build up and parts of the body to enlarge.
-this can be prevented by controlling mosquitos -heartworm is also caused by these
filarial worms
-mosquito is host. when they suck bllod of person with this the worm embryos go to their bloodstream
-they grow ito larvae and our transferred back to humans
-adult worms accumilate in lympathatic system and disrupt flow od lymph (tissue fluid between cells)
-this causes lymph to build up and parts of the body to enlarge.
-this can be prevented by controlling mosquitos
elephantiasis
-transferred to animals by moquitos
-block blood flow to heart
-prevented by regular medication
heartworm
-when they infect, they kill/damage plant
-many harmless though
-they can be used to control pest plants by spraying them with these
-they can also be used to control things that are pests to us, which limits our exposure to harmful chemicals
Nematodes in Plants
-these are tiny animals in phylum Rotifera (wheel bearer)
-live in freshwater habbitats, few are marine
-pseudocoelomates, but dif branch than roundworms
Rotifers
-similar to roundworms because they have bilateral symmetry and are pseudocoelomates with a gut opening at both ends
-they move through water by means of their ciliated wheel like structires
-the posterior end has tes and glands that secrete an adhesive material that enables a rotifer to attch itself to a surface or water
Rotifer features and movement
-they feed by using the cilia to gather protissts and organic materials into a complete digestive tract (mouth and anus)
DIGESTION in rotifers
-they exchange gases and excrete metabolic waste byh diffision through body walls
RESPIRation and ecretion in rotifers
-sensory structures include sensory bristles and eyespots on head
Sensory in rotifers
-some reproduce sexually while others have more complex with diploid eggs producing diploid females and haploid eggs producing haploid amles
Reproduction in rotifers
true
The pseudocoelomates and one- way digestive tract of roundworms represent an evolutionary milestone in animals.
true
Roundworm infestations are common in both plants and animals.
true
Trichinosis is a diease caused by the consumption of undercooked pork containing roundworm larve.
false
Hookworm infections are common in Northern Canada.
false
Humans can avoid trichnosis by wearing shoes while walking through feilds.
tegument
To avoid being digested by their host, endoparasites have a thick protective covering called the
ascaris, necator, trichinella
A type of roundworm that lives a parasitic life is
consum ethe nematodes eggs
The nematode Ascaris lumbricuides infects humans, spenping most of its adult life inside the intestines of the host. To be infected, a person must
flatworms are acoelomates and roundworms are pseudocoalomatesWhich type of animal would have a respitory system?
Using the figure above, what is the difference between roundworms and flatworms?
are most closely related to rotifers than arthropods
What is the primary evolutionary feature of roundworms?
nematoda
To which phylum do roundworms belong?
soil
The eggs of the roundworm, Acaris, can live for years in
intestine
Ascaris eggs develop into larvae while in human
neither
which has a respiratory system
roundworms only
Which of the following has a complete digestive track (mouth to anus)?
trichinosis
A disease called can be contracted by injesting a type of roundworm.
gut
Which feature in the diagram above led to which adaptation in roundworms?
provides a digestive tract and assists in movement
What are two functions of the pseudocoelom in roundworms?
a pseudocoelom
What is a key evoltionary adaptation of a roundworms digestive system?
hydrostatic skeleton
What term describes the pseudocoelom providing rigid support for muscles to work against?
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