Running Head: Postmodernism and Symbolic Perspectives Essay

Runing Head: Postmodernism and symbolic positions

Part 1

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Symbolic position

Symbolic position focal points on organisations as communities that are sustained by human relationships. The position employs an interpretative epistemology and preponderantly subjectivist ontology. Symbolic-interpretivists dainty organisations as webs of significances jointly created, communicated and appreciated instead than objects to be monitored, measured and analyzed. As mentioned by Woodside ( 2010, pp. 45-46 ) , organisation theory on symbolic-interpretive reconnoiters how significances are fashioned, and the worlds made practical to the persons and organisations that participate in prolonging them.

Subjectivism is theontologyof symbolic position. It is the belief and premise that an external or nonsubjective being of something can non be known, unless we become subjective aware of its being.

Interpretivism is theepistemologyof the symbolic position. Interpretivism advocates that all cognition of a peculiar phenomenon is comparative to the 1 that knows and the information can right understood from those persons or groups that are straight involved. Harmonizing to Manning ( 2002, pp. 45 ) , the theory assumes that the truth is informally constructed through multiple societal readings of the cognition objects thereby reconstructed therefore alterations and displacements through clip.

Theory: symbolic position describes and foreground how different people give order and significance to their experience within expressed contexts, via symbolic and interpretative signifiers, procedures and Acts of the Apostless.

Methodology:the methodological analysis used in symbolic-interpretive position is qualitative. This is an inductive procedure aimed at developing theory from assorted observations and reading. It is the method used by symbolic-interpretivists to roll up the necessary informations.


Postmodernism is basically a response to the inexplicit certainty of nonsubjective, or scientific attempts to explicate world. Reality is non merely exhibited in the human perceptual experience of it, instead it is constructed as our heads try to grok its personal and peculiar world. Therefore, as Tadajewski ( 2011, pp. 67 ) puts it, postmodernism position is disbelieving of the accounts from civilizations, races, or groups, and alternatively focal points on concrete truth of each. The perspective relies on concrete grounds instead than abstract rules. Postmodernist through healthy sceptics of any dominant theory will promote and license persons to seek out something different or new. Therefore, postmodernism theory will seek to turn to speculating itself. Postmodernism theory makes persons cognizant of the alteration and that all theories are unfastened to alter.

Postmodernism is theontologyof a postmodernist. Everything that issue is a way that needs to be learnt and performed. What exists in our eyes is simply what theories tries to explicate to us. Harmonizing to Keyton ( 2011, pp. 56 ) , postmodernism construct ensures that persons can separate the assorted theories depicting organisation civilization and the influence they have on organisation behaviour.

Theepistemologyof a postmodernist is postmodernism ; this theory verifies that cognition can non be the accurate history of truth. This is because the significances of the facts can non be fixed ; there is no fixed and independent world ; no facts that are dependable, and merely what exists is readings without fact. This position is enshrined with the premise that cognition is power.

Theory: As mentioned by Tierney ( 2008, pp. 45 ) , destabilising the managerial theories of organisation civilization and the assorted methods involved in the theorizing and organizing of the organisational civilization makeup the theory in postmodernism. Assorted single challenging the available theories are free to come up with bran-new theories that best suits their circumstance. For case, when a company tries a new theory without any fortune. They are free to seek out other new theories that best suits them. In so making they will be able to add value to the organisation and play a critical function in the promotion of the organisation civilization. These are the theories involved in uncovering the managerial civilizations in assorted organisations.

Methodology:The methodological analysis used in postmodernism is aimed at bring outing multiple readings of world. Existing information is collected from already established organisational theoretical accounts. This information is so used by the postmodernist to pull new theories that best suits their organisation.

In depicting these positions, let’s relate them to organisation civilization and how they recount to them. The followers is the definition of organisation civilization and how it is affected by postmodernism and symbolism positions.

The positions on organisation civilization

Organization civilization involves a corporate step of norms and values that people and groups in an organisation portion affecting the control and the manner persons and stakeholders relate to each other. Behavior of persons in an organisation affect the manner they perceive and pursue the organisation ends. Harmonizing to Simon ( 2004, pp. 78 ) , the values and norms of an person are employed to estimate the individuals’ criterions of behaviours.

Organizational civilization and behaviour are critical in understanding the function of organisations in advancing the employee effectivity and to emphasize the relationship between the employees and the directors. Harmonizing to Hatch ( 2004, pp. 78-79 ) , postmodernist in their surveies promote cognition that is readily equipped in direction and in analyzing the assorted dimensions organisation civilization. While postmodernist research workers are restricted by the measuring tools they use, symbolic position assumes interpretative epistemology and subjective ontology to concentrate on how the organisation members play a critical function in organisation civilization.

Understanding organisation civilization in different types of organisations utilizing symbolism and postmodernism positions.

Part 2

Decoding symbolism position

In groking the impacts organisational civilization have on pupil nurses, symbolism positions will be explored. The pupils and the instructors employ a instance survey of the military to research the consequence of military behaviour on acquisition. The survey involved interviews, studies and observation to come up with the decision. In the findings, the pupils and the lectors were found to be actively affected by the military behaviour. The instance survey employs symbolic position to explicate the consequence of military preparation to the behaviour of the pupil nurses. The common constructs in this instance were ethos, image, subject, environment, civilian versus military manner of analysing and thought.

The acquisition of the defence pupil nurses is really encouraging and positive ; it is enhanced by the positive civilization of the higher learning establishment. The factors that cement positive larning experience of the pupil nurses to impact on their civilization are images, subject, support public assistance and ethos. The survey involved the Defense School of Health Care Studies ( DSHCS ) . In the research, information was gathered utilizing structured interviews and questionnaires. The purpose of the survey was to verify the consequence of the military preparation to the behaviour of both the nurse pupils and the teachers. However, considerations were given to include allotment to civilian pupils within the selected sample groups. These sample groups were employed for the intents of comparing with the pupil nurses in the armed forces. The alteration of their behaviour was analyzed to infer the cultural alteration in the institutional civilization. The civilian position is really critical as it gives a mention to the analysis of the organisational alteration.

There was a important differentiation between the military and the civilian civilizations and their consequence on the learning civilization. Using the symbolic position, the pupils being exposed to the military civilization had their behaviours changed positively. There is a strong committedness to the acquisition in the military talks. Bell ( 2013, pp. 1337-1341 ) illustrates that 99 % of the talks are to the full committed by the pupils. This shows a high degree of subject from the pupils. The pupil has regard to the military system and hold higher response to the military acquisition. Though the different civilizations, it is clear to state that, larning overrides the barriers to those civilizations. In existent sense, the military sub-culture has an consequence on the community organisational civilization and can well impact on the learning procedure of the persons and groups of the community.

Discipline is closely correlated with the civilization. Rules and ordinances govern the manner organisations perform their responsibilities. Culture within the DSHCS is extremely motivated by subject within the organisation. The beliefs within the organisation besides shape the behaviour of different persons in the DSHCS. Focus to prior accomplishment is critical as it equips the persons with the necessary accomplishments to manage the same state of affairs when it arises.

The pupils become cognizant of the behaviours in the military and employs them to cover with their state of affairss. They employ subjective theory to larn the significance of the different constructs and use them to cover with their practical issues.

Decoding postmodernism position

In decoding postmodernism position, organisational civilization and revelation will be explored. This will be with regard to a instance survey of Brazilian public organisation alteration. This probe employs an exploratory and descriptive survey. It is based on organisational civilization construct in the dimensions of cultural values and artefacts. The survey will affect organisational undertakings of modernisation, strategic programs and edicts. The findings will reason that there is deep concern to the subject of organisational civilization peculiarly during the modernisation procedure. Organizations employed this position to alter the behaviour of its members utilizing discourse procedures. These discourse procedures are aimed at alining the individuals’ ends with organisational ends. Harmonizing to Silva & A ; Fadul ( 2011, pp. 190-193 ) , these discourse mechanism included enticement, seduction, aggravation and bullying. However, the discourse mechanisms are non normally in line with the single beliefs. However, the direction coarse persons to accommodate with the selected organisational constructs.

The instance employs direction theoretical accounts to synthesise the organisational civilization in assorted organisations. The theoretical accounts incorporate political patterns that have control over the organisations. As mentioned by Martin ( 2002, pp. 33 ) , political control is critical as it is frequently used by directors to presume power over other organisations and persons. The political patterns affect the organisational civilizations in the Brazilian public disposal.

The analysis surveies past organisations and the theoretical accounts employed. Harmonizing to Thornton, Ocasio & A ; Lounsbury ( 2012, pp. 54 ) , postmodernism theory, is non limited to the civilization of the organisation and directors using this construct will seek new theories that suits the organisation better. The upper direction uses the discourse resources to pull strings and convert persons in the organisation to be loyal to the organisation beliefs. The constructs used include bullying, seduction, aggravation and enticement. Normally, enticement will include suggesting a wages to an person to transport out a given undertaking. An person may be threatened to make what the organisation wants, therefore bullying arises. Seduction arises when the intimidated person does what the organisation wants.

Constitution of quality plans to guarantee the criterions of the organisation are maintained add value to the postmodernism position. Harmonizing to Schnell ( 2003, pp. 72 ) , different organisations regulate the public presentation of their employees utilizing these criterions. By using these criterions, the organisation is instilled with good civilization that makes it preferred in the markets.

Other instances using the positions

The MacDonald’s has been a fast-food giant in the United States. The company has employed postmodernism theories to set up a good market in the United States. As mentioned by Mcauley Duberley & A ; Johnson ( 2007, pp. 67-72 ) , they do so by larning the bing theories and coming up their positions on marketing their merchandises. The McDonald’s uses the Olympics to sell their merchandises in the United States. They employed the same platform in Athens 2004, in their run for healthy life styles. Postmodernism focuses on the alterations or the factors that drive the economic system and looks at the deduction these factors have on organisations and persons. McDonald’s survey these factors and utilize them in their selling scheme.

Over the past old ages Starbucks has achieved fiscal success by using symbolic position in covering with their clients and the stakeholders. They have achieved the success by using several theories driven by symbolic position. First, Starbucks builds a healthy relationship with the stakeholders and clients through symbols and linguistic communication. Second, the company employs symbols and linguistic communication. Although survey reveals that power is frequently associated with jobs when covering with public dealingss, for adept directors power can be used to make a healthy relationship in the organisation. Harmonizing to Moore ( 2006, pp. 67 ) , usage of this position offer Starbucks advanced ways to look at organisation civilization.


In decision, an organisation needs more than one theoretical account in order to recognize organisational ends and have a good relationship with the workers, clients and the stakeholders. The different positions to be employed in the organisation civilization have rules that are basically similar. All are aimed at making a healthy civilization where the organisation can turn and develop optimally. Harmonizing to Schein ( 2005, pp. 27 ) , the difference arises between an individual’s context and the organization’s context in put to deathing these positions. Each of the positions has complex systems that are adaptable to the organisation using them. There is no right or incorrect position. Both postmodernism and symbolic position have advantages and disadvantages. The best position is the 1 that suits the organisation best.


Bell, E 2013, Organizational civilization and acquisition: A instance survey,Nurse Education Today,vol. 33.pp.1337-1341.

Da Silva LP & A ; Fadul E 2011, Organizational civilization and discourses: A instance of alteration in a Brazilian public organisation.BAR – Brazilian Administration Review,vol.8, pp. 185-204.

Hatch, MJ 2004,Organization theory: modern, symbolic, and postmodern positions, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

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Thornton, PH, Ocasio, W & A ; Lounsbury, M 2012,The institutional logics position: a new attack to civilization, construction, and procedure. University Press Oxford, Oxford.

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