Problem: Research workers wanted to find how cognizant grownup Hispanics in the San Francisco country are of merchandise warning messages and marks refering coffin nails. alcoholic drinks. and other consumer merchandises. The research workers needed to reach a sample of them to interview. A Solution: “Respondents were sampled using…random figure dialing. This procedure…avoids the usage of directories with their built-in job of the exclusion of unlisted Numberss while vouching equal chance of choice for all telephone Numberss. Such an attack has been used in a figure of telephone studies with Hispanics and has been shown to be non merely executable but besides really efficient… “A family was considered to be eligible if those replying the telephone self-identified as Hispanics. Within a given family. the respondent was selected by inquiring for the Hispanic occupant who had most late celebrated a birthday and who was between 18 and 65 old ages of age. Interviews were conducted in the linguistic communication of penchant of the respondent ( English or Spanish ) by bilingual. bicultural interviewers. ” Your Opinions:
1. Note that utilizing random digit dialing gives all telephone Numberss. including unlisted Numberss. an equal opportunity of being dialed. Does this process give all grownup Hispanics in the San Francisco country an equal opportunity of being selected for the survey? Why or why non? 2. Are at that place jobs with utilizing self-identification as a Hispanic as a standard for eligibility to take part in the survey? Explain your reply. 3. Speculate on why the interviewer asked to talk with the Latino occupant between 18 and 65 old ages of age who had most late celebrated a birthday. 4. Would you be interested in cognizing whether some Spanish americans who answered the phone refused to be interviewed? Why or why non? 1 Source/ mention: Marin. G. ( 1994 ) . Self-reported consciousness of the presence of merchandise warning messages and marks by Hispanics in San Francisco. Public Health Reports. 109. 275-283. Submit your sentiment to the instance survey to this threaded treatment.
Case Study 2 on Sampling
Using a Sample of Convenience1
Problem: Professors frequently use samples of college pupils as participants in their research because they are convenient. Using such samples can be debatable. A Solution: A research worker was interested in women’s penchants for married names ( traditional – taking the husbands’ family names and untraditional – retaining their family names or hyphenating the two family names ) . The research workers surveyed 150 single adult females pupils enrolled in an introductory psychological science class. They asked the adult females to bespeak what they would make. presuming that their hubbies had no sentiment on the affair. They were told “If you have non thought much about this issue. delight see it now and give your sentiment even if you are non 100 % certain. ” They were besides asked to give the grounds for their name pick. Almost 60 % of the adult females chose to take the husband’s name. In their decision. the research workers noted that “one of the most dramatic consequences of this survey is many respondents’ unquestioning attitudes toward” taking the husband’s family name as indicated by the fact that many gave responses such as “I don’t know. I guess it’s tradition. ” or merely composing the work “tradition” as their ground. Your Opinions:
1. Because of the nature of the sample. this survey provides information on what adult females program to make. Make you believe this is every bit interesting as garnering information on what a sample of married adult females have done? Why or why now? 2. The research workers seemingly suspected that some participants in this sample may non hold given the issue much thought before take parting in the survey and might non be certain of their sentiment. In visible radiation of this. would it hold been interesting to hold the pupils rate the grade of certainty they had in their replies? Why or why non? 3. What is your sentiment on holding the adult females assume their hubbies had no sentiment? ( Note that because of the nature of the sample. the research workers either needed to supply an premise on this affair or let the participants to do their ain assumptions. ) 4. Are you surprised by the “unquestioning attitudes toward name traditions” ? Why or why non? 1 Source/ mention: Twenge. J. M. ( 1997 ) . “Mrs. his name” : Women’s penchants for married names. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 21. 417-429. Submit your sentiment to the instance survey to this threaded treatment.
Case Study 3 on Sampling
Using Quota Sampling1
Problem: Professors with limited resources normally find it hard to obtain equal samples of the general grownup population for their research. Alternatively. many survey samples of college pupils. who are readily available. even though there is no ground to believe that samples of college pupils are representative of the national population of grownups. ( Of class. frequently professors are interested in the behaviour of college pupils merely. in which instance. utilizing college pupils is non a problem. ) A Solution: “In order to make a broad scope of people. the informations were collected utilizing a purposive. quota design. Students enrolled in a research methods class…were given class recognition for roll uping the information for this survey. These research helpers were…instructed to enroll grownups ( non college pupils ) that they knew in six age and gender quotas ( male and female: 18-34. 35-49. and 50 and older ) to complete questionnaires. Because the pupils were given their assignment in the hebdomads prior to spring interruption. most of them contacted grownups from their place countries. The grownup respondents completed the written self-administered questionnaires. . The research helpers returned a sum of 566 questionnaires. ” Your Opinions:
1. Speculate on why the research helpers were told to enroll grownups who were “not college pupils. ” 2. Make you believe that the research worker achieved her end of making a “wide scope of people” ? Why or why non? 3. Make you believe that the sample is likely representative of the grownup population of the United States? Why or why non? 4. In add-on to gender and age. are at that place other variables for which quotas could hold been established that would better the sample? Explain your reply. 1 Source/ mention: Perse. E. M. ( 1996 ) . Sensation seeking and the usage of telecasting for rousing. Communication Reports. 9. 37-48. Submit your sentiment to the instance survey to this threaded treatment.
Case Study 4 on Sampling
Using an Incentive to Increase Response Rate1
Problems: When trying to interview members of the general population. a significant per centum of the sample frequently refuses to be interviewed. A Solution: Researchers sent a missive to a random sample of families bespeaking that an interviewer would be naming on them. As an inducement. the research workers included a gift-boxed ball point pen ( imprinted with the words “University of Michigan” in gold ) along with a note stating that the pen was a item of grasp for take parting in the approaching interview. Drawbacks to the Solution: The cost of the survey was increased by $ 3. 98 ( $ 3. 75 for the pen and $ 0. 23 for extra postage ) per possible respondent contacted. In add-on. the inducement might “alter the composing of the reacting sample. ” For illustration. it might be more effectual deriving the engagement of people from low socioeconomic position groups than higher socioeconomic groups. Furthermore. an inducement might change the manner in which respondents answered the inquiries. which asked about demographic variables. participants’ remembrance of recent events in history. and their attitudes toward societal issues. Your Opinions:
1. Make you believe it would be better to direct a missive offering a pen merely to those who complete the interviews alternatively of giving off pens to all possible respondents before the interviewers contact them? Why or why non? 2. In your sentiment. how serious is the possible drawback that the inducement might “alter the composing of the reacting sample” ? Explain your reply. 3. If you had received the gift pen. would you be probably to change your replies to the inquiries because of it? For illustration. would you be more likely to seek to “please the interviewer” by giving replies you think might delight him or her? Why or why non? 4. Are at that place other comparatively cheap gifts that might be used as inducements? If yes. call some. Are they likely to be every bit effectual as a gift pen? Why or why non? 1 Source/ mention: Willimack. D. K. . Schuman. H. . Pennell. B. . & A ; Lepkowski. J. M. ( 1995 ) . Effectss of a postpaid nonmonetary inducement on response rates and response quality in a face-to-face study. Public Opinion Quarterly. 59. 78-92. Submit your sentiment to the instance survey to this threaded treatment.
Case Study 5 on Sampling
Obtaining a Sample of Psychotherapy Clients
Problem: Research workers wanted to study “a big. diverse sample of psychotherapeutics patients” for a survey of the patients’ positive and negative ratings of being physically touched by clinical psychologists. A Solution: The research workers decided to pull a sample of healers and have them distribute anon. questionnaires to their patients ( neither the patients’ nor therapists’ names were to be placed on the questionnaires ) . “A list of healers in a big Southern metropolitan country was generated from province professional association and telephone directories of healers ( and upon recommendation of healers and respondents. expanded to include healers in other provinces ) . Over 300 healers were contacted. Of the 900 [ questionnaires ] distributed. about 125 were mailed to metropoliss and mid-sized towns in other provinces in the Midwest. the Northeast. and the Southeast. ” Two hundred thirty-one useable questionnaires were returned. Your Opinions:
1. In your sentiment. was the researchers’ method of trying likely to ensue in “a big. diverse sample” of patients? Why or why non? 2. Two hundred thirty-one of the 900 questionnaires were returned. Does this do a sampling job? Why or why non? 3. The research workers province that over 300 healers were contacted. but they do non bespeak how many agreed to administer questionnaires. As a consumer of research. would you be interested in holding this information? Why? 4. The healers knew the intent of the survey and the contents of the questionnaires. Is it possible that some of the healers felt threatened by the survey even though patients’ responses were to be anon. ? Is this a serious menace to the survey? Why or why non? 1 Source/ mention: Horton. J. A. . Clance. P. R. Sterk-Elifson. C. . Emshoff. J. ( 1995 ) . Touch in psychotherapeutics: A study of patients’ experiences. Psychotherapy. 32. 443-457. Submit your sentiment to the instance survey to this threaded treatment.