Science 1101 test 2 mastering questions

negative, outside surrounding the structure
electron
positive, inside
proton
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neutral, inside
neutron
electrically charged atoms, such as the form of the element calcium that is written as Ca2+
ions
combinations of two or more atoms such as two chemically bonded oxygen atoms(O2)
molecules
when two or more atoms of different elements bond
compounds
atoms of the same element with differing numbers of neutrons
isotopes
when isotopes are radioactive and lose subatomic particles
decay
any material that occupies space and has mass
matter
6,This is an atom of carbon, an element with 6 protons. Atomic number is the number of protons in an atom.
What is the atomic number of an atom that has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons?
These atoms are isotopes.
Which of these refers to atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic masses?
10,Atomic mass is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons (19-9 = 10).
Fluorine’s atomic number is 9 and its atomic mass is 19. How many neutrons does fluorine have?
5,The atomic number is equal to the number of protons.
An uncharged atom of boron has an atomic number of 5 and an atomic mass of 11. How many protons does boron have?
covalent,A covalent bond is one in which electron pairs are shared.
What type of bond is joining the two hydrogen atoms?
molecule
A(n) _____ refers to two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
4
This atom can form up to _____ single covalent bond(s).
double covalent
A(n) _____ bond joins these two oxygen atoms.
ionic bonds,When ionic bonds form, atoms (or groups of atoms) give away or receive electrons. Such atoms (or groups of atoms) have zero electrical charge until they give away or receive electrons. At that time they become either positively or negatively charged.
Charged atoms that form molecules are held together by _______.
ionic bond,Ionic bonds form in compounds where the strength of the attraction is sufficiently unequal so that an electron may be transferred from one atom to another, creating oppositely charged ions.
The elements iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) bond when the elements donate and receive electrons between each other. This type of bond is considered a(n) _______.
hydrogen
The bracket is indicating a(n) _____ bond.
polar covalent
What name is given to the bond between a hydrogen atom and and an oxygen atom within a single water molecule?
single(nonpolar) covalent
What type of bond joins the carbon atom to each of the hydrogen atoms?
four…hydrogen
Each water molecule is joined to _____ other water molecules by ____ bonds.
polar
The unequal sharing of electrons within a water molecule makes the water molecule _____.
electronegativity
The tendency of an atom to pull electrons toward itself is referred to as its _____.
polar covalent
In this molecule, what type of bond is found between the oxygen and hydrogens?
Hydrogen Bonds are weaker than covalent bonds because they do not involve sharing of electrons, and they are weaker than ionic bonds because they involve the attraction of partial (not full) opposite charges.
Which of these bonds is weakest?
The high surface tension of water allows the insect to remain on the surface.
Why isn’t this insect drowning?
hydrogen
The _____ bonds between water molecules lead to water’s cohesion.
hydrogen ions is equal to the concentration of hydroxide ions
In a neutral solution the concentration of _____.
a solution with a higher concentration of hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions ex, lemon juice, normal rain, a solution with a pH of 6
Acidic
a solution with equal concentrations of hydroxide ions and hydrogen ions ex.a solution with a pH of 7, pure water
neutral
a solution with a higher concentration of hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions ex. pH of 12, liquid soap
basic
100
A solution of pH 5 has _____ times more hydrogen ions than that of pure water.
carbon
An element associated with all organic compounds is _______.
RNA
Which of these is NOT a lipid?
olive oil
Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats?
as a component of animal cell membranes
A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____.
a polysaccharide found in animals
Glycogen is _____.
maltose + water … dehydration synthesis
glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____.
milk
Which of these is a source of lactose?
cellulose
Which of these is a polysaccharide?
Cellulose, a component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound found on earth.
_____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth.
carbohydrates
Which of the following macromolecules fuels almost all living cells?
polymerization
The process of building a protein by making long chains of amino acids can be called _______.
amino acids
Proteins are polymers of _____.
peptide
What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein’s primary structure?
Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are characteristic of a protein’s secondary structure.
Which of these illustrates the secondary structure of a protein?
hydrogen bonds
The secondary structure of a protein results from _____.
peptide bonds
Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____.
fumaroles
The shallow stream beds often tapped for geothermal energy are called what?
Bureau of Land Management
Which federal agency provided the permit allowing AltaRock to begin drilling?
The Geysers
Who is the largest producer of traditional geothermal energy in the U.S.?
a space station orbiting Earth, Kinetic energy is energy of motion.
Which of these is exhibiting kinetic energy?
energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another
“Conservation of energy” refers to the fact that _____.
potential
Chemical energy is a form of _____ energy.
cellular respiration
In your body, what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP?
heat, carbon dioxide, and water
Which of these are by-products of cellular respiration?
Energy is the ability to do work. Work includes changing positions, changing the physical composition or the temperature of matter.
Which of the statements below is the best description of energy?
a rock falling from a cliff
Which of the following is an example of kinetic energy?
remains constant
According to the first law of thermodynamics, the total amount of energy in the universe _______.
energy is required to build a complicated organism out of simple chemicals
The second law of thermodynamics predicts that _____.
the sun
In most ecosystems, the original source of energy for the living things in the system is _____.
fats
Which of these provides your body with energy?
light
Plants use _____ as a source of energy.
carbon
What element is found in all organic compounds?
decomposers
What name is given to organisms that convert the carbon in organic compounds into carbon in carbon dioxide?
light
Where do plants get the energy to make organic molecules?
carbon dioxide
Where do plants get the carbon they use to make organic molecules?
minerals
Which of these is NOT an organic molecule?
6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
Which of the following equations represents photosynthesis?
Chloroplast
In which of the following organelles does photosynthesis take place?
An electron transport chain
What connects the two photosystems in the light reactions?
ATP and NADPH
What two molecules are produced by the light reactions and used to power the Calvin cycle?
H2O
What provides electrons for the light reactions?
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
What provides the carbon atoms that are incorporated into sugar molecules in the Calvin cycle?
NADPH
What transports electrons from the light reactions to the Calvin cycle?
thylakoids; stroma
The light reactions take place in the _________ and the Calvin cycle takes place in the _________.
carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight energy
Which of the following are the reactants (ingredients) needed for photosynthesis to occur?
photosynthesis
The process of _____ generates the oxygen that we breathe and the food that we eat.
They produce their own organic molecules, which can be broken down for energy.
Which of the following best describes the role of autotrophic (self-feeding) organisms in ecosystems?
glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain
GACE
Select the correct sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration.
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy
What is the correct general equation for cellular respiration?
glycolysis
Which of the following processes takes place in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?
mitochondrion
In what organelle would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?
This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
Which statement describes glycolysis?
This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.
Which statement describes the citric acid cycle?
This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
Which statement describes the electron transport chain?
glucose and oxygen
Which of the following represent the reactants (ingredients) necessary for cellular respiration?
Living systems tend toward disorder.
Which of the following statements is true?
hydrogen sulfide
The energy source for chemosynthesis in the deep sea vent community is _______.
core, mantle, crust
Which of the following correctly represents the layers of the earth from the innermost to the outermost layer?
composed mostly of solid metal
Inner core
composed of molten metal
Outer core
thick layer of dense rock surrounding the core
Lower Mantle
contains the asthenosphere just below the crust
Upper mantle
ting rock layer at the earth’s surface
Crust
The Appalachian Mountains begin to form.
Which of the following happened first?
North Atlantic Ocean
Continental rifting formed which of the following?
The formation of the ice age glaciers.
Which of the following occurred about 21,000 years ago?
seafloor spreading
The slowly increasing distance between South America and Africa is due to
a hot spot
Old Faithful Geyser at Yellowstone National Park in the United States acquires its energy from
sedimentary rock
Layered _________exposed by erosion can be seen when looking at the Grand Canyon in the United States.
continental crust
Australia is composed of relatively old and thick
subduction
The extremely deep ocean Marianas Trench is a result of
Seafloor crust
________found in the Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe is composed of dense and relatively young rock.
fault
The earthquakes that occur in Southern California generally occur above a
igneous rock
Volcanoes are created when lava cools and accumulates over time. What type of rock are volcanoes made of?
convergent plate boundaries,Convergent plate boundaries can cause either subduction or continental collisions. Continental collisions lead to mountain formations.
Which of the following are responsible for the formation of some of the world’s highest mountains?
transform plate boundaries,Where two plates meet, they can slip and grind alongside each other. This can generate enough friction to start an earthquake.
Natural disasters like the recent earthquake in Haiti can be attributed to _______.
volcanoes
If a significant amount of extrusive igneous rock is found in an area, one would expect also to find _____ in the area.
lithification
The formation of rock through compaction and cementation is termed _______.
compaction, When fossil fuels are formed sedimentary layers pile up over time and are physically pressed together (compaction).
Fossil fuels are formed as organic materials decompose and layers of particles fall on top of them. This process is similar to the process of _______.
carbon dioxide
Many pollutants from coal-fired power plants are properly managed today. Which of the following is currently considered to be the biggest threat to the environment?
solar
All fossil fuels, including coal, are considered an indirect form of ____________ energy.
generator
Where is electricity made at a coal-fired power plant?
It almost always increases.
During peak usage, what happens to the cost of electricity?
black
What color smoke coming from a coal-fired power plant would indicate wasted fuel?
a marshlike environment that was filled with landfill in order to build a city
Which of the following areas would experience the most devastation after an earthquake?
Kansas
Which of the following U.S. states would be least likely to be affected by a tsunami?
tsunamis
Earthquakes, volcanoes, and landslides can displace large volumes of water and trigger which of the following natural disasters?
zoning laws to reduce building in flood zones
Which of the following can help humans mitigate the negative impact of floods?
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