Science 7 period

Term Definition
Volcano A weak spot in earth's crust where molten material, or magma, comes to the surface.
Lava When magma reaches the surface it's called this.
Magma A molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle is referred to as this.
Volcanic ash Very small solid particles ejected from a volcano during an eruption.
Magma chamber A large, underground pool of magma that is found beneath the surface of the earth.
Crater A large, bowl-shaped cavity in the ground or on the surface of a planet or moon, typically one caused by an explosion or the impact of a meteor or other celestial body.
Vent An opening in earth's surface from which molten material, as lava, steam or gas is emitted.
Pipe A vertical conduit below a volcano in which magma has passed and that has become full with solidified magma, volcanic breccia, and fragments of older rock.
Lava flow A stream or sheet of molten or solidified lava.
Ring of Fire An area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquake and volcanic eruptions occur.
Element A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances.
Viscosity The physical properties of liquids ,called this,is the resistance of a liquid to flow. Depends on the silica content and temperature.
Silica Made up of the elements oxygen and silicon, is one of the most abundant materials in Earth's crust.
Pahoehoe A fast moving, hot lava that has low viscosity.
Aa Lava that is cooler and slower-moving. It has higher viscosity than pahoehoe.
Compound A substance made up of two or more elements that have been chemically combined.
Subduction The sideways and downward movement of the edge of a plate of the earth's crust and mantle beneath the other plate.
Extinct A volcano that is unlikely to ever erupt again.
Dormant A volcano that is no longer active, but may become active again.
Active A volcano that is erupting or showing signs that it will erupt soon.
Cinder cone volcano When ash, cinders, bombs pile up around the vent which forms a steep, cone shaped hill or mountain.
Shield volcano When thin layers of lava pour out of a vent and more layers of such lava build on the previous layer. This gradually build a wide, gently sloping mountain.
Composite volcano Sometimes lava flows alternate with explosive eruptions of ash, cinders, and bombs. The alternating layers form a tall, cone-shaped mountain.
Caldera A large hole formed when a volcano's magma chamber empties and causes the volcano to collapse.
Batholith A mass of rock formed when magma cools inside the crust.
Lava plateau Some eruptions of thin, runny lava flow out of cracks and travel a long distances before cooling and hardening. Over millions of years, the layers build up over a large area to form this.
Sill A slab of rock that forms when magma squeezes between layers of rock.
Dike A slab of rock that forms when magma forces itself across rock layers.
Hot-spring A spring of naturally hot water, typically heated by geothermal energy.
Geyser A fountain of hot water and steam that erupts from the ground.

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