# Science Chapt. 6, Section 1

What does Hot mean? Higher Temperature
What does cold mean? Lower Temperature
What is "matter" made up of? Matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms and molecules.
Do particles always move? Yes particles are always moving. When they are hot they move fast. When it is cold they move slow.
The energy of motion is called? Kinetic Energy. Therefore, moving particles of matter have Kinetic Energy. The faster particles move the more Kinetic Energy they have.
Temperature is a measure of? Kinetic Energy of the particles of an object.
Do particles move fast or slow in hot coffee? Fast, so it has a higher temperature
Do particles move fast or slow in an ice cube? Slow, so it has a lower temperature
What are the 3 temperature scales? (1) Fahrenheit Scale, F. Used in America
(2) Celsius Scale, C Used in most parts of the world except America
(3) Kelvin Scale, K Used in Science for measurements.
What Temperature does water freeze at for each scale, F, C, K? 32 Fahrenheit, 0 Celsius, 273 Kelvin
What Temperature does water boil at for each scale? F, C, K? 212 Fahrenheit, 100 Celsius, 373 Kelvin
What temperature is absolute zero? -460 Fahrenheit, -273 Celsius and Zero Kelvin,
What is thermal energy? The total energy of all of the particles in a substance is called thermal energy.
Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual particles.
Name three common temperature scales? F, C, K
Are thermal energy and temperature the same? Thermal energy is the total energy of all particles. Temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy.
How is the motion of the particles within a substance related to the thermal energy of the object? The faster particles move the hotter the temperature is.
What is Heat? Heat is thermal energy moving from a warmer object to a cooler object.
What are the 3 ways heat is transferred? Hint: Cond, Conv, Radi Conduction, Convection, Radiation
What is Conduction? Conduction is when heat is transferred from one particle to another without the move of matter itself. A pot of water on a stove. The stove heats up and then heat up the pot, then heats up the water.
What is Convection? Convection is the movement that transfer heat within a boil pot of water. The water moves as it heats up and boils
What is Radiation? Radiation is the transfer of energy through the air. The sun on your face.
Heat moves one way Heats moves from hot objects to cooler objects.
What is a conductor? Not the one on a trainer. A conductor is an object that transfers heat or cold very well. It conducts heat. Hot soup. Cold tile floor.
What is an Insulator? It protects you form the heat or cold. Animals have feathers or fur.
What is specific heat? Specific heat is the amount of energy required to raise 1 kilogram of material by 1 degree.
Water is the specific of water? 4,180 joules. Water can absorb a great amount of heat. Swimming pool warms up.
Three stages of matter are? Solids, Liquids, Gases
What is a change of state? When there is a physical change from one state to another state. Ice melting into water.
Matter will change form one state to another if thermal energy is absorbed or released. Matter will change form one state to another if thermal energy is absorbed or released.
When ice (solid) melts into water(liquid), what is this called? Melting. When an object changes from a solid to a liquid.
What is melting point? Melting point is the temperature that a solid changes to a liquid.
What are the change of states: Solid, Melting, Liquid, Vaporization, Gas. Solid, Melting, Liquid, Vaporization, Gas.
or
Gas, Condensation, Liquid, Freezing, Solid
What is a change of state? When an object goes form one state to another. Ice melts to water. or Water freezes to ice.
what is freezing? The change of state from a liquid to a solid. Water freezing to become an ice cube.
What is the freezing point? The temperature when a liquid changes state to a solid.
Liquid to a gas, change of state. Vaporization(steam in a shower) and condensation(cold glass)
What is vaporization When matter changes from a liquid to a gas. An example is water boiling into steam.
If vaporization takes place at the surface of a liquid it is called? Evaporation.
If vaporization takes place below the surface it is called? Boiling.
What is boiling? It is when evaporation takes place below the surface of the water.
What is the boiling point? It is the temperature at which a liquid boils.
What is condensation? It is drops of water on the outside of a cold glass or steam on a mirror during a hot shower.
Condensation is what? A change from a gas state to a liquid state.
What is the difference between boiling and evaporation of a liquid? Boiling is when vaporization occurs below the surface. Evaporation is when vaporization takes place at the surface of the liquid.
What is thermal expansion? Hint: Hot expands When something gets hot it expands.
What is a thermostat? It controls the heat or cold air in your house.
What does a thermostat do? It has a small piece of metal that expands or contracts to turn on/off the heat or air conditioning.
What is a bimetallic strip? It is the small piece of metal in a thermostat that expands when it gets hot or contracts when it gets cold.
what is a heat engine? It is when thermal energy is converted from thermal energy to mechanical energy. Gas is burned to make a car move.
What is combustion? Is the burning of gas or fuel or coal in an engine
What is a combustion engine? It is an engine that burns gas or coal to make it move.
What does a heat engine do? thermal to mechanical It converts thermal energy to mechanical energy.
What is an external combustion engine? A combustion engine is when gas or coal is burned to make it move. "External" is the gas or coal is burned outside the engine.
What is an Internal combustion engine? A combustion engine is when gas or coal is burned to make it move. "Internal" is when the gas or coal is burned inside the engine.
What are the parts of an engine? Gas tank, Carburetor, spark plug, piston, cylinder, muffler
What does a piston do inside an engine? When the spark plug sparks, causes the gas to burn in the cylinder and moves the piston down.
What is it called when a piston moves? It is called a stroke.
Most engine are # stroke Four stroke engines
What are the four strokes? Hint: like you breath? In and out. Intake stroke, compression stroke, power stroke, exhaust stroke.
What is the intake stroke? When air is drawn into the cylinder.
What is the compression stroke? When the air and gas are compressed in the cylinder.
What is the power stroke? After ignition the heated gas pushes the piston down turning the motor.
What is the exhaust stroke? When the piston moves down it exhausts, breathes out the smoke/waste
What is an oven? It heats up and cooks food.
What is a refrigerator? It keeps food cold.
What is radiation? It is energy by light waves.
What does a refrigerator do? It transfers thermal energy from the cold space inside to the warm room outside.
What is a refrigerator do? A refrigerator uses an outside energy source to transfer thermal energy from a cool are to a warm area. The energy comes from a electric motor.
Where does the energy come from in a refrigerator? The energy comes from an electric motor.
What is temperature a measure of? Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of each particle within an object.
Thermal energy is what? Hint: total Thermal energy is the total energy of the particles that make up an object.
What is heat? Hint: transfer of thermal energy Heat is the transfer of thermal energy from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature.
How is heat transferred? Hint: conduc, conv, radi Heat is transferred by conduction, convection and radiation.
A conductor does what well? Hint: cold tile floor A conductor transfers heat well.
An insulator does what well? Hint: A jacket in the winter An insulator does not transfer heat well. It holds heat in.
What is specific heat? Hint: raise temperature 1 degree The amount of heat necessary to raise a given mass by a specific unit of temperature is called specific heat.
Matter can exists in three states: Solid, Liquid, Gas. Matter can undergo a change of state when thermal energy is added or removed,
Does matter expand when it is heated? Yes, matter expands when it is heated. It contracts, gets smaller when it is cooled.
What is a heat engine? Hint: converts thermal energy to ? A heat engine converts thermal energy to mechanical energy to do work.
What are the different types of heat engines? Hint: Ext or Int External and internal combustion engines. It depends where the fuel is burned. Externally or internally. Car is an internal combustion engine.
A refrigerator transfers thermal energy from…. A refrigerator transfers thermal energy from a cool region to a warm region.

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