Science Chapter 9 7th Grade

a single-celled eukryote that has some animal-like characteristics
an organism that has a membrane-bound nucleus
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They need a moist environment to survive. Ponds are ideal for freshwater protozoans. They are also found in the ocean, moist soil, and in the cells and tissues of plants and animals.
Where to protozoan live?
a group of protozoans that move by waving tiny, hair-like organelles called cilia.
a group of protozoans that move by means of pseudopods
The paramecium moves by waving its cilia like tiny oars. They sweep food into an organelle called a gullet with their cilia.
A paramecium is a an example of a ciliate. How does it move and get its food?
a false foot of an ameoba
The amoeba uses two pseudopods to surround a piece of food
How does an amoeba get food?
a group of protozoans that move using a whip-like organelle called a flagelleum
a group of protozoans that do not have organelles fro movement and are parasites
an organism that lives in or on a host organism and causes it harm
It has chlorophyll and can make food like a plant but it also will eat other things like an animal
How does a flagellate get its food?
A sporozoan called plasmodium. They are transmitted by mosquitoes who put the sporozoan in the blood when it bites.
What causes malaria?
a group of protozoans that move by waving tiny, hair-like organelles called cilia.
What kingdom do protozoans belong?
organisms that consist of single, prokaryotic cells
cells without a nucleus
In just about every material and environment on Earth. They are in the soil, water, and air.
Where do bacteria live?
rod-shaped bacteria
ball-shaped bacteria
spiral-shaped bacteria
Some move using flagella, some have a slimy layer on the outside so they will slide over surfaces, others cannot move on their own and are moved by movement of air or liquid. They can be transferred from surface to surface
How do bacteria move?
Some can make their own food like plants, others can make food by without sunlight by using chemicals to make food, still others absorb food from the material they live on.
How do bacteria get their food?
anaerobic bacterica
bacteria that do not require oxygen to survive
aerobic bacteria
bacteria that use oxygen for cellar respiration
Bacteria that could use sunlight to make food gave off oxygen which increased the amount of oxygen in the air.
How did bacteria play a role in the development of our atmosphere?
It is used to make yogurt and cheese. It is also used important drugs like insulin. They are used in sewage treatment plants to break down waste products or to clean up oil spills
How is bacteria used in industry?
mutualism type of symbiosis
a relationship in which the bacteria and an other organism benifit
Bacteria in the soil take nitrogen from the air into the soil. Plants need the nitrogen to make amino acids but cannot take it form the air. Animals change the amino acids into other proteins after eating the plants. When organisms die bacteria breaks down into compounds living things need.
What role do bacteria play in nutrient cycles?
Antibiotics that kill bacteria
Some bacteria cause illnesses what do we use to fight the bacterial illnesses they cause?
a tiny, nonliving particle make up of genetic material and protein
host cell
a cell that is, or becomes infected with a virus
Can a virus eat, produce food, or reproduce by itself?
It can infect a host cell
What can a virus do?
They trigger the host cells to engulf them or fuse to the cell membrane and release their DNA into the cell
How do viruses infect host cells?
It changes the functions of the cell that it produces new viruses
What does a virus do to a host cell?
Our bodies produces chemicals that causes our body temperature to rise. The fever slows down the production of new viruses. Our bodies also make antibodies that prevent virus infecting cells
How does your body fight viruses?
It recognizes it starts to produce antibodies immediately.
What does your body do it comes in contact with a virus it has had before?
Vaccines exposes your body to weakened virus particles or their empty protein coats. Your immune system makes antibodies. When you run into the real virus your body acts quickly to make antibodies.
How does a vaccine keep you from getting sick?
After multiplying many times some viruses end up with an altered protein coat and your body may not recognize the new form.
Why do you need some vaccines like the flu every year to try to prevent illness?
____ move using tiny hair-like organelles.
Ciliates, flagellates, amoebas, and sporozoans are the major groups of ______s.
A _____ lives in or on a host organism and causes it harm.
____ include the Euglena, which is a common pond organism that has characteristics of both plants and animals.
The group of protozoans that have no organelles for movement are _____.
___ use their pseudopods for movement and feeding
photosynthetic bateria
Just like plants, ____ make their food from sunlight and carbon dioxide.
aerobic bacteria
Bacteria that use oxygen for cellar respiration are called ______
anaerobic bacteria
Scientist believe that the first life on Earth were ____ because there was little oxygen in the atmosphere more than 3 billion years ago.
____ are prokaryotes.
host cell
A ___ of an organism becomes infected with a virus.
immune system
Your ______ protects you from unfamiliar objects like bacteria and viruses.
A _____ is not considered a living thing because it is not a cell and cannot eat, move, or reproduce without a host.
Once your immune system recognizes a virus, it produces ____ to stop further infections.
first animal
What does the word “protozoan” mean?
They can form a thick protective wall around their cell, protecting them while it is too dry for them.
What can some Protozoans do to survive through dry conditions?
They are put in three groups based on their cell structures, feeding habits, and other special features. The three groups are animal-like, plant-like and fungus-like.
How are protozoans divided into major groups?
What sub group is this protozoan in? pseudopods
What sub group is this protozoan in? tiny oar-like hairs
What sub group is this protozoan in? no special structure for movement
What sub group is this protozoan in? whip-like tail
Prokarotic have do not have nucleus and eukaryotic cells have a nucleus
Compare prokarotic and eukaryotic cells,
They can move with a flagella, by having a slippery or slimy lever that allows them to slide around, or being transported by the movement of liquid or air.
What are three different ways that bacteria have for locomotion?
They get food thorough photosynthesis, chemsosynthesis which is absorbing chemicals to make food, and by absorbing food from the material they live in.
What are three different ways that bacteria get food?
Making yogurt, and cheese, making antibiotics, and cleaning up oil spills.
What are four ways bacteria used in industry?
The virus mimics the cell’s protein allowing the virus to enter through the membrane. Once inside the virus injects its hereditary material into the cell.
How do virus trick the cells they enter?
Antibodies work by recognizing foreign particles in the body, the immune system responds by releasing proteins (antibodies) that bind to the virus and prevent them from infecting cells. Once the body has been infected by a virus the body quickly responds to prevent it from spreading,
How do antibodies work to stop further infection?
The new vaccines prevent viral infections. A virus mutates or changes when it multiples so many times so that the protein coat is different and the virus is allowed to enter cells. Antibodies attack the old virus but do not recognize the new one.
Why do scientist need to make new vaccinations each year?

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