Science Final

Question Answer
What is Pamgeaea? Pangeaea is the name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents.
What is Compression? Compression is stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks.
What is Tension? Tension is stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle.
What is Shearing? Shearing is stress that pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions.
What is an Earthquake? An Earthquake is the shaking of the Earth's crust, moving as a result of the plates underneath being in motion.
What is the Richter scale? The Richter scale is a scale that rates seismic waves of an earthquake. It is a mechanical seismograph.
Is a mechanical seismograph still used today for the Richter scale ? The mechanical seismograph was used in the late 1980s. The scale used now is the moment magnitude scale. It is an electronic seismograph.
What is a Fault-block Mountain? It is a mountain that forms where two normal faults "lift up" another block of rock.
What are Shield Volcanoes? Shield Volcanos are a wide, gently sloping mountain made of layers of thin lava formed by quiet eruptions.
What is a Cinder Cone Volcano? A Cinder Cone Volcano is a steep, cone shaped hill or mountain made of ash, cinders and bombs (thick lava from explosive eruptions) piled up around a volcano's opening.
What is a Composite Volcano? A Composite Volcano is a tall, cone shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic material.
What is Magma? Magma is the molten mixture of rock-forming substance, gases and water from the mantle.
What are Crystals? Crystals are the shape a mineral takes because its atoms are arranged in a definite pattern.
What is the Moh's Scale? The Moh's Scale is a scale for determining the hardness of a mineral, named after Friedrich Moh.
What are Solicates? Silicates are any member of the largest group of minerals.
What is Cleavage? Cleavage is the property of some minerals that causes them to easily break along a smooth, flat surface.
What is Fracture? Fracture is the property of some minerals that cause them to break unevenly or along a curved surface.
What is Luster? Luster is the way minerals reflect light. Example: Glassy, Earthy, Waxy, Metallic.
What is Streak? Streak is the colored powder left behind when a mineral is rubbed against an unglazed tile.
What is Hardness? Hardness is the property of minerals in which they are tested to see how easily they can be scratched.
What is a Diamond? A diamond is the hardest known material. It can scratch all other substances/materials and is rated a 10 on the Moh's Hardness scale.
What is Talc? Talc is the softest known mineral that flakes easily when scratched by a fingernail. It is used in powders.
What is Quartz? Quartz is a mineral in the silicate family that is used in watches, computers, glass and as gemstones.
What is Ore? Ore is a rock that has a useful metal in it. It can be crushed and melted to remove the useful metal.
What is Igneous Rock? Igneous Rock is a rock that is formed from magma or lava that has cooled and hardened.
Part of Igneous rock – What is Intrusive Rock? Intrusive Rock is a type of igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface.
Part of Igneous rock – What is Extrusive Rock? Extrusive Rock is a type of igneous rock that forms from lava on Earth's surface.
What is Sedimentary Rock? Sedimentary Rock is a type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed together. It has a 4 step process.
What are the 4 steps that form Sedimentary rock? (1) Erosion. (2) Deposition. (3) Compaction. (4) Cementation.
What is erosion? Erosion is the process in which wind or water carries away fragments of rock.
What is Deposition? Deposition is the process in which fragments of rock that have been carried by erosion(wind or water) settles in one place and piles up.
What is Compaction? Compaction is the process inw hich sediments are squeezed together by pressure.
What is Cementation? Cementation is the process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together.
What is Metamorphic rock? Metamorphic rock is a type of rock that forms when existing rock is changed by heat pressure and chemical reactions into another rock.
What is Gneiss? Gneiss is a metamorphic rock that formed from granite.
What is the rock cycle? The rock cycle is the process in which rocks change into other types of rock or magma.
What is weather? Weather is to break down due to rain, snow, wind or sand storms due to weather conditions.
What is a Rotation? Rotation is the spinning motion of a planet about its axis.
What is a Revolution? A Revolution is the movement of an object around another object.
What is a Solar Eclipse? A Solar Eclipse is the blocking of the sunlight to Earth that occurs when the moon is between the sun and Earth.
What is a Lunar Eclipse? A Lunar Eclipse is the block of sunlight to the moon that occurs when the Earth is directly between the sun and moon.
What is a Gas Giant? A Gas Giant is the name given to the first four outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
What is a Comet? A Comet is a ball of ice and dust whose orbit as long, narrow ellipse.
What is an Asteroid? An Asteroid are objects revolving around the sun that are too small and too numerous to be considered planets.
What is an Meteoroid? A Meteoroid is a chunk of rock or dust in space.
What is a Meteor? A Meteor is a streak of light in the sky produced by the burning of a meteoroid in Earth's atmosphere.
What is a Meteorite? A Meteorite is a meteoroid that had hit Earth's surface.
Where do most earthquakes occur? Earthquakes occur at fault lines.

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