Science flashcard terms

Term Definition
Marrow a porous inner core of bones where blood cells are produced
Axial Skeleton the bones that keep the body upright
Cranium the skull
Vertebra the bones of the backbone
Appendicular Skeleton the bones of the appendages and the bones where these attach to the axial skeleton
Sternum the breastbone and the pelvis
Pelvis the ring of bones n the lower torso where the hips attach to the body (consists of 2 hip bones/ each is a coxa)
Joints the places where two or more bones connect
Ligaments the connective tissue that holds joints together
Tendons connective tissue that attach muscles to bones
Atrophy the decrease in size of wasting away of the body tissue
Striated marked by stripes or bands
Axon a long extension of a neuron that transmits messages
Brain Stem the portion of the brain that controls reflexes and involuntary mechanisms such as respiration, heart beat, and swallowing
Central Nervous System the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrum the part of the brain that controls all thought and other voluntary acts and detects sounds, smells, sight, taste, pain, heat, and cold
Cerebellum the part of the rain that keeps track of the position of the body
Dendrites short, branched extensions of a neuron that receive messages from other cells
Myelin Sheath a protective layer of neuroglia covering some axons
Neurons cells that send messages throughout the body in the form of electrical energy
Stimulus anything that effects the activity of an organism
Peripheral Nervous System the nerves and sensory receptors
Synapse a gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron
Adrenal Glands glands that produce hormones called adrenaline
Glands organs that secrete hormones and other chemicals
Hormones chemicals that carry information from one part of an organism to another
Hormone Receptor Molecules molecules that fit with hormone molecule and affect cell function
Ovaries glands in the female body that produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone: eggs also develop in the ovaries
Pancreas a gland that produces insulin which regulates the transport of sugar molecules into body cells
Parathyroid Glands glands that produce a hormone to regulate calcium levels in the blood
Pineal Body a gland that produces a hormone that seems to inhibit the development of the reproductive system and plays a role in daily rythems
Pituitary Gland a gland located in the center of the brain that secretes nine hormones
Target Tissue the tissues that respond to specific hormones
Testes glands in the male body that produce testosterone; sperm cells are also produced in the testes
Thymus Gland a gland that produces a hormone important in the development of the immune system
Thyroid Gland a gland that produces a hormone to regulate body metabolism rates
Cone Cells light-sensitive cells used for color vision and fine detail
Cornea a transparent layer of cells through which light can travel into the eye
Iris the colored part of the eye
Optic nerve the nerve that carries electrical impulses from the eye to the brain
Papillae tiny projections on the tongue's surface, which contain taste buds
Pupil the opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
Retina the back lining of the eye, on which visual images are focused
Rod Cells light-sensitive cells used in noncolor vision and low-light situations
Tympanic Membrane the eardrum

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