Science - Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals, Science - Organization of the Periodic Table

1) Shiny and hard
2) Malleable
3) Ductile
4) High MP and BP
5) Conduct electricity
6) Some are magnetic
7) Mostly solid
8) 80% of all elements
What are eight physical properties of metals?
1) Tend to lose valence electrons
2) Some are very reactive
3) Become less reactive as you move from left to right on the Periodic Table
What are three chemical properties of metals?
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The elements in group 1 with one valence electron.
What are alkali metals?
1) Most reactive elements on the Periodic Table
2) Never found alone in nature
3) Always in compounds
4) Soft and shiny
What are four properties of alkali metals?
Sodium and potassium, which are necessary for life, and lithium, which is used in batteries.
What are the three most common alkali metals?
The elements in group 2 with two valence electrons.
What are alkaline metals?
1) Very reactive
2) Always in compounds
3) Hard, gray or white
4) Good conductors
5) Used in batteries
What are five properties of alkaline metals?
Magnesium and calcium.
What are the most common alkaline metals?
The elements in groups 3-12 with one to three valence electrons.
What are transition metals?
1) Good conductors
2) Hard, shiny
3) Low reactivity
What are three properties of transition metals?
Because they bridge very reactive elements on the left and the less reactive elements on the right.
Why are transition metals called transition metals?
Lanthanides and actinides.
What are rare earth metals?
1) Soft, malleable, and shiny
2) High conductivity
3) Usually found together in nature
What are three properties of lanthanides?
1) Only actinium, protactium, thorium, and uranium are found in nature
2) All others lab made and very reactive
What are two properties of actinides?
1) Lack properties of metals
2) Many are gases
3) If solid, then dull and brittle
4) Very low MP and BP
5) Poor conductors of energy
What are five physical properties of nonmetals?
1) React well except for noble gases
2) Usually gain or share valence electrons
What are two chemical properties of nonmetals?
1) Ionic
2) Covalent
3) Diatomic
What are the three chemical compounds of nonmetals?
Compounds formed from elements in groups 7 and 1 (metal and nonmetal).
What are ionic compounds?
Compounds formed from elements sharing valence electrons (nonmetal and nonmetal).
What are covalent compounds?
Compounds formed from a covalent bond where both nonmetals are the same element.
What are diatomic compounds?
1) Carbon
2) Nitrogen
3) Oxygen
4) Halogens
5) Noble gases
6) Hydrogen
What are the six families of nonmetals?
1) Four valence electrons – can bond in four places
2) Tends to share four more valence electrons with another element
3) Necessary to build organic molecules
4) Only one element in this family
What are three characteristics of the carbon family?
1) Five valence electrons
2) Tends to gain or share three valence electrons with another element
3) Does not react easily: 80% of the atmosphere, but is not very reactive
4) Diatomic as N₂
What are four characteristics of the nitrogen family?
1) Six valence electrons
2) Tends to gain or share two valence electrons with another element
3) Very reactive – combines with almost every other element in earth’s crust
4) Required for combustion reactions
5) Most abundant element in the earth’s crust
What are five characteristics of the oxygen family?
1) Eight valence electrons
2) Unreactive (inert) – do not share, take, or lose electrons
3) Very stable alone
4) All found in atmosphere, but in small amounts
What are four characteristics of the noble gas family?
1) Seven valence electrons
2) Tends to gain or share one valence electron with another element
3) Very reactive
4) Dangerous alone, but useful in compounds
5) Forms salts when combined with elements in group 1 or 2
What are five characteristics of the halogen family?
In light bulbs, neon lights, and balloons.
Where are noble gases used?
1) 90% of all atoms in nature
2) One proton, one electron, and no neutrons
3) Combines easily with other elements – shares electron
4) Placed in column 1 because it has one valence electron
5) Behaves chemically like a nonmetal
6) Only one element in this family
What are six characteristics of the hydrogen family?
1) They can have the characteristics of both metals and nonmetals
2) Brittle, hard
3) Good semiconductors
4) All solids at room temperature
5) Reactive
What are five properties of metalloids?
Elements that are conditionally conductive.
What are semiconductors?
Silicon, which is used in computers.
What is the most common metalloid?
19th century chemists categorized 63 known elements according to their similarities in physical and chemical properties. Only their atomic masses and characteristic properties were identified.
What is the history of the periodic table?
A scientist who organized elements by similar characteristics, and published a table of the elements that increased by atomic mass in 1869.
Who was Dmitri Mendeleev?
Because he observed repeating patterns when the elements were organized by increasing atomic mass, and periodic means a repeating pattern.
Why did Mendeleev call his table the Periodic Table?
No. He left vacant spaces where unknown elements should fit.
Did Mendeleev know all of the elements?
When the predictions Mendeleev made about the physical properties of three elements that were yet unknown – Germanium, Gallium, and Scandium – were proven very close to their true properties.
When and why was Mendeleev’s Periodic Table accepted by the scientific community?
The scientist who used X-rays to determine the actual nuclear charge, or atomic number, of the elements in 1913. He rearranged the elements in order of increasing atomic number.
Who was Moseley?
1) Element name
2) Element symbol
3) Atomic number
4) Atomic mass
About what four things does the Periodic Table provide information?
1) Physical and chemical properties of elements
2) Valence electrons and chemical behavior
What two things does the location of the elements on the table predict?
The electrons on the outermost shell of the atom.
What are valence electrons?
How an element will react with other elements; whether an element gives up, accepts, or shares electrons.
What do valence electrons determine?
They are called periods, numbered 1-7.
What are the horizontal rows called, and how many are there?
They increase by one.
How do the number of valence electrons change as you move across the period?
The Periodic Table was too wide, so Lanthanides and Actinides were pulled of the middle to make it easier to read.
What happened because of the width of the table?
They are called groups or families, numbered 1-18.
What are the vertical columns called, and how many are there?
They have similar physical and chemical properties, and the same number and arrangement of valence electrons. This only applies to columns 1,2, and 13-18.
How are families similar?
1) Metals
2) Nonmetals
3) Metalloids
What are the three main types of elements on the Periodic Table?

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