Science Quiz Review for Protein Synthesis and Mutations

Question Answer
What is the only way mutations be passed on to offspring? If the mutation is found in the parent's sex cells.
What is protein synthesis? Ribosomes read the genetic codes and assemble (make) the proper proteins.
In RNA strands, the base _________ replaces thymine. Uracil. (remember G goes to C, A goes to U in RNA)
How many codes make one amino acid? 3 bases
What is mutation? a change in the hereditary material of an organism
An example of a genetic disorder that happens because you have too many or too few chromosomes. Downs Syndrome
How many amino acids make all proteins in our cell? 20 different amino acids
What does Messenger RNA (mRNA) do for DNA? mRNA decodes the DNA base sequence and carries the codons to the ribosome.
What is messenger RNA (mRNA) responsible for during protein synthesis? copying the gene and carrying the information out of the nucleus (nuclear membrane).
what is the base pair rules when DNA –> mRNA? C —> G, T —> A, A —-> U
How is RNA different than DNA? a single strand, no T but U in the base pair, in moves in and out of nucleus
What are protein chains made of? amino acids
A mutation can cause _________________________. a change (or mutation) in the base sequence and it might produce the wrong protein.
Why is the order of the base pairs along a gene important? it forms a code that tells a cell which protein to make.
What are the 3 types of mutation? substitution, insertion, and deletion
What is substitution? when one base replaces another.
What are three types of substitutions? missense (cause a different amino acid), silent (does not change amino acid or protein), nonsense (make the codon STOP in the wrong place)
What is insertion? an extra base is added. it causes frameshift.
What is deletion? a base is missing. it causes frameshift.
What is frameshift? Causes the mRNA bases to be read in the wrong group of 3. Caused by insertion and deletion.
What does AUG in a mRNA sequence tell the ribosome? START
When does transcription happen? When mRNA decodes a DNA strand
When does Translation happen? when tRNA retrieves (gets) amino acids.

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