;Secondary evidence Essay

A source in written form, provided by a non-participant in the events being discussed. In other words, books and articles written by someone who wasn’t there.

Provides a synthesis of what happened
Is subject to the author’s biases
Socioeconomic standing
Primary Evidence
Anything written, created, or used by the group being studied, anything written by an actual participant in the events, or anything written contemporaneously with the event and which discusses it.

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Newspapers and media reports
Architecture, tools, weapons, ect.

Government Records
Characteristics of Civilization
Just because a group of people exist, it does not mean they are automatically a civilization. All civilizations must exhibit the following traits.

Commonly spoken language
Common defense- not necessary to have a professional military
Infrastructure- permanent structures and the basic items to allow communication, trade, and distribution of resources.

Government- type and form is unimportant; only requirement that the people accept that.

Law- type and form is unimportant; only requirement that the people accept it.

Education- Subject matter and universality are unimportant. Does the society educate any particular group for any reason?
Religion- type and form do not matter. Does the society acknowledge a higher power(s) and worship it/them in an organized manner?
Types of ancient writing
Picotogrammic writing (symbols)
picograms limited to one meaning per picture and cannot accurately express abstract ideas.}
based on triangular shapesGood for record keeping and expressing concrete ideasAbstract possible, but difficult
Most often associated with ancient Egypt
combination of symbols representing both things and sounds.

highly expressive and efficient writing system
Alphabetic writing
symbols represent the sound of a language
Any word in the language can be expressed
Highly efficient, extremely effective
Can easily convey
It continues use for about 3500 years.

Early civilizations
Developed in fertile crescent, or Mesopotamia
Appeared CS. 2500B.C.

Sumer is usually regarded as the earliest civilization
Permanent structures (small)
City-states (government begins and end in the city)
Religion was complex
Polytheistic (multiple gods)
Gods were not like humans
Gods had special powers that were limited to particular gods
Gods could be fooled
Gods were capricious (unpredictable)
Group punishment
Nature is hostile
Prayer serves little use
Contributions- calendar, “0”, algebra, wheel
AKKAD- Amorites, Babylonians (same people)
Located near modern Baghdad
Religion was polytheistic
Personal prayer
Legal code- code of Hammurabi- ac 750 s.c.

“Lax taliones”
No lawyers because laws were not interpreted
Legal system- Deuteronomic code
1st to have lawyers
Mitigating circumstances
1st to practice monolatry (many possible gods but worship one) and monotheism (one god)
God is:
Omnipotent-All powerful
Omniscient-All knowing
Personal prayer works
Develops in isolation
Unified in 3100 B.C. by Narmer palette along the Nile river valley
See nature as good
Polytheistic usually
believed in an afterlife
CA. 1750 B.C. – Hyksos (Foreigner) invasion
City-state= chooses its own government
Located in an agriculturally poor area without easy access to ports.

Dual monarchy with and elected assembly
Emphasized practical things
Highly militaristic
Valued honor, courage, ect.

Limited emphasis on artistic pursuits.

Good agricultural area with ports and natural defenses against attack
Elected Leaders
Elected Assembly
Highly valued artistic pursuits and philosophy
Had an effective military, but did not glorify it.

Persian wars
A series of wars between Greece and Persia beginning ca 500 B.C.

Persia represented a fundamentally different culture.

Possessed a massive military, rumored to be more than 1,000,000 men
Authoritarian system of government based on the idea that the emperor was actually a god in human form.

People exist to serve the emperor
Local cultures were subsumed by the Persians in conquered areas.

Greece had several years of warning that Darius intended to attack.

Formed an alliance of city-states to confront the attacks.

Sparta provided the backbone of the army; Athens contributed a navy.

Battle of Marathon (490 B.C.)
Fought several miles north of Athens
Datus split his army, part was to make a land attack while the rest moved by ship to a landing zone near the attack
Greek found commander Miltiades defeated the army at Marathon and then carried out a force-march to confront the other army landing near Athens, forcing the Persians to abandon the attack.

Persian wars
Greek victories at Salamis and Plataea the next year forced a permanent Persian retreat.

Soon, the Greeks began to argue among themselves as to which city-state played the largest role in defeating the Persians, Sparta or Athens.

Each created a league of supporting city-states
A civil war, the Peloponnesian War, began in 431B.C. and ended in 404 B.C. with the defeat of Athens.

Greek Philosophers
Milesian School- Concerned primarily with the origin and substance of matter.

Thales- Founder of the Milesian School, and believed that water was the universalsubstance.

Anaximander- Argued that all mater came from the Boundless, an uncreated and eternal substance.

Anaximenes- theorized that air was the universal substance and that it could condense into other objects, such as rocks, water, trees, humans, etc., Pythagorean School- Religious philosophy that argued that all relationships between objects, abstract principles, and/or the “essence” of life can be expressed through numbers. Also, the Pythagoreans were the first school of metaphysical philosophers, and their profound belief in the existence of opposites such as good and bad, right and wrong, etc., Strongly influenced subsequent Greek thoughts
Parmenides- Argued that change is only a lie told us by our senses
Heraclitus- Argued that change is constant, and is caused by fire within objects.

Atomists- Believed that all objects were composed of structurally identical things called “atoms,” which were infinitely numerous, indivisible, and indestructible. Differences between objects were the result of atomic bonding patterns.

Democritus- atomist who denied the existence of a human soul, heave, or and form of afterlife. He did believe in morality.

Plato believes in absolute truth and beauty, there is right and there is wrong. Forms v. forms-
Timarchy- this is a society much like one run by Sparta. According to Plato, this is a military government which has its own aristocracy that governs amore or less enslavedpopulation. Supposedly, an ideal state turns into a timocracy when the ruling class starts to fight among themselves.

Oligarchy- this is a society where money is the basis of one’s worth, and the rich are in control. The only significant difference between an oligarchy and a plutocracy is that the members of a plutocracy are unrelated. In both types ofgovernmentthe rich are in control of the government. This type of government is also where criminals first appear because they are poor and wish tocuirewealth.

Democracy- the idea of “the people rule.” Plato considered this the worst form of government because is allowed people who were unfit to do so make judgments about who would lead. Plato felt that democracy was naturally anarchic in nature. Plato said that people living in a democracy were happy because of the freedom it allowed, but the government itself was bad.

Tyranny- Plato said that tyranny, or the rule by a single person, arises put out of democracy. A popular leader is chosen, but, to ensure his power he must exercise it too much. Eventually, the people turn on him and total confusion results.

Hellenistic Greece
338 B.C. Greece conquered by Philip of Macedon
336 B.C. Philip was replaced by Alexander the Great
Alex had been tutored by Aristotle
Alexander was unusually intelligent, athletic, morally suspect, Talented military leader.

Expanded his empire as far as India
323 B.C. Alexander died
He single-handedly created Hellenistic culture
Hellenistic Greece- Attributed to Alexander
Very persistent culture
Religious diverse
Favors authority
Date/Definition/how it was important (Test Question Pick 4)
Essay question- (15 points)
Interoperative question- argument
Start chapter 1 skip 2/3 read chapter 4 class book.

Chapter 1 ; chapter 2/3
Monarchy: 753-509B.C.

Actual date of Rome’s founding not known, but accepted as 753B.C.

Details of the monarchy are vague
Believed to have collapsedas a result ofthe abuse of power by the ruling family, the Tarquin Dynasty.

Republic: 509-27B.C.

Longest time as a democratic republic so far in history
Two major social classes—patricians (ruling class) andplebians(lower class)
Empire: 27B.C.-476A.D.

Rome survived 985 years as a republic or empire
Republican Rome
Generallythe highest elected position in Rome
Elected representatives from the various districts of Rome. Functioned as the chief legislative body.

Tribunes-(immune from prosecution)
Representatives elected, eventually, from the plebian class to protect theplebeian’sfrom oppressive legislation. Had veto authority.

Built in duplication and inefficiency in the government
Romans deliberately structured their republic with widespread duplications of offices— atleast two people held every position, with lower positionsheldby as many as 12 people
Intended to prevent governmental abuse
Stressed the importance of “civic virtue”
Romans deliberately structured their republicwith widespread duplication of offices—at least two people held every position, with every position, with lower positions held by as manysa12 people.

Intended to prevent governmental abuse.

Stressed the importance of “civic virtue”
Obedience to proper authority
Courage, both physical and moral.

Service and loyalty to Rome
Punic Wars-
First Punic war (264-243 B.C)
Fought betweenRome and Carthage for control of Sicily.

Mainly a naval conquest, for which Rome was unprepared
Rome modified captured designs and built a navy that could defeat Carthage
Rome won and forced a treaty on Carthage, but did not take adequate steps to prevent a future war.

Second Punic war (218-202 B.C.)
Beganas a result ofRoman antagonism toward Carthage-attackson Punic colonies in Spain.

Principle Carthaginian commoner
Raised to despise Rome.

Understood Rome’s weaknesses
Knew howto attack Rome
Battle of Zama- 202 B.C.

Decisive defeat of Carthaginian forces
Leads to a brutal treaty which involved, among other things, 50 years of tribute to Rome
3rdPunic War will result from this, but Carthage is hopelessly outmatched andtotally destroyed(149-146 B.C.)
WINNING IS Really losing
Many Romans believe that wining the Punic wars so convincingly was ultimately damaging:
Rome no longer had an enemy capable to beating it.

Perceived loss of work ethic and concepts of sacrifice for greater good.

The vast gains in territory led to disputes about the distribution of wealth and rewards for service to Rome.

Rome also began to experience numerous other problems that damaged its historical sense of values:
Rising Taxes
Class warfare
Becoming ethnically diverse (several hundreddifferentgroups)
The Gracchus Brothers
Tiberiouswas Tribune in B.C.

Proposed land limitations and land redistribution.

The senate had him killed.

Prevented civil war
Gaius was Tribune in 123-122B.C.

Proposed price stabilization, non-Roman suffrage,plebianson juries against patricians.

Committed suicide to avoid being murdered.

Social Issues
Notable loss of “civic virtue”
Public demands for entertainment
Widespread problems caused by periodic famines.

“bread and Circuses”
Rise of empire
The first Triumvirate60B.C.

Was not an official governing body, but the Senate did nothing to control them.

Cesar and Pompey only tolerated each other.

Started a civil war in 49B.C.

Cesar was assassinated in 44B.C. after his attempts to become a dictator.

-Rise of empire 2
Replaced the 1stTriumvirate, with Octavian being related toCeasar.

Octavian right hand man- Antony, and Marc Antony
Another civil war begins in 33 B.C., mainly between Octavian and Marc Antony.

Octavian won in 31 B.C.
Senate gave him dictatorial powers, which he later askedbeextended.

Battle of Actium
*in 27 B.C., the senate gave him the title “princeps”(Empire) and Rome became an Empire.

Octavian became known as Caesar Augustus. Generally regarded as a wise efficient ruler.

Governed Rome in some capacity from 31B.C.-14 A.D., longerthatnany other leader.

Voluntarily stepped down in 14 A.D., handing power over to his nephew, Tiberius, and starting the Julio-Claudian emperors.

Julio-Claudians, 14-68A.D.}
Tiberius, 14-37 A.D. }
Crucifiction }
Caligula, 37-41 A.D. }
Bad stuff } enjoy killing
Assassinated by military}
Claudius, 41-54 A.D. }
Kills mother }
Overly complex plan}
Nero, 54-68 A.D. }
Hates Christians}
Generallyregardedas cruel and inept leaders
Rome prospered militarily and economically.

Empire,68-96 A.D.

A period marked by significant political turmoil.

More than 20 emperors in less 30 years, most were assassinated.

Continued military growth and territorial gain.

Growth in taxes on the lower classes to pay for everything.

Generally regarded as morally good leaders and politically competent.

Empire reached its largest point under Trajan.

Began to shrink under Hadrian as part of a deliberate policy.

Marcus Aurelius wrote several works of philosophy.

Beginning of the End
Following the death of Marcus Aurelius, Rome would make slow, steady descent.

Most of the remaining emperors, such as Commodus, were considered incompetent and immoral.

Rome began to collapse from internal troubles:
Social issues, many of which had historically been problems.

Class conflicts
Widespread disrespect for religion
Ethnic conflicts
German Immigration
Oppressive taxation
284 A.D.- Diocletian splits the Empire into two parts for administrative reasons.

378 A.D.- battle of Adrianople is the worst Roman defeat since Cannae.

410 A.D.- 1stsack of Rome by Alaric and the Visigoths.

455 A.D.- 2ndsack of Rome, the time by vandals.

486 A.D.- fall of Rome to a Gothic army lead by Odovacar
Rise of Christianity
Establishing the Kingdom of Heaven.

Reasons people noticed
Charismatic leader.

Promise of social equality.

Promise of an eternal reward
Promise of revenge
Unconditional love and acceptance
Missionary activity
Reasons Rome Noticed
Charismatic leader
Challenge to social order
Challenge to authority
Claims of kingship
“my Father’s kingdom”
Judaism- Monotheism and consciousness of personal sin.

Zoroastrianism- Battle between good and evil, prophecy, afterlife based on earth behavior.

Greek Philosophy, especially Plato-eternal soul, spiritual perfection.

Reasons it survived
Covered extensive area of land.

Total number reached is only an estimate. But though to be several million either directly or indirectly.

Paul- ROMAN citizen/well educated/trained in the law/leaves for 15 years/travels 3 different path
Command and control
The papacy
Metropolitans- Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch,Constantinople, and Rome. Overseen by Patriarchs.

Provinces- Governed by Archbishops
Diocese- Governed by Bishops.

Parishes- Administered by priests.

A widespread heresy which taught that Jesus was NOT human- he was only Divine.

Based on belief that Jesus could now have been resurrected ifactually killed; therefore, he was divine.

Christianity never eradicated this heresy.

A widespread heresy which taught that Jesus was NOTdivin- he was only human.

Based on the idea that a divine being could not be killed, but since Jesus had been executed and buried, he was therefore only human.

Christians never eradicated this heresy.


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