Section 4: Nonmetals and Metalloids

An element that is not a metal and also doesn’t have the properties of a metal. They don’t conduct heat or electricity well. However, they are good insulators. Non metals have the opposite properties of metals.
Example: living organisms/ life on earth are made from nonmetal compounds.
Nonmetal
They are dull and brittle
What are the properties of solid nonmetals?
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10 out of 16 are gases
How many of the 16 nonmetals are gases?
Bromine (Br)
What is the only nonmetal that is liquid at room temperature?
Fluorine (F)
What is the most reactive element known?
Nonmetals are able to form compounds with different nonmetals. When they react with other elements and metals, elements will transfer from the metal atom into the nonmetal atom.
Facts about nonmetals
Group 18. Groups 14-17 have a mixture of nonmetals and other elements
Which Group has elements that are only nonmetals?
Carbon (C)
What is the only nonmetal is Group 14?
Coal, gasoline;fuels that can ignite to yield energy
What are some things that you will find carbon in?
It is a compound of two atoms.
Example: Nitrogen in soil/fertilizers.
Oxygen is also a diatomic molecule.
Diatomic molecule
It comes in the form of diatomic molecules. It isn’t super reactive. Bacteria uses nitrogen in compounds(nitrogen fixation). Nitrogen is also in fertilizers for farmers. Our source of nitrogen is in plants and herbivore animals
Nitrogen facts
All humans use oxygen when they breath. If oxygen forms a triatomic molecule, it forms into something called ozone. Ozone blocks harmful sun radiation. Oxygen can combine with many elements. There is an abundance of oxygen.
Oxygen facts
Elements in Group 17: Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, and Astatine. It means “salt forming” These elements gain electrons when they combine. Halogens are super reactive. They can also be dangerous, but helpful.
Halogen
These are the elements located in Group 18. They are unreactive. Noble gases are in small amounts in the Earth’s atmosphere.
Examples: neon lights, balloons
Noble gases
The smallest and simplest atom. They have very different chemical properties. It is over 90% of the atoms in the universe.
Hydrogen facts
They are the elements in between the metals and nonmetals, near the zig zag line on the periodic table. They share some characteristics with metals and nonmetals. They are able to conduct electricity sometimes.
Example: Silicon; it can combine with oxygen to form sand.
Metalloids
These are elements that are able to conduct electricity and not conduct electricity depending on the situation. They can make computer chips, lasers and transistors.
Examples: Metalloids are used to make semiconductors
Semiconductors
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