This thesis contains no stuff, which has been accepted for the award of any other grade or sheepskin in any establishment and to the best of my cognition and belief, the research contains no stuff antecedently published or written by another individual, except where due to mention has been made in the text of the thesis.
February 3rd 2013, Berlin
hypertext transfer protocol: //t2.gstatic.com/images? q=tbn: ANd9GcS3PRmIimix_GWhNzCzJQyZsYFy4W_xaw1BWdfq3rpTc5J13gBlAQ
… … Love Begins at place
It is non how much we do
but how much love we put in the action… .
( Mother Teresa )
… .for my rainbow, Regina
who paints my love and my life in beauty
… .for my sunlight, Samuel
who brings cheers and beginning of energy in my life
Housing is the
First I would wish to thank to God, my sheeperd, who ever taking attention of me
Working on the Berlin Cohousing subject brings me place as my tracts in lodging expertness, therfore I feel greatfull to work this maestro survey and I would wish to thank you to Dr. Michael LaFond for the support, thoughts, knowldege and particularly to intorduce me the cohousing subject. Your support is as my tract to be “ ein Berliner ”
I would wish to thank you to all my interviewees who gave me the visible radiation of cognitions Rolf Novy Huy, Dorothee
I besides would wish to thank you to Dr. Bettina Hamann and the Urban Management office squad who organize this survey
For all my schoolmates in TU Berlin Christian, Ana Maria, Carolina, Pilar, Gloria, Bruno, Nancy, Sam, Linn, Mehedi, Bwalya, Monica, Sara, Hana, Jieun, Edward-Thung, Iwan and Laura, thank you for your support, and our best clip in Berlin
Thank you for Mutti and Papa in Openwhere, without your support I would non be in this maestro survey
Thank you Mami and Papi in Salatiga and my brothers and sisters for being
Last but non Least, I would wish to thank to Regina and Samuel for being my beginning of life
Table of Contentss
Table of Contentss
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Abbreviations
This chapter describes the job statement, research inquiries and research aims as the base to organize the maestro thesis.
1.1 Background and Problem Statement
Berlin: Demographic alteration
Berlin is the capital metropolis and the largest metropolis in Germany, it is the 3rd most thickly settled metropolis in European Union with entire population of 3.5 million people in 2011 which is increased 1.2 % since 2006 ( Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg 2012, p.24 ) 1. Berlin has been turning continue and it is challenged with on-going demographic alteration. The population is projected of 3.7 million in 2030 or increase 7 % from 2011. The aging population in Berlin continues following the prognosis period 2011 to 2030. The mean age addition from 42.3 old ages in 2011 to 44.2 in old ages 2030. The older people above 65 old ages old will increase 14 % and the aged age 80 and older will increased 80 % of about 120,000 people. However, the working group age between 18 and 65 old ages old which are for the hereafter development of the metropolis will be reduced by 6 % or about 17,000 people. The figure of workers age 25 to unders 45 old ages will decreasd by 0.8 % while the figure of older working age population ( between 45 to under 65 old ages ) increased by 2.1 % . Immigration is the driving force population in Berlin, without in-migration the population in Germany would worsen significally. The kids under six old ages will stay changeless and but the age group between 6 until 18 is 20 % turning or about 64,000 people. Immigration is the driving population in Germany every bit good as in Berlin, without in-migration the population will decreased significantly. The population with immigrant background in Berlin is estimated 25 % or more than 860 1000 people and is expected addition in the coming old ages. ( SenStadtUm 2012, p.19-20 ) 2. The demographic alteration in Berlin will impact the full demographic issues such as twenty-four hours attention, schools, infirmaries, transit, diversion countries every bit good as lodgings, therfore the consequence of the population projections are the footing usher for metropolis planning in Berlin ( SenStadtUm-planen )
Deficit of lodging stock in Berlin
Berlin experiences a deficit of lodging stock as the consequence of population growing. It is affected in the increased demand of lodging for residential. The on-going addition of demand and the slow growing of lodging supply have led the decrease of vacant flats until 6.9 % in 2010. However, Berlin has 130,000 vacant flats, but this figure is non sufficient to cover the demand in the hereafter. The metropolis need to do a lodging development to run into the deficit of lodging stock in term of quantitative and qualitative demand, but the fiscal ability of the family should be considered ( IBB 2011, p.1-5 )
Deficit of low-cost lodging
Berlin is a metropolis of renter with figure of 87 % , while every twelvemonth the rental monetary value is easy lifting. The rental monetary value is increased from a‚¬ 4 per sqm in twelvemonth 2000 to a‚¬ 6.49 per sqm in twelvemonth 2010 ( heating and service charge are non included ) ( IBB 2011, p 5 ) . The occupants spend 20 % of entire income for paying rent in 2006 the mean monthly net income per family is a‚¬ 1.475 and the sum of a‚¬ 309 or to be paid by family for 65m2 level. The turning of rental monetary value can be contributed to the dead income. The lodging or flats with lower rent monetary value is expected turning to run into the low-cost lodging demand. DIW Berlin found that lodging monetary value in Berlin, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Cologne, Mannheim, Munich, Nuremberg, Stuttgart and Wiesbaden were significantly higher than other metropoliss. The flats monetary value in Berlin has increased by 73 % since January 2007 ( DIW Berlin, 2012 ) .
The bing lodging in Berlin does non run into the demand of the outlook of increasing Numberss of people ( interview with Ring,17.9.2012 ) . For this ground self-organized lodging and lodging associationa are formed. The self-organized lodging is non a end but as the manner to get away from the bing lodging production ( Tummers 2011, p.162 ) .
Figure Increasing monetary value and rents for flats in Berlin
Beginning: DIW Berlin 2012
Berlin is a multi cultural metropolis ; with over 25 % of occupants have an in-migration background and the per centum of parents coming from foreign states at 41 % . Apart from the demographic alterations, decomposition is one of the chief challenges for the metropolis of Berlin. Berlin needs for a assortment of activities to continue a societal mix within vicinities and territories in order to beef up disadvantaged urban countries ( SenStadtUm 2012, p.19-20 )
Energy ingestion in edifices histories for over 40 % of all energy consumed in Europe. This is by far the greatest portion of entire energy ingestion in front of conveyance and industrial production. The energy consumed in edifices is properties to heating and hot H2O coevals ( BMWi 2008, p.29 ) . Berlin ‘s energy ingestion for warming and warm H2O is 28.6 % for residential edifice more than commercial edifices 24.9 % . Another challenge is to heighten energy efficiency in the edifice stock to convey down energy costs. The betterment can be made non merely from heating system and other engineerings but besides in the country of insularity.
Berlin Future Plan
Alternatively of the challenge on demographic alterations and lodging jobs, Berlin has its chances and potencies for developing the metropolis. Berlin elaborated the Urban Development Concept 2030 ( UDC 2030 ) as the conceptual footing for incorporate urban development related activities in the assorted policy countries. The UDC 2030 works closely with the consequence of new population prognosis, City development program for life, metropolis development program for centres and connected to the human ecology construct. With the UDC 2030, a theoretical account for Berlin citywide development schemes are created ( SenStadtUm -Planen 2013 ) .
The International Building Exhibition ( IBA ) Berlin 2020 is the instrument for Urban Development. It is more than a traditional architecture exhibition theoretical accounts but a beginning of invention and experimentation. The IBA Berlin 2020 developed an urban development startegy with ends of sustainable development for the hereafter Berlin with more quality, beauty and plangency, more equal chances, increased energy efficiency and increased citizen engagement. The construct developed with three chief startegies: Capital City, Spacious City and Instant City. The Capital metropolis as a new signifiers of urban development and aesthetic dimensions for the functional mix. The broad metropolis develop an intelligent urban development scheme for legion nothingnesss, big and little countries which increased the quality of life in the metropolis. Instant metropolis is both a method and tools for experimentation, edifice on the particular civilization of planning and engagement in Berlin. The instant metropolis refers to the impermanent utilizations which Berlin is the place of impermanent usage. The participatory approaches with the democratic procedure and the citizen as the determination shaper are given the chance of the citizen to organize their metropolis. ( SenStadtUm-IBA Berlin 2020 )
Cohousing in Berlin
Cohousing is understood as collaborative, co-ops, corporate and community oriented lodging undertaking ( LaFond 2011, p.176 ) . Cohousing ideally encourages neighbourhood battle, implementing ecological edifice, salvaging energy and other resources, conveying together coevals and developing inclusive life environments ( LaFond et all 2012, p.17 ) . The occupant of cohousing are actively participate in the design and operation of their vicinity ( www.cohousing.org ) . The physical environment in Cohousing is deliberately design to promote societal interaction ( McCamant & A ; Durret 1998, p.38 ) .
The term “ cohousing ” is coined in English term by American designers Charles Durret and Kathryn McCamant based on the thought of bofoellesskab ( populating community ) in Denmark. After extended survey about bofoellesskab they brought that thought, promoted and developed the construct of populating community in United States as Cohousing. Since so, the cohousing term is besides used in English speech production states such as British, Canada and Australia ( Vestbro 2010, p.24 ) . Vestbro mentioned that Wohngemeinschaft ( intending community lodging ) and Gemeinschaftliches Wohnformen ( community oriented signifiers of lodging ) are the most normally concept which used in Germany. However, he found that there is no in agreement definition of these construct ( Vestbro 2010, p.24 ) .
Ache and Fedrowitz stated that cohousing inititives are acquiring more and more attractive in Germany. There are about 500 undertakings with more than 20,000 dwellers in Germany and this figure seems to be on the rise ( Ache & A ; Fedrowitz 2012, p.395 ) .
Cohousing could be one manner of the solution for the ambitious demographic alterations and which cuased lodging jobs in Berlin. Cohousing could supply low-cost lodging in the metropolis, promote societal interaction and heighten energy efficiency and moreover its create qualities of the occupants. Droste and Knorr-Siedow, the research workers from Berlin mentioned that cohousing can lend socially, economically, and culturally to a vicinity. This lodging attacks besides offers solution for people with disablements, people with immigrant backgrounds and those with lower incomes ( Droste & A ; Knorr-Siedow 2012, p.31 ) . Ache and Fedrowitz stated that one chief effects of cohousing undertakings for the municipalities is the immediate positive impact on the vicinity ( Ache and Fedrowitz 2012, p.406 ) .
Cohousing, the IBA Berlin 2020 and the Urban Development
The IBA Berlin 2020 is the instrument of Berlin Urban Development Plan ( UDC 2030 ) , whereas the cohousing could be the vehicle of the IBA 2020 to joint the construct of the captial metropolis, the broad metropolis and the instant metropolis. In this manner, it is necessary for the IBA 2020 to grok the construct of Cohousing. Learning from the cohousing development and direction is the manner to get the hanging the cohousing construct. Furthermore it is the cardinal way for people or stakeholders to bring forth appropriate and effectual cohousing undertaking in Berlin. The cohousing development and direction can be understood from undertaking direction life rhythm which consist of the procedure of development and the direction activities to drive or to execute the procedure.
This survey examine the development and direction of cohousing in Berlin through literature reappraisals, interviews, workshop and analyze the cohousing current undertaking as instance surveies. The scrutiny of the cohousing development and direction can show the features, the definitions, the stakeholders, the development procedure and the direction activities including the chief strength and failings. This raise the job statement inquiry how to analyze the development and direction of current cohousing undertakings and do recommedation for the IBA Berlin 2020.
1.2 Research Questions
1.2.1 Main research inquiries:
What are the important strengths and failings of the development and direction of current self-organized and community-oriented Cohousing undertakings in Berlin?
What recommendations can be made for the IBA 2020, with the regard to self-organized and community-oriented Cohousing undertakings?
1.2.2 Sub research inquiries:
What are the cohousing features and possible definitions as the consequence from the analysis of the survey?
How are cohousing undertakings developed and managed from the current cohousing undertakings in Berlin?
Who are the stakeholders involved in the cohousing development in Berlin and in the selected cohousing undertakings and what are thier important functions?
What is the strengths and failings of the development and direction procedure of the selected cohousing undertakings in Berlin?
How can cohousing be the vehicle and engine for the IBA Berlin 2020 in order to do part for sustainable urban development in Berlin?
1.3 Research Aims:
The aims of this survey are to:
Analyze the cohousing ‘s definitions and features from the selected cohousing current undertakings in Berlin to find its nature and values and to from the representative individuality and trade name image so the cohousing is recognized merely
Analyse the development and direction procedure of the selected cohousing current undertakings in Berlin in order to develop a typical theoretical account of cohousing undertaking direction
Analyse the cohousing stakeholders in Berlin and stakeholders in the selected cohousing current undertakings to admiting the stakholders as the of import drivers for cohousing development and direction
Compare the important strength and failings of the development and direction procedure of the selected cohousing current undertakings in Berlin to steer the strategic planning for the cohousing development and direction
Provide recommendation for the IBA Berlin 2020 in order to stearm cohousing as the vehicle and engine to make the ends of sustainable urban development in Berlin
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
2.1 Research Design
The research design of this survey was carried out under a qualitative research. The strength of qualitative research is its ability to supply descriptions about the subject of the research. The qualitative research portions features which are seeking reply to inquiries, uses a predefined set of processs to reply the inquiries, produces findings that were non determined in progress, and produces findings that are applicable beyond the immediate boundaries of the survey. The general model of qualitative research are seeks to research phenomena and uses semi construction method such as in-depth interviews, focal point group, and participant observation. One of the advantages of qualitative research is uses unfastened ended inquiries which have the ability to acquire rich and explanatory information. ( Mack et all 2005, p.1-4 )
Four research stages was conducted during the research work for this thesis. The first consist of general apprehension of cohousing, the 2nd stage is designation with the consequence of findings, and the 3rd stage is instance surveies choice and scrutiny. The 4th stage is treatment and analysis and eventually the 5th stage is the decision and recommendation. The research design is show in the diagram below:
Figure Research Design Diagram
The first stage consists of the general apprehension of the cohousing, both in international position and in Germany every bit good as in Berlin. This stage was done by literature reappraisal, interviews, workshop and besides site visit to some cohousing undertakings.
The 2nd stage is to do designation of selected country based on the thesis inquiries and aims. The purposes of this stage is to acquire the findings of cohousing definitions and features in Berlin position, the histrions of cohousing in Berlin, the development and direction of cohousing in Berlin and the recommended current cohousing undertakings for instance survey.
The 3rd stage is instance survey choice and scrutiny. There were 26 cohousing current undertakings in Berlin which were recommended by interviewees for the instance survey. Four undertakings were selected based on the class of the histrions who have a cardinal function in the development and direction of the cohousing undertakings. Those classs of the cardinal histrions are the occupants, the designers, the co-op and the non net income organisation. These four different types of cohousing undertakings were examined in the procedure of development and direction that include the undertaking ideas/concept/vision, histrions, planning, forming, funding, building and resident direction. Each undertaking besides analyzed the strength, the failings, the chance and the yarn.
The 4th stage is data analysis and treatment. This chapter consist of two countries of analysis ; the cohousing definitions and features analysis and the cohousing development and direction analysis. The cohousing definitions and features are necessary to specify to clear up the context of cohousing in Berlin. The cohousing development and direction analysis is comparing the development and direction signifier four undertaking instance surveies utilizing SWOT analysis.
2.2 Research Methods
The procedure to roll up information and information for the intent of the research consists of literature reappraisals, interviews, workshop, and instance survey.
2.2.1 Literature reappraisal
Literature reappraisal for this survey gives overview for the subject of the research. Two countries of literature reappraisal were determined: Housing by the people and the Cohousing history and construct. The literature on lodging by the people reviews the construct of ego organized lodging. The literature reappraisal on cohousing introduces the history of cohousing, the construct and the nomenclature of cohousing.
The interview is designed to acquire the information of the participants or interviewees perspective on the research subject. Ten histrions in cohousing were interviewed from assorted stakeholders such as non net income organisation, research worker, designers, booster, bank, concerted, networking establishment, go-between and international cohousing organisation from Kollektivhus NU – Sweden. It was conducted from September 2012 to October 2012.
Table List of interviewees
Christiane Droste & A ;
Cohousing Network Institution
Mietergenossenschaft SelbstBau e.G.
id22 ( Institute for Creative Sustainability )
Kollektivhus NU, Sweden
Cohousing Organization, Sweden
Heike Drischau, Gabriele Schambach, Ute Pieper, Christian Wegmann
Resident & A ; Architect
id22 ( Institute for Creative Sustainability )
Non net income organisation
David Scheller, Judith Vey
The interview was focus on six chief inquiries which was design to acquire the information about cohousing definitions, features, histrions, development and direction and the recommended undertaking for instance survey.
What are Cohousing definitions and the features in Berlin position?
How is the cohousing historical development in Berlin?
Who are the histrions in Cohousing ( who, functions, and relationships ) ?
What are the functions of the interviewee in the Cohousing development/project?
How is the cohousing procedure development and direction ( induction, planning, design, execution, member choice ) ?
Which cohousing current undertaking can be recommended for instance survey?
The workshop is portion of the qualitative information aggregation where some cohousing histrions meet as a group to discourse a given research subject. The advantage of this method is that it provides a batch of information in a short period of clip. The workshop was held on 21 September 2012 on the event of Experimentdays 12.
The EXPERIMENTDAYS are a platform for concerted lodging undertakings, thoughts and histrions of originative sustainability in order to understand the metropolis as a designed life infinite. Since 2003, the EXPERIMENTDAYS 2012 has offered the possibility to larn about different sorts of ego organized lodging, happen other protagonists and to believe about the hereafter of urban development. The EXPERIMENTDAYS 2012 offer a topographic point for thoughts and actions about mundane life, art and political relations to be developed through treatment, edifice, and experimentation ( www.experimentcity.net )
The workshop aims to interchange cognition and experiences from participants on the treatment of selected cohousing subjects: definitions, features, histrions and development procedure. Participants came from different establishments or organisations from assorted states such as Germany and international ( Sweden, Austria, Italy, Netherland, Switzerland, France, South Korea ) and most of them are the histrions of cohousing.
2.2.4 Case surveies
The instance surveies were selected from 26 current cohousing undertakings in Berlin which recommended by the interviewees. Four cohousing undertakings were selected based on the different histrions who have a cardinal function in the direction and development of the cohousing undertakings. The list of selected undertakings are presented in the tabular array below:
Table List of selected cohousing undertakings for instance surveies
The Leuchtturm e.G.
Pappelallee Str 43
Prenzlauer Berg, 10437 Berlin
Residents + Concerted
The Werkpalast Lichtenberg
Lichtenberg, 10367 Berlin
Architect + Residents
The Lebenstraum Johannisthal
Am Rundling 1-20
Treptow, 12487 Berlin
Residents + Non-Profit Organization
The Hausprojekt M29
Malmoer Str 29
Prenzlauer Berg, 10437 Berlin
Those undertakings were examined with the focal point on four countries: ( 1 ) The features of the undertakings, ( 2 ) How the undertakings were developed and managed ( 3 ) The stakeholders analysis and ( 4 ) The SWOT analysis ( Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats ) .
Choosing merely four instance survey from more than 200 bing cohousing undertakings in Berlin
There are deficiency of academic books or articles sing the cohousing in Berlin therefore the literature reappraisal is limited
Limited reappraisal on German literature because the linguistic communication barrier
Limited clip available from the interviewees particularly for the instance survey
Language barrier in German to understand the local context and in English for thesis authorship as both non the female parent linguistic communication
Limited choice of the representatives for interview ( merely interviewee who can talk English )
This chapter reviews some literatures that give the footing of theoretical background for the research. It identifies surveies related the research subject. Two Resident direction:
Regular meeting, working group, societal activities
1.Bonding the community
1.Appreciation from others
2.Place for lesson learn
The SWOT analysis of the Lebenstraum Johannisthal undertaking indicates that the strengths and the chance is more than the waknesses and the yarn. The important sthreghts are:
Group members have the same vision of community life and persistance
The designer got a secret plan of land for the undertaking
The designer who design the undertaking apply the construct of cohousing undertakings
The occupants were take part in the development processes of the undertaking but some of the undertakings are conducted by the designer, therefor the occupants has less attempt than other undertakings
The coaction with Project Management Office as a moderator can back up the undertaking efficaciously
The residential managment bonds the community
Some important failings of the undertaking are:
The undertaking is in private finance therfeore the occupants should has fiscal capital
The house is private belongings, selling propety can non be avoided
SWOT analysis The Hausprojekt M29
Table 21: Swot analysis the Hausprojekt M29
1.Vision on community life
1.Other people with same vision
1.New member without understanding the vision
2.Changing coevals with different vision
Gathering information, object searching, group formation
1.Found a secret plan of land
2.Got valuable information
1.different information different consequence
2.Segregation among members
Planing & A ; Organizing:
Expert choice, Project design, stakeholder coaction, legal from, funding, object buying
1.Partnership with the Mietshauser Syndikat
2.Participatory undertaking design
4.Financial cost sharing
5. Land rental
6. Non bad
1.Supporting histrions: the Mietshauser Syndikat, GLS Bank
2.Soft loan for ecological edifice
Construction Development: Construction work, commanding, monitoring, shuting
2. Human capital to cut down the cost
Regular meeting, working group, societal activities
1.Bonding the community
New undertaking, the occupants need to accommodate the community life
1.Place for lesson learn for other
– Other group with different political position
The SWOT analysis of the Hausprojekt M29 undertaking indicates that the strengths and the chance is more than the waknesses and the yarn. The important sthreghts are:
Group members have the same vision of community life and persistance
The occupants got a secret plan of land for the undertaking
The coaction with the Mietshauser Syndikat is good because the organisation provided nexus to the designer who besides the proprietor of the land
The occupants were actively participate in the development processes of the undertaking and they are the determination shaper
The coaction among stakeholders ( the Mietshauser Syndikat and the GLS Bank ) can back up the undertaking efficaciously
The construct of the ownership keeps the belongings out of market ( non speculative )
The residential direction bonds the community
The important failing of the undertakings is that the undertaking is new, the occupants need clip to accommodate life in the community ( the occupants merely moved in 3 month ago )
The SWOT analyses from the four selected undertakings indicate that the development and direction of the undertaking has much strength than the failings and besides has more chances than the hazards.
The important strengths of the undertakings are:
Group members have the same vision of community life, without the same vision the group will non work efficaciously
Persistent group members to make the ends of the vision of the undertaking
The objects ( land and edifice ) handiness harmonizing to the occupant ‘s desire
Different types of ownership and legal signifier which make the undertakings rich with suited options for the hereafter occupants
Collaboration with different histrions or stakeholders make the undertaking works
Participatory planning which placed the occupants as the determination shaper
Intentional design which support the societal contact among the occupants and besides vicinity
Ecological edifice and life with consequence of energy efficiency
Non bad make the undertaking is far off for capitalist or guess market
The residential direction bonds the community
The failings of the undertakings are:
Long procedure to happen and to purchase the object ( land and edifice )
Two type of legal signifiers ( Cooperative and GmbH ) need certain capital of money
The undertakings are taking long procedure until the undertaking completed
The occupants need a batch of attempt to pull off the undertaking if they are non do sharing functions with the histrions
CONCLUSION & A ; RECOMMEDATIONS
The scrutiny of cohousing development and direction produce the amount of cognition in footings of cohousing important constituents. These cognition countries are consists of: cohousing features and definitions, histrions and cohousing project life rhythm ( project procedure and direction ) :
Cohousing definition and features
Cohousing determines 14 features which are vision of sustainability, inclusive community, democratic, participative, sharing infinite and resources, empower human capital, non guess, collaborative, self direction, political, knowing design and ecological life. Those features address the values of its undertakings.
Cohousing definitions is assorted nevertheless the definitions are necessary for people to understand non merely the construct but besides the significance. Forming the definition of cohousing is necessary in order to do cohousing is apprehensible with easiness. Therefore, cohousing in Berlin need the extra ground tackle words which the representation of the features. The application of three words: community oriented, self organized and sustainable lodging is necessary and applicable.
Definition can be usage for executing the cohousing
Berlin has extended histrions in three sectors: public sector, civil society and private sector. Some of the histrions are the cardinal histrions which have important influence, others are primary histrions who finally affected by the cohousing undertaking and secondary histrions who are the back uping histrion in the development of cohousing.
The occupants, the co-op, the non net income organisation and the designer can be the cardinal histrions in the cohousing undertaking. However, the undertaking will stay hold the same features every bit long as the occupant is the determination shaper.
Each histrion contributed important functions in the development and direction cohousing which are compliment each other.
The cohousing histrions in Berlin are the important drivers in the development of cohousing because of their functions.
A good relationship among the histrions is really of import in the development of cohousing undertaking as a key of successful and effectual undertaking. Cohousing undertaking take times to develop in old ages. However, the good relationship among histrions create effectual cohousing undertaking.
Cohousing Project life rhythm
Cohousing can be developed and managed by different histrions such as occupants, co-ops, non net income organisation and designers.
The cohousing undertaking is developed through a undertaking procedure of vision, induction, planning, forming, building direction and residential direction. The direction of cohousing is a series of activities to run and drive the development procedure. The cardinal elements of cohousing direction are: Develop a vision, Information assemblage, organizing a continuity group, obtain the objects, developing the construct and design, set up the legal from, and collaborate with histrions, regulating or supervising the building direction and set uping residential direction
Vision of community life and the continuity group is the foundation to develop the cohousing undertaking because cohousing development and direction requires clip and energy. Collaborate with histrions creates effectual cohousing undertaking.
The type of legal from is the of import constituent to determining the cohousing undertaking
The group of people with strong vision and continuity head set, handiness of information, web and objects, different types of legal signifiers, the frogmans histrions with assorted functions, the highest degree of engagement ( occupants are the determination shapers ) , the knowing design, the ecological edifice and life and the non bad point of position are the important strength of the cohousing development and direction. However, the trouble to happen the objects ( land or edifices ) , long development procedure and the many figure of direction activates, the certain fiscal capital demands are the failings of the cohousing development and direction.
The survey of cohousing development and direction generate some recommendations:
Expanding the cohousing undertaking
The survey presented that cohousing undertaking has valuable features towards the sustainability. It is necessary to spread out cohousing undertaking in Berlin as a instrument to make the urban sustainability life.
Integrating the function of stakeholders in the cohousing undertaking development and intensifiying their functions
The stakeholders have significancts functions in the cohousing development in Berlin. Integrating the stakeholders and intensifiying them will strenghten their capacity to lend in the cohousing development undertaking
Geting the entree for cohousing development: fiscal and object ( land & A ; edifices )
Two chief obstructions of cohousing development are deficiency of finance support and deficiency of available objects ( land and edifices ) . Public Private Partnership could be one solution for funding. In the stakeholder analysis the private sector ( bussiness sector ) are non involved in the undertaking. They could be the beginning of fund as the private company has Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ) . The CRS fund could be donated to the non net income organisations or foundations to back up the cohousing undertakings or use as direkt recognition from the construct of The Mietshauser Syndikat.
The deficiency of objects ( land and edifice ) for cohousing undertaking could be resolved by utilizing empty infinites or vacant edifices which a batch in Berlin. The functions of the IBA Berlin 2020 will be really important as the IBA Berlin 2020 design a construct of Space City to utilize the empty infinites and vacant edifices. Other solution is to avoid denationalization of the land. Land should be viewed as the resources for every citizen non as a comodity. The construct of The Stiftung trias and The Mietshauser Syndikat to take out the land from the market and to utilize it for benefit of the society will do the urban life sustainability.
Analyzing the cohousing development and direction demonstrated how the cohousing is cultivate and determining and how good is the values inside of it. The good fruit is the consequence of good tree, good dirt, and good plantation owner. Cohousing is a good tree it self, it cultivated in good dirt: metropolis of Berlin, which has position toward sustainable urban development, and cultivate by dependable husbandmans which are the cohousing histrions in Berlin. The features of cohousing which address quality of values are the fruits of cohousing. Planting cohousing “ trees ‘ , reaping fruits of values for the sustainable hereafter.
7.2 Recommendations for The IBA Berlin 2020
The IBA Berlin 2020 with the three chief construct schemes: capital metropolis, infinite metropolis, and instant metropolis, is the instrument to make the ends of future sustainable development Berlin 2030 with more quality, beauty and plangency, more equal chances, increased energy efficiency and increased engagement. Cohousing is the vehicle to implement those three schemes, while the IBA Berlin 2020 is the engine and the cohousing histrions is the drivers. Cohousing is as portion of the scheme of Capital metropolis, broad metropolis and Instant metropolis.
Cohousing as the capital metropolis scheme
Capital metropolis which refers to the function of the metropolis and the citizen in determining a mix metropolis which making theoretical account for societal and cultural mix. Cohousing with the inclusive community features is the application of mix metropolis construct. The Alte Schule Karlshort in Karlshort can be one illustration of multigenerational life every bit good as Leuchtturm e.G undertaking in Prenzlauer Berg. Baugruppe K20 in Friedrichshain is the illustration of assorted used infinites between community lodging and hotels and Lebens ( T ) raum Johannisthal in Am Rundling is the illustration of mix usage between residential and ecology.
Capital metropolis besides refers to an internationally illustration of urban undertaking which places the stakeholders and procedures in the Centre phase. Cohousing could be the theoretical account of coaction among stakeholders as the important strength of cohousing undertaking in Berlin. Berlin is rich with assorted stakeholders who compliment each other with different functions such as implementer, contriver, undertaking direction, land rental, fiscal support, moderateness, information Centre, networking bureau, research worker, booster, and organizer. Four instance survey undertakings: Leuchtturm e.G, Werkpalast Lichtenberg, Leben ( T ) raum Johannisthal, and Hausprojekt M29 are the illustrations about coaction between different stakeholders ( occupants, concerted, architect, and non net income organisation ) .
Cohousing as scheme for broad metropolis
Broad metropolis refers to research and develop an intelligent urban development undertaking in the empty infinites and vacant countries. Cohousing could be use as the urban development scheme to utilize legion nothingnesss, big and little countries in Berlin or empty infinites, edifices, barrens and all sorts of vacant countries. One of the cohousing development constrains are the deficiency of handiness objects ( land or edifice ) to gain the undertakings. To utilize the vacant countries and empty edifice can decide the job every bit good as deficit of lodging stock in Berlin. Choosing in Berlin is an intelligent urban undertaking because it require certain knowledge country to developed and pull off, more over the some of the cohousing undertakings use intelligent engineering such as inactive house ( e.g. Populating in Urban Unit Project in Schonholzer Str, Pankow-Berlin ) , Geothermal energy ( e.g. Leuchtturm e.G in Prenzlauer Berg and Werkpalst Lichtenberg in Lichtenberg, air current gas energy ( Hausprojekt M29 in Prenzlauer Berg ) and household waste H2O recycling system in Lebens ( T ) raum Johannisthal undertaking in Am Rundlin-Berlin ) .
Cohousing as an instant metropolis
Instant metropolis refers to the impermanent usage that are widely in Berlin and the engagement approaches with democratic procedure and the citizen as determination shaper. LaFond stated that cohousing can be seen as school of democracy. Peoples learn how to do determination together, how to pass on and work outing jobs together. Peoples can larn about forming undertaking, meeting and forming people. Democracy is of import to sustainability. If people want to populate in democracy, people need to understand what that mean. What needed now is more direct democracy and cohousing is the representative of direct democracy. Cohousing can assist people to larn direct democracy ( interview with Michael LaFond, 20.11.2012 ) . The occupant ‘s determination devising is the psyche of the community engagement in cohousing undertaking. Cohousing refers to the citizen power by Arnstein 1996, the voice by Qu and Haseelaar 2011, and the liberty by Fitcher et all 1972 where the citizen enable to negociate, hold the power to deal, have the ability to act upon programs and merchandise, involve in the design and care procedures, have managerial power, have the ability to acquire the demands and the power of doing determination. In German word is “ mitbestimmung ” ( the power in determination devising )
In drumhead three sustainable urban development scheme of the IBA Berlin 2020 can be realise in the cohousing undertaking. The concrete important restraints of cohousing developments are the deficiency of available infinite in desirable countries, deficiency of support and involuntariness of most lodging organisations to work together with the groups to recognize new residential cohousing undertaking ( Eyrich,2012, p.51 ) . The reply of these constrains will advance the development of cohousing in Berlin and cohousing would lift in Numberss. It is necessary to recognize Berlin as the capital metropolis of cohousing with the belief:
Berlin as the “ Capital metropolis of cohousing ” will determine the sustainable urban development for a better hereafter.