Should the business incorporate? Discuss.


Should the concern incorporate?

Bachelor of Applied Business Administration – AccountingDue day of the month April 15, 2014 Bachelor of Applied Business Administration – AccountingDue day of the month April 15, 2014

Table of Contentss


Introduction… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .4

What Is incorporation? … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..4

Professionals and Cons… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..5

Advantages Of Incorporation… … … … … … … … … … … … … .6

Disadvantages Of Incorporation… … … … … … … … … … … … ..8

Should Business Owners Incorporate? … … … … … … … … … … … 9

Decision… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .10



Today, many new concern proprietors seek advice on whether they should integrate or non. The determination to integrate would be one of the most of import strategic determinations of all time made in the life of concern proprietors. Therefore, it is perfectly of import to be to the full cognizant of the procedure and of the advantages and disadvantages of incorporation. Once incorporated, the concern can be indefinitely, while unincorporated concern such as exclusive proprietaries and partnerships end with the life of its owner. Limited liabilities, revenue enhancement benefit, greater entree to capital and pension planning are good illustrations of advantages. However, dual revenue enhancement, high start-up costs and important sum of paperwork may non be really delighting to proprietors. However, despite those disadvantages, concern proprietors are better off integrating their concerns.


Today, many new concern proprietors seek advice on whether they should integrate or non. There is no 1 reply as the signifier of concern can change depending on the type of concern and its specific demands ( Hyde Park Citizen, 2002 ) . The determination to integrate would be one of the most of import strategic determinations of all time made in the life of concern proprietors. Therefore, it is perfectly of import to be to the full cognizant of the procedure and of the advantages and disadvantages of incorporation ( Doyle, 2002 ) . Before discoursing incorporation, it is necessary to understand what corporation is, particularly in comparing with exclusive proprietary and partnership. While exclusive proprietary and partnership represent a individual proprietor and two proprietors upon an understanding, severally, a corporation is a separate entity: it is non the proprietors or operators. Owners and operators may come and travel, but the corporation continues on. Since a corporation is a separate entity, a concern error could be paid for with the assets of the corporation, whereas exclusive owner or a partnership hazards and wages for any issues with everything they own ( Lewis, 1994 ) . Business proprietors may see integrating their concern if they are interested in restricting stockholder liability, procuring certain revenue enhancement benefits, or obtaining funding ( Hyde Park Citizen, 2002 ) . This paper will discourse the advantages and disadvantages of incorporation, revenue enhancement benefits and deductions for a corporation, and why concern proprietors should integrate.

What Is incorporation?

Corporation Canada ( 2014 ) states that the act of integrating creates a new legal entity called a corporation, normally referred to as a “company” . The concern does non hold to be every bit large as, for illustration, Wal-Mart, for being incorporated as one-man corporations are still legal ( Lewis, 1994 ) . When concern proprietors decide to integrate, they will choose 12 months period financial twelvemonth terminal. Once incorporated, the concern can be indefinitely, while unincorporated concern such as exclusive proprietaries and partnerships end with the life of its owner.

It will take a few stairss to be incorporated as concern proprietors should take who will be the stockholders, the board of managers and the officers. It must be carefully considered because they will confront many different types of liabilities and determinations ( Gabriel, 2002 ) .

Income Tax Act Subdivision H: Corporations Resident in Canada and their Stockholders clearly states “the sum of all sums, other than eligible dividends and sums received by the taxpayer in the revenue enhancement twelvemonth from corporations occupant in Canada as, on history of, in stead of payment of or in satisfaction of, nonexempt dividends…” are capable to be taxed ( Government of Canada, 2014 ) .

Professionals and Cons

Should concern proprietors so integrate? Gabriel ( 2002 ) emphasizes that incorporation can be a double-edged blade. If they are in the initial phases of concern, it is frequently advisable non to integrate because losingss incurred by an integrated concern can non flux through the stockholders. Business proprietors are normally advised to utilize those losingss personally against other income in early phases of concern. Business proprietors must be cognizant of that the determination of incorporation rises diverse issues such as the length of clip they have been in concern, hard currency flow demands, the comparative profitableness of concern, and the personal and corporate revenue enhancement rates in their states. Besides, if concern proprietors need all the net incomes from their concern to back up personal hard currency flow demands, they should non see incorporation. Bourke ( 1995 ) besides emphasizes that there is no point in integrating if the proprietor wants to take all the net incomes as personal income.

Advantages of Incorporation

One of the major advantages of being incorporated is limited liability. This means the concern and proprietor are separated from any legal reverberations, should the company be unable to run into its debts ( Bennett, 2011 ) . This is because a corporation is considered as a separate legal entity and stockholders are non personally held apt for the debts and duties of the corporation if the company can non pay its debts or is sued ( Hyde Park Citizen, 2002 ) . If the corporation goes bankrupt, a stockholder will non lose more than his or her investings, unless the stockholder has provided personal warrants for the corporation’s debts. Despite stockholders having the corporation, creditors can non action stockholders for liabilities incurred by the corporation. However, it is of import to understand that managers or other stockholders that have another relationship with the corporation may be apt for the debts of the corporation ( Corporation Canada, 2011 ) . Lewis ( 1994 ) besides emphasizes that, in a corporation, a error could be paid for with the assets of the corporation merely. By contrast, owners or spouses are at their ain hazard. When proprietors make a error, they could pay with everything they own including their place, salvaging histories or any other assets.

Tax benefit is another advantage of incorporation. Harmonizing to Gabriel ( 2002 ) , incorporation allows proprietors to take advantage of income splitting to cut down revenue enhancements. It particularly helps when household members are stockholders in the corporation, as any dividends they receive will frequently be taxed personally. Family members can be besides employed every bit long as their wage is sensible for work.

Tax planning could so be really efficient. Corporations could be taxed at a lower rate than persons because corporations are taxed individually from their proprietors. When the corporation does revenue enhancement planning, it is of import to believe about all possibilities. If personal income is high, corporate income could be left in the corporation and taxed at corporate rate. If personal income is lower, corporate income could be taken out as salary and taxed at personal rates. For illustration, if a individual earns $ 40,000 corporate wage and fillip at the terminal of twelvemonth, he or she can cut down single revenue enhancements by waiving the fillip for the twelvemonth and go forthing the money in the corporation to assist pay for necessary concern operations. This helps the corporation to pay revenue enhancement on that sum, which is less than an person has to pay. Reversely, when the corporation suffers from a loss of investing, his or her wage could be increased to countervail the lower income ( Changing times, 1983 ) . In add-on, little concerns are eligible to claim for little concern tax write-off and it significantly can take down revenue enhancements ( Corporation Canada, 2011 ) .

Canada Revenue Agency states that corporate revenue enhancement rate is 15 % and single revenue enhancement rate is 15 % on the first $ 43,953 and 22 % on the following $ 43,953. Therefore, for illustration, let’s say the proprietor of ABC company makes $ 70,000 during 2013. If ABC company is a exclusive proprietary, it means $ 70,000 is recognized as a personal income and the proprietor will be taxed by single revenue enhancement rate. The computation is: ( $ 43,953*0.15 ) + [ ( $ 70,000- $ 43,953 ) *0.22 ] = $ 12,323.29. First $ 43,953 from $ 70,000 income is taxed by 15 % and following $ 26,047 is taxed by 22 % . If ABC company is incorporated and becomes ABC Ltd. , this corporation will be taxed by corporate revenue enhancement rate, which is 15 % . The computation is: $ 70,000*0.15 = $ 10,500. This sum is $ 1823.29 less than the sum single revenue enhancement rate is applied. If first $ 35,000 is recognized as a corporate earning and another $ 35,000 is recognized as an person earning, income revenue enhancement will be $ 10,500 as each $ 35,000 is taxed by 15 % ( single and corporate revenue enhancement rate ) .

Incorporation besides helps proprietors to hold greater entree to capital. The proprietors can raise capital through the sale of stock and other equity involvements ( Hyde Park Citizen, 2002 ) . It would be easier for corporations to raise money than exclusive proprietaries and partnerships because corporations have the option of publishing bonds or portion certifications to investors when proprietaries and partnerships must trust on their ain money and loans for capital. It finally limits for the potency for a concern to spread out. Corporations besides frequently borrow money at lower rates than those paid by exclusive proprietaries and partnerships because fiscal establishments tend to see corporations less hazardous ( Corporation Canada, 2011 ) .

Incorporation provides effectual pension planning for proprietors. Gabriel ( 2002 ) states that a corporation can make a registered pension program and tax-deductible group wellness and life insurance program for proprietors and employees, which could include household members. Net incomes can be built up within a corporation and held until retirement as a 2nd pension program ; the net incomes are taxed at corporate rates until they are withdrawn. Besides, a corporation can pay portion of any employee’s wage at a specified hereafter day of the month. This means a corporation can let employees to pay personal income revenue enhancement on the deferred net incomes when they are eventually received and the corporation gets a revenue enhancement tax write-off at the same clip. Equally long as proper permission has been granted, the corporation does non necessitate to pay income revenue enhancement on that deferred sum. It could significantly take down corporate revenue enhancements ( Changing times, 1983 ) .

Disadvantages of Incorporation

However, there are a few statements about non being incorporated as good. Double revenue enhancement could be the primary disadvantage to a corporation. Stockholders are taxed twice when the net incomes of a corporation are distributed as dividends, as these net incomes are considered as income to the corporation and to the stockholders as good ( Hyde Citizen Park, 2002 ) .

Complexities can present as a challenge to the concern proprietors. Forming and keeping a corporation requires a batch of paperwork. The proprietor must be really organized, as a corporation must keep and enter proceedingss of one-year stockholder and manager meetings and papers major determinations made by managers. Financial records for revenue enhancement filing besides must be kept safe and well-organized ( Hyde Park Citizen, 2002 ) . This requires excess work to be done on a day-to-day footing and the proprietors must be well-aware of income revenue enhancement jurisprudence in order to avoid unneeded punishments.

The higher start-up costs of a corporation are non favourable to the proprietors. The procedure of incorporation may be dearly-won, as it includes enrollment, legal and accounting service fees. There is no duty to obtain legal advice to integrate. However, most proprietors do since incorporation is a complex portion construction ( CRA, 2011 ) . The increasing load of ordinances and statutory duties on managers and corporations may besides necessitate extra costs and hazards ( Doyle, 2002 ) .

Should Business Owners Incorporate?

Yes, concern proprietors should integrate. Despite few disadvantages stated above, the concern is better off integrating in the long-run. Start-up costs or legal fees can non even be compared to debts or liabilities if the concern does non run good. Every concern requires important sums of paperwork and service fees, and this should non be a ground for non being incorporated. Besides, a corporation is owned by more than one stockholder, and hazards and possible liabilities are spread among stockholders. It could slightly alleviate concern proprietors from the force per unit area of concern failures. Incorporation besides provides pension planning for proprietors, which is a life-long retirement planning in progress.

When I interviewed my foreman, Henry, he perfectly agreed with the importance of incorporation. He emphasized that limited liability was the most favourable portion of incorporation. He peculiarly mentioned little concerns that are at the initial phase: New and little concern proprietors are non ever successful in the market due to miss of experiences or hard currency flow, and sometimes they become apt for a important sum of debts. In this state of affairs, if the concern is incorporated, there will be a opportunity for ‘resilience’ as it does non take ‘everything proprietors have’ . Henry besides agreed that revenue enhancement benefit was another immense advantage to proprietors. This corporate earning splitting may profit a larger corporate more than a smaller 1 because a larger corporate normally generates more income and it means a good sum of income revenue enhancement benefits are granted.


Many new concern proprietors come to comptrollers and seek advice: should we integrate our concern? The reply is yes, the concern proprietors are better off integrating because incorporation provides several advantages for proprietors: limited liabilities, revenue enhancement benefits with income splitting, effectual pension planning, and greater entree to capital. Limited liabilities gives proprietors less force per unit area as liabilities that occur due to a concern failure are non absolute duty of proprietor. Incorporation allows a corporation to divide income into corporate earning and single earning. This gives corporation a revenue enhancement benefits and lower revenue enhancements. Business proprietors must be cognizant of how good incorporation is, and carefully see integrating their concerns with the apprehension of the nature of concern and net income sharing. Based on these findings, despite few disadvantages, my decision is that concern proprietors should integrate their concern.


Anomymous. ( 1983 ) . Should you integrate your concern?Changing Times ( pre-1986 ); 37, 006 ; pg. 64

Bennett, M. ( 2011 ) . Taking the dip – incorporation.The Optician. 241, 6300 ; pg. 26

Bourke, L. ( 1995 ) . The restrictions of incorporation.Management Today.Pg.81-82

Corporation Canada. ( 2011 ) .Guide to Federal Incorporation.( Catalogue figure Iu70-4/8-2011E-PDF ) . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: // $ FILE/Guide_2011-En.pdf

Doyle, D. ( 2002 ) . Incorporation: A strategic determination.Accountancy Ireland.34, 6 ; pg. 24-25

Gabriel, F. ( 2002 ) . There are a figure of advantages to incorporation.The Guelph Mercury.A12.

Government of Canada. ( 2014 ) .Income Tax Act.Retrieved from

hypertext transfer protocol: //laws- # h-23dgc.nsf/vwapj/Guide_2011-En.pdf/ $ FILE/Guide_2011-En.pdf

Hyde Park Citizen. ( 2002 ) . Should You Integrate Your Business?Chicago Weekend.13, 49 ; pg. 6


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