Skulls in South America Essay

Newly discovered skulls in South America show that the first Americans were posterities of reliable Australians.

[ image: The skulls suggest faces like those of Australian aborigines]

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The skulls are proposing faces like the reliable Aussie

Prehistoric skulls from Brazil are demoing an absolute resemblance to those of the original peoples of Australia and Melanesia. Other signifiers of grounds suggests that these first Americans were exterminated by the new encroachers from Asia. Until now it was thought that the Indians were the direct posterities of Asiatic ascendants who foremost populated America as the came from Siberia to Alaska by the isthmus linking the two continents ( now the Strait of Bering ) .

The isthmus was formed during the last ice age 11,000 old ages ago when the sea degree dropped. This led to the small spot simplistic decision that America was populated merely from that clip on.

New grounds shows that these Mongoloid fledglings from Asia, the Indian, did non get in an empty part.

Rock tools and wood coal found in Serra district attorney Capivara in an stray country of northeasterly Brazil, shows that this part was inhabited by people 50,000 old ages ago.

The topographic point is now populated by the posterities of Europeans and African slaves who arrived at that place 500 old ages ago.

Petroglyphs of elephantine Armadillos in caves, extinct long before the last ice age, attest about occupants who were older than the Indians who welcomed the first Europeans.

[ image: The costumes and rituals shown in rock art survived in Terra del Fuego]The costumes and rites shown in stone art survived in Tierra del Fuego

[ image: Walter Neves has measured hundreds of skulls]Skulls found with an age of 9000 to 12,000 old ages does n’t hold the typical Mongoloid characteristics. Professor Walter Neves, an archeologist from the University of Sao Paolo and an expert in the field, has made a batch of really precise measurings on a twelve skulls, including the oldest one, which is of a immature adult female named Lucia ” . *

* Walter Neves ( archeologist from the University of Sao Paolo ) has measured 100s of skulls

The measurings showed no Asiatic characteristic was his decision. The following measure was the “ Reconstruction ” of her face.

“ Lucia ” , or the face of the first known American, Reconstruction by Richard Neave

First a CT scan was made of the skull to hold a extremely accurate working theoretical account.

Then it was the bend of the forensic creative person Richard Neave to retrace the face ( British forensic and facial Reconstruction at the University of Manchester ) .

The consequence was surprising. It had all the features of a ‘Negroid ‘ face.

[ image: Lucia

The skull of Lucia is 12,000 old.

This corresponded or was really near to the other measurings, which refer-red to an Australian and Melanesian beginning.

These people lived there with an unwritten history for over 60,000 old ages and were the likely posterities of the first modern worlds who left Africa, harmonizing to the theory of “ Out of Africa ” aˆ‹aˆ‹130,000 old ages ago but the theory remains doutbtful. *

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( on the left side of the nexus you can exchange over to the English version )

But how the first Australians have done a transoceanic journey of over 13,500 kilometres to go the original dwellers of America, while another narrative refers for this to the Strait of Bering, narrative which is linked on the “ Out of Africa ” theory? These are contradictions!

Or is it so that modern adult male emerged at the same time on different topographic points and migrations that occurred in the distant yesteryear? Or is there room for a theory which opens the possibility that the first dwellers of Africa came from Australia?

Given the favourable air currents and currents, this seems much more logical and easy than a awfully long and hard journey by following the shores of the continents.

But this implies an early and experient cognition of pilotage in the Stone Age.

This is evidently non a theory that makes classical minds woolgathering. *

The reply could come from a stone art picture in the Kimberley cave in the northern tip of Western Australia.

Here Grahame Walsh, an expert on Australian stone art, found the oldest stone art picture or drawing of a ship of all time found in the universe.

The drawing is aged at least 17,000 old ages old, but it can even can be 50,000 old ages. A important item of the ship is its high bow and great burden possibility. This is a instead hard building that is wholly useless for unagitated Waterss.

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Therefore the picture suggests that the boat navigated in the unfastened sea.

Some archeologists assume that such a trip from Australia to Brazil, could merely hold occurred by accident instead than after a planning.

One loves to take the illustration of the five African fishermen who, a few old ages ago, were caught in a storm and were thrown on the shores of South America some hebdomads subsequently.

Two did non last the sinking, but the other three had.

But when due to a similar happenstance a floating boat coming from Australia brought the first dwellers ashore in America, so where are their posterities? *

Again, we will happen an reply in the skulls found in the relevant age beds.

About 9000-7000 old ages ago, there occurred alterations in the features that show a passage from entirely Negroid to entirely Mongoloid. In concurrence with American stone pictures that show an addition in force at that clip, it may be that new Asiatic entrants have eradicated the Americans of Australian beginning.

But this “ extinction ” is merely an premise that is non supported by concrete grounds.

On the contrary! Recent research of DNA and skulls leads to new decisions. Epidemic outbreaks reveal to be a possible cause excessively.

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[ image: Fuegean Cristina Calderon may be one of the few surviving descendants of the first Americans]

Cristina Calderon of “ Tierra del Fuego ” is likely one of the few ( or the sole ) posterities of the first Americans who survived.

The lone grounds of subsisters is found in the islands in the utmost South of Chile and Argentina, “ Tierra del Fuego or Land of Fire ” . Pre-European dwellers of Tierra del Fuego, still populating in the Stone Age have survived until the twentieth century and demonstrate types of intercrossed skulls of a Mongoloid and Negroid mixture. Traditions and rites are demoing a strong similarity with the petroglyphs that were found in Brazil.

The altered metamorphosis reveals a really long stay in this part.

They lived wholly naked at the 48Thursdaylatitude Souths and their organic structure had accordingly adapted wholly.

Their mean organic structure temperature was one grade more than the bit by bit come oning station Colombian Europeans.

The individuality of the “ first Americans ” is emotional and controversial, and its history which is “ taught ” is hence non dependable.

But the grounds from Brazil and a smattering of people who are still alive at the terminal point of South America, suggest that human diverseness in America was much larger than antecedently thought and had occurred much earlier.

The Yaghan ( and other groups ) were exterminated about at 100 % by the endemic infective diseases that Westerners had brought. The British established missions in the Keppel Islands of the Falklands and Ushuaia in Tierra del Fuego, in an effort to convey these groups Christian values, English and agribusiness.

The home ground of Yaghan was awfully disrupted at the terminal of the nineteenth century, when moving ridges of immigrants came to the country because of the gold haste and a roar in sheep agriculture.

The Yaghan didn‘t understand the British construct of “ ownership ” .

They were hunted overpoweringly by reserves of breeders and frequently killed because they were guilty of “ sheep poaching ” in their former district, a scene that we recognize with the “ Bushmen ” in South Africa.

Walter Neves wrote that this “ type of Negroid ” , had easy started to vanish 7000 old ages ago, except some household groups who survived.

“Pre Cook-ed Chili Chickens with Sweet Potatoes”

“ Or the Polynesian-Mexican transoceanic kitchen.”*

Everyone knows the delightful Mexican poulet with spicy Chile sauce and the Polynesian bill of fare with sweet murphies.

However, poulets have their beginning from far off, you could see them peculiarly everyplace in South Asia and in the North and South of China, nevertheless perchance in India, Burma and Thailand excessively.

*Pre Cook-ed = the period before Captain Cook or Pre-Cook.

The most common premise is that the wild ruddy jungle poultry ( Gallus brace ) , frequently called the Bankiva cock has to be the ascendant of the poulet who was domesticated 8,000 old ages ago in Thailand.

It is assumed that these poulets were brought by Lapita peoples from southern China to Polynesia and Melanesia 3000 old ages ago and from there one manner or another went to Chile. In early 2007, the undertaking leader Alice Storey together with his co-workers, produced a study of the digging consequences of El Arenal-1 in the cardinal South Chile site. This topographic point was a portion of the archeological site of El Vergel, which had existed between 1000 -1450 AD. There had been a discovery of 50 castanetss from at least five poulets. A graduated wireless C -14 dating and/or a thermoluminescence analysis gave an age of between 1304 and 1424 AD. *

The DNA surveies associated to the several sites indicated that the poulet leftovers were genetically similar to chicken castanetss from two prehistoric sites in the Pacific: Mele Havea in Tonga ( 2000-1550 old ages old ) , and Fatu-ma-Futi in American Samoa, which dates excessively about the same period as El Arenal.

Sweet murphies ( ipomoea batatas ) are a New World domesticate root harvest that originated in northern South America or Central America about 8000 old ages ago.

*Polynesians in America: Pre-columbian Contacts with the New World

By Terry L. Jones, Alice A. Storey, Elizabeth A. Matisoo-Smith, Jose Miguel Ramirez-Aliaga.

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This tasty and alimentary works has spread around the universe through the attempts of the Portuguese and Spanish adventurers who discovered the sweet murphy in Mexico and Peru, and took it to Europe.

But there is excessively much grounds that the assorted islands of Polynesia, already knew the sweet murphy good before Columbus, Magellan or Captain Cook made aˆ‹aˆ‹their celebrated ocean trips. A self-contradictory culinary item worth mentioning is that before go forthing for the “ new universe ” Columbus has enjoyed with the Spanish Emperor a sort of Paella with “ maize ” provided by the Arabs. About this works, maize, the phytologists agree that the maize was originated and domesticated for the first clip in the Tehuacan Valley in Mexico. How could Columbus eat maize before it was imported from the New World? The replacements of Columbus did nil more than one time once more spread the sweet murphy and maize in the “ old ” universe ; but these nutriments, and many others, had already travelled “ around the universe ” in an earlier period! *

*Man across the Sea: Problems of Pre-columbianContacts by Carroll L. Riley

*Theethree ocean trips of Captain James Cook:

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