SMART PURCHASE IN SUPERMARKETS USING RFID OBJECTIVE: •To provide effective customer service in supermarkets by rising the efficiency of total supply chain through quick billing of products. •To achieve operational excellence and effective supply chain management. ABSTRACT: Shopping seems to be a good entertainment. But the huge queue in the supermarkets to scan the products frustrates the customers . Barcode scanning is a time consuming process engaging the customers to stick to the billing section for a long time.
Hence there is a need to switch to a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system for smart purchase and instant billing . Our Application blends Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and wireless technologies to provide ‘on the spot’ billing in supermarkets. Each product is given a specific RF- Tag. Unlike barcodes, it uniquely identifies the product. In addition, they do not require physical scanning. The RF-Tags are constantly transmitting their presence to the RF Reader positioned on the shopping trolley. When a product is dropped into the trolley, its name and cost are displayed instantly on the LCD fixed to the trolley.
At the check-out, the smart shopping trolley system transmits the list of items and total cost to the cashier using wireless technology. This promotes quick shopping and immediate pay without any queuing process. It reduces labor efforts and increases efficiency by minimizing errors. KEYWORD: RFID, Instant billing system, Rfmodem for transceiver, Filemanagement EXISTING METHOD: •Generally in supermarkets, Barcode scanning is a time consuming process engaging the customers to stick to the billing section for a long time. Hence, there is a need to switch to a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system for smart purchase and instant billing . BLOCK DIAGRAM: EXPLANATION: Each product has its unique tag. When the product is dropped into the trolley its specific code is scanned by the RF reader. The data is sent to the microcontroller through UART. From the microcontroller the code is sent to the PC through Transceiver section. Transceiver section has RF modem with unipolar antennas. In the PC, database is maintained by file management system using C language.
The product corresponding to the code and its cost stored in the files are transferred to the Transceiver section . The corresponding data is sent to the microcontroller. LCD is interfaced with the microcontroller to display the product name and cost. Sometimes people may find difficult to identify where the amount is printed in the pack. Here another advantage is that they can easily identify the product cost by dropping in the smart trolley. Similarly the total cost manipulated by the PC will also be sent to the LCD as well as the Printer . Hence the bill can be got instantly after completion of purchase.
Shopping itself a good entertainment. Everything can be got in a less price except satisfaction. People are frustrated while standing in the queues for a long time to get the bills. So we have developed a smart purchasing system for quick billing and to improve operational excellence in modern supermarkets. FLOW DIAGRAM: RFID SYSTEM: RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is a means of storing and retrieving data through electromagnetic transmission to an RF compatible integrated circuit, and is now being seen as a radical means of enhancing data handling processes.
SYSTEM COMPONENTS: RFID systems have several basic components or technical characteristics that define them. These are: ? A reader, including an antenna The device that is used to read and/or write data to RFID tags. ?A tag A device that transmits to a reader the data. ?The communication between them. RFID uses a defined radio frequency and protocol to transmit and receive data from tags. TYPES OF RFID TAGS: RFID tags can be segregated into two major classifications by their power source: • Active tags Active tags contain both a radio transceiver and battery to power the transceiver.
Because there is an onboard radio on the tag, active tags have substantially more range (~300 feet) than passive or “active/passive tags. ” Active tags are also considerably more expensive than passive tags and, as with any battery-powered product, the batteries must be replaced periodically. • Passive tags Passive tags can be either battery or non-battery operated, as determined by the intended application. Passive tags reflect the RF signal transmitted to them from a reader or transceiver and add information by modulating the reflected signal. A passive tag does not use a battery to boost the energy of the reflected signal.
A passive tag may use a battery to maintain memory in the tag or power the electronics that enable the tag to modulate the reflected signal. PIC: The PIC16F877 Microcontroller is used in the project. The PIC Microcontroller is a Microchip product. This microcontroller has an built memory, CPU, Peripheral devices. The PIC microcontroller is divided into three ranges, based on the instruction set. They are, •Low Range PIC-12 bits •Mid Range PIC-14 bits •High Range PIC-16 bits PERIPHERAL FEATURES: ?Operating frequency: DC-20 MHz clock input. ?DC-200 ns instruction cycle. Wide operating voltage range (2. 0V – 5. 5V). ?14-bit wide instructions, 8-bit wide data path. ?13-bit program counter, 8 level stack (13-bit). ?Up to 368 byte of data memory (RAM). ?Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler. ?Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescalar can be incremented ? Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register, prescalar and postscalar. ?Synchronous serial port (SSP) with SPI (master mode) and 12C (master/slave). ?Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART/SCI) with 9-bit address detection. Parallel slave port (PSP) 8-bit wide, with external RD, WR and CS controls (40/44 pin only). ANALOG FEATURES: ?10 bit up to 8-channel analog to digital converter (A/D). ?Brown out Reset (BOR). ?Analog Comparator module with: •Two analog comparators. •Programmable On chip voltage reference (Vref) module. •Programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal reference. FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION: PIC 16F877A is a 40-pin controller. There are pins corresponding to five I/O ports, namely, PORT A, PORT B, PORT C, PORT D and PORT E. Analog inputs to AD converter are AN0 to AN7; and are the alternate functions of PORT A and PORT E.
Two pins are for oscillator connections, namely, OSC1 and OSC2. Supply and reference ground pins VDD and VSS, respectively, are in duplicate. Further, functions interrupt associated with the parallel slave port and serial communications are the alternate functions of PORT C and PORT D. RB0/INT is the external pin. UART: UART (UNIVERSAL ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER AND TRANSMITTER) is microchip with programming that controls a computer’s interface to its attached serial device.
Specifically, it provides the computer with RS232c data terminal. It can “take” to and exchange data with modems & other serial device. As part of this interface, the UART also ? Converts the bytes it receives from the computer along parallel circuits into a single serial bit stream for outbound transmission ?On inbound transmission, converts the serial bit stream into the bytes that the computer handles ?Adds a parity bit (if it’s been selected on outbound transmissions and checks the parity of incoming bytes (if selected ) & discards the parity bit Adds start & stop delineators on outbound & strips them from in bound transmissions handles its from the keyboard & mouse ( which are serial device with special ports ) may handle other kinds of interrupt management that require co-ordinate the computer’s speed & operate with device speed. ? ST16C550: The ST16C550 (550) is a universal asynchronous receiver and transmitter with 16 byte transmit and receive FIFO. It operates at 3. 3 and 5V power supplies. A programmable baud rate generator can select transmit and receive clock rates from 50 bps to 1. 5 Mbps.
The ST16C550 is an improved version of the NS16C550 UART with higher operating speed and lower access time. The ST16C550 on board status registers provides the error conditions, type and status of the transfer operation being performed. Included are complete MODEM control capability and a processor interrupt system that may be software tailored to the user’s requirements. The ST16C550 provides internal loop back capability for on board diagnostic testing. The ST16C550 is available in 40 pin PDIP, 44 pin PLCC, and 48 pin TQFP packages. It is fabricated in an advanced CMOS process to achieve low drain power and high speed requirements.
FEATURES ?Pin to pin functionally compatible to the industry standard 16c550 ? 24 MHz clock operation at 5v ?16 MHz clock operation at 3. 3v ?16 byte transmit FIFO ?16 byte receive FIFO with Error flags ?Full duplex operation ?Transmit and receive control ?Four selectable receive FIFO interrupt trigger levels ?Standard modem interface ?Compatible with st16C450 PIN DIAGRAM OF UART: Pin diagram of UART APPLICATION: •Immediate pay without any queuing process. •Reduces labor efforts. •Increases efficiency by minimizing errors. •Real time updating of supermarket’s inventory. •Growing the customers devotedness towards the supermarkets
FUTURE SCOPE : •Theft identification. •Product identification by database maintenance. •Monitoring of offers and discounts in the touch screen based display fitted to the trolley. •Displaying information such as expiring date of the products, ingredients, number of calories etc. , CONCLUSION: Still seeking ways to cut the queues, our smart purchase concept pilots a scheme whereby customers walk out immediately paying the bill. Our future scope is to implement product identification and stock management along with the display of several other product information in a touch screen monitor REFERENCE:
Literature •Rajkamal, “Embedded systems, Architecture, Programming, programming & design”, Tata Mc. Graw Hill publishing company limited, New Delhi, Edition 2003. •Jonathon W. Valvano, “Embedded Micro computer system, Real Time Interfacing”, Brooks / Cole Thomson Learning, first reprint 2001, by Thomson Asia Private Limited, Singapore. WEBSITES: •www. pic. com (for information on PIC 16F877A) •www. discoverrfid. com (searching for information related to our project) •www. ieee. com (searching for information related to our project) •www. embeddedindia. com (information on embedded systems and its latest developments)