Social Cultural Consumer Essay

Chapter 3: Methodology


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The general purpose of this research is to look into what societal and cultural alterations affect a specific consumer groups’ attitudes towards their pick of marrying bundle merchandises. By many of research workers and writers in consumer behavior and selling countries it has been pointed out that cultural and societal factors, including basic societal demographic factors can act upon consumer’s pick and attitudes towards merchandises ( in this instance, the conventional nuptials merchandises and new demands of customised nuptials merchandises ) such as single and societal values, face, gender, age, faith, topographic point they work and live, household, and individual’s history and penchant, income, instruction and business ( Engel, J.F. , 1995 ; Hofstede, G. , 1980 ; Kim Jai-Ok et al. , 2002 ; Lee You-II and Hobday, M. , 2003 ) .

This research will associate consumer behavior to specific chosen consumer groups, who will be categorized by their professional businesss, and their attitudes towards the Korean conventional hotel nuptials merchandises, particularly a large-scale bundle nuptials and a new small-scale customised wedding merchandise. Weddings are a ‘one of the biggest business’ in the Korean cordial reception industry and Koreans frequently over spend on their nuptialss for many societal and cultural grounds.

Harmonizing to Korean National Statistic Office 2007, the entire nuptials cost per twosome, including honeymoon cost and a belongings rent for their new live in 2005 was more than 50,000 GBP and 15 % out the cost was merely spent for a nuptials ceremonial and nutrient response ( National Statistic Office, 2007 ) . Merely in 2007, 300,000 twosomes were expected to acquire married and remarrying twosomes increased up to 42,000 twosomes in Korea.

The research paper, published by KNSO showed that this increased figure of remarrying twosomes covers 22.7 % out of the entire matrimony rate on state graduated table ( ibid ) . In add-on, harmonizing to “the research of Korea marrying civilization and patterns” conducted by Minister of Health and Welfare and Korea Wedding Culture & A ; Information Ltd in 2007 the 2nd most popular topographic point for the nuptials among twosomes and remarrying twosomes was ‘hotels ( ibid ) .

From the determination of MA Dissertation, conducted by Ha, Che-hun ( 2003 ) ‘ Positioning of Hotel Ceremony in the field of Food and Beverage’ shows 30 % out of the entire Food & A ; Beverage net incomes, including conventions and other maps of 3 or 4 star hotels were generated from Marrying events in 2003.

However, many Korean hotels and marrying halls still offer a large-scale nuptials feasting merchandise merely ( ( Ha, Che-hun. , 2003 ; Shin, Do-gil. and Nam, Joong-hyun. , 2001 ) . Since the biggest net incomes generated from nuptialss at hotel is from nutrient and drinks the most of 3, 4 and 5 star hotels in Korea do non bear down marrying twosomes the cost for utilizing marrying installations on the nuptials twenty-four hours. therefore the bulk of marrying bundle merchandises usually requires or desire a “guarantee contract’ that a minimal figure of marrying invitees ; if the figure of invitees stated ab initio on the signed contract to a hotel did non go to the nuptials, the twosome must pay the certain sum of money covers the guaranteed Numberss of marrying invitee.

Normally the minimal figure of invitees starts from 300 people ( ( Ha, Che-hun. , 2003 ; Shin, Do-gil. and Nam, Joong-hyun. , 2001 ; I-wedding Ltd, 2008 ) . In contrast, late, it has been reported that ‘destination wedding’ is going popular among some immature and affluent twosomes and they want to hold a small-wedding with their close household and friends merely in a Pacific island such as Guam or Saipan.

They seldom purchase the conventional nuptials bundle merchandise because of a limited pick, limitation and hapless quality in footings of clip and nutrient. However, luxury hotels in those islands ( e.g. Hilton Guam ) provide a customised nuptials merchandise for Koreans and some five star hotels and top category eating houses in Korea have freshly launched a little but excessive ‘house/restaurant wedding’ merchandise ( Coyne, S. McM, 2005 ) .

Therefore, this research will concentrate on why and how the Korean hotel marrying market demands to understand how societal and cultural alterations affect a chosen consumer group, who are most likely to afford to utilize hotel installations including hotel nuptials service.


Research methodological analysis needs to explicate what and why research workers choose and use specific method techniques, methodological analysiss and epistemologies in order to maximize research cogency and dependability, which are first elements in societal scientific discipline surveies ( Jankowicz, 1995 ) .

In this research, English-written secondary informations aggregation will be carried out at the Learning Resource Centre of Thames Valley University’s Ealing campus, researching relevant diaries, books, studies and newspapers. To roll up the quality and assortment of informations electronic academic diaries and relevant web sites such as Emerald and TVU E-resource database will be taken into history.

The chief hunt engine to happen about the Korean marrying market such as Google, Yahoo, Naver ( Korean domestic hunt engine will be used. To happen relevant Korean secondary informations aggregation will be carried out at Korean Assembly Library ( in Yeo-oui-do, Seoul ) where keeps the huge measure of both published and unpublished publications and stuffs.

Other relevant resources will be gathered from electronic database such as Korean National Statistic Office and the Journal of Korean Hotel and Restaurant web site, supplying many articles and diaries published by Korean professors and research workers on regular base.

Methodology frequently refers to more than a simple set of methods ; instead it refers to the principle and the philosophical premises that underlie a peculiar survey ( Clark, M. , Riley, M. , Wilkie, E and Wood, R. C, 1998 ) . Methodology does non mention to research or to the specific analysis techniques. In the past, research methodological analysis arguments in societal scientific discipline surveies mostly focused on strengths and failings of between quantitative and qualitative research attacks. Quantitative attack frequently regarded as aim and scientific, whereas qualitative attack was seen as subjective and ‘emotional’ .

However, in recent developments the bulk of research workers see differentiations and differences among the footings of techniques/methods and methodology/epistemology ( Jankowicz. 1995 ) . It is of import to hold on some of the different philosophical significances related to carry oning a research before set abouting any research, such as ontology and epistemology. Knowing such philosophical premises would assist to specify the field of research and polish the research inquiries.

It would be easier for the research workers to extinguish or make up one’s mind on which 1s will be best utilized in the hereafter research by measuring the features of these footings. While ontology represents different propositions about “what world is” , epistemology establishes different ways of “what can be accepted as real” ( Hart, 2000 ) . These dimensions for nearing the aim of the research are present in all signifiers of cognition whether that cognition is scientific or common sense.

Every disciplinary doctrine contains both epistemic and ontological parts – a model which defines what we will understand. Collis and Hussey ( 2003 ) depict the relationship between ontology, epistemology and methodological analysis as “the usage of methodological analysis allows the accretion of a disciplinary shop cognition, the consequences of the work aims at groking a peculiar subject and which are accepted as valid because they were collected within the standards of ontology and epistemology that are portion of the relevant philosophy.”

Therefore, after cognizing world, and set uping some processs to derive cognition as real property, the research workers may so utilize methodological analysiss to do certain that their cognition or perceptual experience towards world is valid ( Hart, 2000 ) .

In this survey, one peculiar chief research doctrine, “positivism” will hold a direct impact on the research attack therefore they will now be examined in the following subdivision. However, although it will concentrate on the chief research doctrine ( positivism ) for this survey in the undermentioned subdivision, to understanding what is positivism and its characteristics, it is necessary to demo the account of two major research doctrines, “Positivism and phenomenology in comparing.

The two Paradigms-Positivism and Phenomenology

Positivism and phenomenology are the two major doctrines that the research worker usually adopts. These two different attacks to research or research traditions have their ain set of regulations and criterions to guarantee that valid and dependable cognition is produced. Collis and Hussey ( 2003 ) suggested that the two paradigms are like two terminals of a continuum, with one terminal being nonsubjective and scientific and the other subjective and humanistic.

Research that seeks to explicate human behaviour through cause and consequence is called positivism differs from research that aims to understand and construe human actions through the individual’s ain position which is called phenomenology. These two research doctrines should be viewed as two different paradigms as each makes different premises about the existent universe ( Finn, 2000 ) .

Positivism is a research doctrine that is founded on the belief that probes of the societal universe should be conducted in the same manner as those probes that are conducted in the natural scientific disciplines ( Remenyiet Al. , 2003 ) . It embraces a position of the universe as being guided by scientific regulations that explain the behavior of phenomena through insouciant relationships. Therefore positivism can be future elaborated by analyzing positivism’s ontological, epistemic and methodological bases ( Jennings, 2001 ) .

First, in ontological footing, positivism is founded in the physical scientific disciplines where the natural universe is perceived as being organised by cosmopolitan Torahs and truths. A positive attack to societal enquiry is sometimes described as a behaviorist attack because it sets out to explicate behaviour utilizing insouciant relationships. Second, in epistemic footing, the relationship between the research worker and the topics or objects is one that is nonsubjective and value free. The research worker is assumed non to impact on or act upon the consequences or findings in a research undertaking.

Third, in methodological footing, a rationalist research worker will utilize the methodological analysis of the physical scientific disciplines, such as “controlled experiments” and quotable processs that will accomplish the same consequences each clip the ‘experiment’ is conducted. Positivist attack prefers “working with an discernible societal world and that the terminal merchandise of such research can be law-like generalisations similar to those produced by the physical and natural scientists” ( Remenyi et al. , 2003 ) .

There is an accent on a extremely structured methodological analysis to ease reproduction and on quantifiable observations that lend themselves to statistical analysis ( Gill and Johnson, 1997 cited in Saunderset Al. , 2003 ) .

Harmonizing to Collis and Hussy ( 2003 ) , positive attack seeks the facts or causes of societal phenomena, with small respect to the subjective province of the person. On the other manus, phenomenology research holds more diverse perceptual experiences.

Phenomenology is defined as a research doctrine that focuses on significances and intuition of societal phenomena ( Lewiset Al., 2003 ) . A more literally definition by Cohen and Manion ( 1987 ) cited in Remenyi et Al. ( 2003 ) is that “phenomenology as a theoretical point of position that advocates the survey of direct experience taken at face value ; and one which sees behavior as determined by the phenomena of experience instead than by external, nonsubjective and physically described reality.” It emphasizes on the interactions as the beginning from which to derive information about the formation of societal life ( Finn, 2000 ) .

As a paradigm, phenomenology considers the universe is constituted of multiple worlds ( Jennings, 2001 ) . First, in ontological footing, phenomenology research worker assumes an inductive attack to research, and commences their survey in the empirical universe in order to develop accounts of phenomena.

These generalisations are used as the footing for theory edifice and coevals. This contrasts with the rationalist paradigm, which utilizes a deductive attack, get downing with theory and so proving the theory in the empirical universe. Second, in epistemic footing, phenomenology the relationship between the research worker and capable is subjective instead than nonsubjective, as is the instance in the rationalist paradigm.

Deductive attack

The deductive attack, which links to the philosophical positivism, involves the development of a theory that is subjected to a strict trial. It is the dominant research attack in the natural scientific disciplines, where “laws supply the footing of account, permit the expectancy of phenomena, predict their happening and hence let them to be controlled” ( Hussey and Hussey, 1997:52 cited in Saunderset Al. , 2003 ) .

Deductive attack begins with the theory and collects empirical grounds to analyse with a position to either accepting or rebuting the theory. Speculating comes before the research question. Theorizing and the designation of cardinal constructs derived from the theory have to be defined more specifically before hypotheses can be set up to prove ( Finnet Al, 2000 ) .

As obtained in the literature reappraisal of the research proposal that societal and cultural factors were the most of import determiners of the outgrowth of altering consumer demands, therefore, socio-cultural alterations with the merchandise or events ( marrying ) and are considered to be the most of import factors that influences consumer’s head in respect to take a merchandise and service. Therefore three hypotheses base on this statement can be proposed:

H1: societal and cultural alterations impacts on consumer demands toward marrying merchandises and service.

H2: by the alterations, the current and future Korean society has high possibilities to exchange its conventional wedding civilization to a little graduated table of customized wedding civilization therefore would bring forth the penchant of a peculiar nuptials ceremonial form which is a little graduated table of customized nuptials.

H3: Because merely ‘not everyone to be able to utilize luxury hotel installations and service this new nuptials service attracts a peculiar group of people low-cost and being cognizant of differences between 4~5 star hotel installations and others.

An extra of import feature of tax write-off is that constructs need to be operationalized in a manner that enables facts to be measured quantitatively ( Saunderset Al, 2003 ) . Here the hypothesis is associating three constructs: societal and cultural alterations, a freshly emerged consumer demands for nuptials, and possibilities of emerging the penchant of a little graduated table of customized nuptials manner more instead than conventional nuptialss ; these three constructs are so operationalized and defined into variables, so that they can be analyzed. Subsequently the quantitative informations would so be analyzed and the hypothesis either accepted or rejected.

Quantitative informations aggregation

Harmonizing to Clark ( 2003 ) , quantitative research is to be more orientated world based on Numberss and statistics ; and it includes hypothesis testing, statistical description and the specification of relationships between variables. It tends to stress comparatively big graduated table and representative sets of informations and presented or perceived as being about the assemblage of facts ( Blaxteet Al, 2002 ) . Finn et Al, ( 2000 ) besides address that quantitative research is pre-ordinate design and its informations should be mensurable with utilizing Numberss. Beside, its scene is impersonal, controlled, deductive and manipulative.

Quantitative research helps to corroborate the theory and its procedure is rational. Surveies and questionnaires are normally associated with the deductive attack because under a rationalist attack, the informations used has to be basically specific and precise. To accomplish the aim of the positive relationship between the impact of socio-cultural alterations on consumer behavior in nuptials and a new fast turning emerged market ( a little graduated table of customized nuptials service ) a structured questionnaire study will be conducted.

Self-administrated questionnaires, frequently called structured questionnaires, are the study methods used to roll up information from people who complete the inquiries themselves. By taking questionnaire as the chief primary research method would assist to cut down prejudice. There is unvarying inquiry presentation and no middle-man prejudice, which frequently found in interview-based studies. The research worker ‘s ain sentiments will non act upon the respondent to reply inquiries in a certain mode because there are no verbal or ocular hints to act upon the respondent.

Furthermore, utilizing questionnaire can turn to a larger figure of inquiries of concern from a big group of people in a comparatively efficient manner, which is more clip devouring for the research worker to roll up information.

The questionnaire will use five points, Likert type graduated table, from ( 1 ) strongly disagrees to ( 5 ) strongly agree ; and the demographic inquiries based on multiple picks are giving the respondents to a assortment of picks they may desire to show on the study. The research worker can modify the graduated table by altering the degree of understanding to degree of satisfaction, with a graduated table ranking as really satisfied, satisfied, no feeling, disgruntled, really disgruntled.

Population: For this survey physicians, druggists, university ( full-time ) lectors and bankers/fund directors who are individual, age between the early 30s and early 40s and either life or working in urban metropoliss in South Korea. The age selected here seems to be bit full-blown but harmonizing to KNSO ( 2007 ) the mean matrimony age has been increased. The selected consumer groups are professionals who are more likely to hold a higher income and better position due to the business achieved by a high instruction and they are supposed to utilize hotels or see hotel nuptialss ( Cho, Yun Hee, 2006 ) .

Those consumers of four groups by businesss are frequently known as societal elites who tend to take a new cultural tendency and demand sole and customised service ( Planets Culture Ltd. , 2007 ) . Personal societal web will be used and presently receive positive replies from a few voluntary research participants whom the research worker has personally known.

The voluntary research participants have agreed that they would administer and roll up questionnaires for this research. The questionnaires will be straight distributed to a group of people ( respondents ) in work ( infirmaries, pharmaceutics houses, Bankss and universities ) by four voluntary participants and research assistants. In add-on, questionnaires will be translated into Korean.

Sampling techniques and sample size: the study will utilize graded sampling as it has a figure of characteristic to run into the intent of this research. Unlike other trying techniques, Simple Random Sampling, Cluster Sampling, Systematic Sampling, stratified trying reflect the proportion of the desired feature in the population. In other words, unlike simple random sampling, a research already knows the needed feature of every member of the population.

For case, when a research worker intends to choose a peculiar type of occupation, age, gender and position to pick the peculiar informations or result in his/her research method. The entire sample size of 80 respondents, as take parting to the study is pre-arranged in a formal promise therefore the response rate is expected more than 90 % , will be set and it will procure an acceptable size of sample from which to pull decisions in an acceptable clip frame and budget. Less would non be accurate adequate and more it will be clip devouring and dearly-won.

Positivism evaluation- Advantage, disadvantage, and restriction

In order to look into the relationship among socio-cultural alterations and consumer demands, the research may follow positive doctrine through roll uping quantitative informations. High dependability is one of the advantages by following the positive doctrine research which is about consistence of the consequences obtained from a mensurating instrument in a piece of research ( Finn, 2000 ) . For the research inquiries proposed, the consequences tend to be high in dependability because the informations collected is quantifiable and mensurable.

Since positive survey involves big figure of samples, the informations collected can be analyzed as Numberss ; hence, this quantifiable informations are more precise and tend non to change significantly ( Creswell, 2003 ) . In add-on, through the operational procedure, the information collected will be based merely on what can really be observed, that is, the quantitative informations collected from closed inquiries. Hence subjective and intangible informations would be ruled out ( Creswell, 2003 ) .

General dependability is besides normally higher in positive research, particularly when comparison to phenomenology research. It is associated with whether the findings are likely to hold broader pertinence beyond the focal point of the research survey ( Blaxteret Al. , 2002 ) . However, depends on the figure of respondents, the informations collected from the respondents with preset replies may or may non be generalized to the populace ; if the figure of respondents are excessively little, the findings would non be able to stand for the general populace.

Within the societal scientific disciplines, some have challenged this positive attack as being inappropriate for the probe of psychological and societal phenomena ( Rememyiet Al. , 2003 ; Brewerton and Millward, 2004 ) . The ground for this is that some of the complicated factors and possibly the most interesting factors will hold been stripped out. Other disadvantages of utilizing quantitative method to happen out the inquiries proposed in this research are the possible prejudice in the reply classs, the trouble of inquiring other sorts of inquiries, the loss of self-generated responses, and the greater hazard of losing informations and lower response rates.

The low response rate is an of import issue ; because the lower the response rate, the more inquiries are likely to be raised about the representativeness of the achieved sample, which is associated to the generalisability of this research ( Bryman and Bell, 2003 ) . However, Since the questionnaires will be distributed by four voluntary participants and research assistants to the research engagements in each of the 2 infirmaries, 2 big pharmaceuticss, 2 Bankss ( fund pull offing sections ) and some universities the sample ratio of this research is extremely governable.

Sing the nature of this survey quantitative-positivist attack is selected to analyze the changing in lifestyle and household civilization. Furthermore, in the Korean societal and cultural contexts quantitative attack is suited for covering with sensitive and personal inquiries such as income, household type and matrimonial position. In add-on, quantitative study method and questionnaire offer a great grade of general statistics ability and dependability which are of import quality to develop a new hotel marrying selling scheme.

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