Sociology and Critical thinking

Term Definition
What is structural functionalism? The theory that society is structured in ways that maintain social stability.
What did Durkheim believe about structural functionalism? He believed that solidarity (our dependance on one another) is what keeps society working.
What model did Durkheim believe structural functionalism could be based off of? The human body.
What did Merton believe about structural functionalism? He believed that any social structure probably has many functions, some are more obvious (manifest and latent).
What are manifest and latent functions? Recognized and intended v. unrecognized and unintended.
How does one evaluate beliefs? Authorities (family), Reference (people or sources), Factual Evidence (empirical evidence) and Personal Experiences.
What is the social conflict approach? The idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic animating force of social change and society in general.
What did Karl Marx believe about the social conflict approach? He believed in materialism and capitalism.
What is materialism? The belief that the economy is the most important aspect.
What was Marx's argument about the way that our society is structures? He argued that our society is like a house and the economy is the base.
Marx believed there were two battling classes, what were they? The Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat.
Who are the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariats? Owners of the means of production vs. the people who work (they sell their labor power)
What are some problems with capitalism? Can lead to feelings of alienation (feelings of coalition and misery)
What are the stages of capitalism? Capitalism, socialism and communism.
What is symbolic interactionism? The theory that primarily concerned with the everyday ways in which individuals shape their society and are shaped by it.
What did Weber believe about symbolic interactionism? He believe in Materialism v. Idealism
What is the argument between materialism and idealism? It argues that materialism isn't the most important, ideas are what create society (most important)
What is Calvinism? A Protestant religion that held as a key tenet the notion of predestination.
What is "world asceticism"? Work hard and obtain wealth
What is a bureaucracy? A specific kind of administrative structure that emerged in communication with the rational-legal mode of authority.
What are some of the problems with a Bureaucracy? Red tape (too many rules and regulations) and Dehumanization
What is the iron cage of bureaucracy? We become trapped and dominated by the social organization that was supposed to make our lives better.
What is Disenchantment? The realization that something that was once a good thing is now a bad thing.
What is the evolution of Bureaucracy? Ideas – Social Action – Rationalization – Bureaucracy
What did Goffman believe about Dramaturgical Analysis? The study of social interactions in terms of theatrical performance.
What is impression management? Each individuals performance as a presentation of self.
How can impression management be at the extremes? Some can be taken by in (actors, athletes) and some people can hate their performance.
What is the difference between front stage and back stage? One is the performance in public and the other is the performance in private.
What is tact? The process of trying to save face from embarrassment.

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