Soils And Site Investigation Construction Essay

Colony is caused by the weight of a new edifice construction. The weight on the land can do a small motion as the land consolidates under the new burden. This is the colony. This normally happens early in the life of the construction ; plus it seldom recurs. Thought there are exclusions for illustration in soft clay dirts.

Remission consequences from external factors which cause break, supplanting and contraction or deformation of the land under or environing the construction. Common causes for illustration could be trees or drains to call a few.

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Briefly explain the difference between cohesive and non-cohesive dirt.

Cohesive dirts such as soft and steadfast clay dirts or soft silts contain higher H2O content plus a natural inclination to ball together when compressed. When under emphasis from tonss these types of dirt settee and consolidate over old ages.

Non-cohesive dirts are coarse by nature and include compressed crushed rock, sand or stone dirts. Under a burden any colony normally occurs moderately fast.

Describe the three common basic types of foundation.

There are three basic type of foundation:

Strip Foundation- this is by far the most common signifier of foundation. Here there would be a strip of concrete underneath the burden bearing walls. The breadth and deepness of the strip would depend on the type of dirt, land conditions and edifice burden.

Pile Foundation- Here long slight concrete members would be used to reassign the tonss through weak or unstable dirt go throughing through to land with a higher burden bearing capacity.

Raft Foundation- A concrete raft which spreads tonss over the full land floor country.

What is the intent of the Building Regulations?

The Regulations are legal demands intended at accomplishing sufficient criterions of edifice work for building of commercial, domestic and industrial edifices. The intents are to guarantee the safety, wellness, public assistance and convenience of people in and around edifices. They are besides designed to foster the preservation of fuel and energy.

What factors affect the deepness of foundations?

Factors that affect the deepness of foundations include the nature of the dirt, and the edifice for illustration the weight. Furthermore any edifice ordinances that are in force and eventually the cost.


What determines the breadth of a simple strip foundation?

The breadth of a simple strip foundation would depend on three factors, the nature of the land in inquiry ; in peculiar the evidences allowable bearing force per unit area.

The breadth besides depends on the burden of the edifice. The 3rd factor is the demand for working infinite. For illustration, trench breadth may be increased to supply infinite for the bricklayers.

When would you utilize piled foundations?

Piled Foundations would be used when good bearing land can merely be found at deeper degrees or where physical restraints make different types of foundation impossible to utilize.

What are the advantages of trench fill foundations?

Trench fill foundations are faster to put up than other signifiers of foundation such as deep strip foundations. This means that there is less break once the edifice work returns and non much labour clip is necessary. Impinge fill foundations besides avoid the demand for working infinite and trench support, with nest eggs in cost of digging and dirt disposal. Remission is besides less likely to happen.

When would you urge the usage of a raft foundation?

It would be recommended to utilize raft foundations when the land is basically stable but where the conditions underneath the surface, such as excavation, may good fall back to anchor motion. Again best used on compressible land such as soft clay, alluvial sedimentations and compressible fill stuffs.

What are brick termss?

Footings are the first portion of the house which is built, they support the weight of the edifice ; furthermore they prevent the edifice switching from its intended place.


What are the chief disadvantages of “ one brick ” solid walls?

There are many serious disadvantages with one brick midst solid walls. A wall must be at least one brick midst, in order to keep sensible conditions protection. This was the standard signifier of building for most brick built edifices before the 1920 ‘s. Modern building of houses etc do non utilize one brick midst walls, because weather protection is non good plenty ; now yearss there is an accent on sustainable houses. One brick midst solid walls are non sustainable due to muffle incursion and issues of condensation. There are besides jobs of high heat loss, due to no pit insularity. The comparatively heavy nature of the brick means heat is easy transferred through the wall.

Explain the difference between Flemish and English Bond?

Flemish Bond, this form is made from jumping headings and stretchers on every class. English Bond, this form is made from jumping classs of headings among classs of stretchers. Flemish Bond is the better looking of the two types of brickwork. English Chemical bond on the other manus has greater strength value.

What kind of headers would you anticipate to happen in a typical Victorian town house?

A typical Victorian town house would normally hold headers made of a difficult wood or steel. Concrete headers did non go common practise until the 2nd half of the twentieth century.

What factors influence the strength of howitzer?

Mortar strength is decided by its mix and ratio of sand to cement. The more cement and less sand, the stronger it is. The more H2O added in comparing to cement will diminish the compressive strength of the howitzer.

What is ashlar palisading?

Ashlar is a manner non a stuff, it is stone cut with high degrees of truth and is laid on really thin howitzer articulations. Ashlar walling is one of the most expensive walling merchandises ; hence normally it is merely used as the confronting stuff. This type of palisading requires a structural backup of rubble or brickwork.

Cavity walls & A ; Window Openings in Walls:

Describe three types of modern header noticing on their several advantages and disadvantages.

Concrete Lintels- There are a batch of advantages in utilizing concrete headers, such as its high strength, lastingness and life span. Concrete is besides an first-class fire resistant. Furthermore it is ever available.

The lone existent disadvantage of utilizing a concrete header is the shear weight of the stuff ; the positives though rebelliously out weight the disadvantages.

Steel Lintels- Like the concrete steel is really strong, plus it is a batch igniter. Though there are many disadvantages, steel headers do non supply a really aesthetically fulfilling visual aspect. There is besides the issue of cost, steel is reasonably expensive ; and these types of headers are non really lasting and do non hold a really good life span.

Timber Lintels: Timber on the other manus is really delighting to the oculus, doing it more attractive to purchasers. Timber is besides a igniter weighted stuff and is more cost effectual. Disadvantages though are that it is unfastened to disintegrate, so non really lasting and has a lower life span. Furthermore it is non a strong as the other stuffs.

Why is a perpendicular DPC required when shuting the pit at the jambs of an gap?

Using a perpendicular Damp cogent evidence class when shuting the pit at the jambs of an gap is the most common manner to forestall any moistness from traversing the pit and into the brickwork. The DPC should protect the pit by about 25mm. Any H2O dripping off the side of the DPC can non make the interior foliage. If an insulated DPC is used it will besides forestall Cold Bridging.

How can cold Bridgess be prevented when pit is closed?

There are a figure of options in order to forestall cold Bridgess. First by put ining an insularity board, fixed behind the plaster. Insulating the soffit of the header, jamb and pit bellow the window board. This maintains a higher interior surface temperature.

Second, the frame is fixed deeper into the reveal and covers the cold span. This would necessitate wider Sillss or the usage of subsills, guaranting any trickle is off from the brickwork.

Why do the Building Regulations require excess wall ties around gaps in pit walls?

Wall ties are formed to forestall H2O from go throughing across them and making the interior foliage. Many ties, particularly the older ties corrode ; so new unstained bargain ties are needed. Openings in pit walls, such as doors and Windowss, are hebdomad musca volitanss. Building ordinances require extra tiles wires in order to beef up the reveals and halt the H2O.

What is the map of a pit tray and where is it necessary?

Cavity trays are inserted above doors and Windowss to debar wet that transportations across the outer tegument of brick work, back out ; this prevents moistness.

Land Floors:

What were the chief jobs of early raised lumber floors?

There were and are many jobs with early raised floors. Timber is a hygroscopic stuff, so it ‘s really vulnerable to fungal and insect onslaught if the wet content is above 20 % . The air blowholes frequently block over the old ages, the occupation of the blowhole are to let air to go through under and keep a safe wet content. Early blowholes were made of dramatis personae Fe, over clip they become particularly easy to interrupt ; little animate beings and varmints have easy entree to under floor infinite ; in bend blocking and causation harm.

When should suspended concrete floors be used at land floor degree?

Suspended concrete floors should be used in state of affairss where the hardcore is traveling to be above 500-600mm deep. They should besides be used when there are aggressive chemicals in the land, which could assail the concrete or hardcore. Or if the type of land is for illustration shrinkable clay, the nature of the undersoil could good ensue in unstable land ; so suspended concrete floors would be needed.

Another ground is if the H2O tabular array is excessively high, the moist cogent evidence membrane could non perchance protect against direct H2O force per unit area.

What are the advantages of a drifting hardboard floor?

A drifting hardboard floor can be laid onto any bing base ; it reduces the weight of the edifice construction and provides better insularity against sound.

How should hardcore be laid and what safeguards are necessary to protect a DPM below a concrete slab?

Sub-soil underneath the edifice is removed and replaced with the hardcore, cut downing the thickness of the concrete. The hardcore must be laid and compressed in really thin beds no more than 600mm. The hardcore would hold to be finished off with a blinding of sand for illustration, to a greatest thickness of 20mm. Though cautiousness should be taken to guarantee the blinding stuff is non excessively thick. Its occupation is merely to protect the polyethylene DPM from being punctured by the crisp terminals of the hardcore.

Describe the assorted ways in which a lumber land floor can be efficaciously insulated?

Timber flooring is perceived as being warm, though it permits a batch of heat loss through flow of air underneath the joists.

Upper Floors:

What factors dictate the way of floor joists and why are they usually spaced at 400 Centres?

Joists are usually spaced at 400mm Centres because joists set farther apart need deeper subdivisions since they are transporting a greater burden ; floor boards would besides be required to be deeper due to their increased span. Joists which are closer together though usage inordinate sums of lumber.

How can external walls be adequately restrained at first floor degree?

Building ordinances require that walls are restrained ; this is normally achieved by utilizing restraint hangers. The joists can supply restraint at the first floor degree, though in a batch of older edifices there is non equal restraint where the joists run parallel with the wall. Here restraint is harder to accomplish, this would necessitate the usage of galvanised or unstained steal straps. The steel strapping at 2m Centres is fixed onto the interior block foliage and base on ballss across three joists and is supported by lumber barricading between the joists.

How are joists sized?

The joists are sized depending on the expected burden which is traveling to be imposed onto the floor, the needed span between two points of support and the spacing between each of the joists. If the joists are non deep enough they could flex and if they are non broad plenty they will writhe.

Give illustrations of typical state of affairss utilizing the appropriate tabular array in the Building Regulations?


Maximal clear span in meters for joist spacing of

Size of joists mm 400mm 450mm 600mm

97 ten 50 1.98 1.87 1.54

122 ten 50 2.60 2.50 2.19

147 ten 50 3.13 3.01 2.69

170 ten 50 3.61 3.47 3.08

195 ten 50 4.13 3.97 3.50

220 ten 50 4.64 4.47 3.91

147 ten 75 3.56 3.43 3.13

170 ten 75 4.15 3.96 3.61

195 ten 75 4.68 4.52 4.13

220 ten 75 5.11 4.97 4.64

How and why is tittuping provided in a suspended lumber floor

Tittuping is provided in order to halt joists from writhing or falsifying and even damage the ceiling coatings. You would normally happen the tittuping fixed on at right angles to the joists. The strutting besides reduces bounciness in the flooring. Staggered strutting is frequently used, utilizing off cuts of joists. They are set in staggered formation so that they can be nailed.

Roof Structure:

What is the map of a wall home base and how is it held in place?

Most walls in modern times are built in pit building ; it is regular practise to bed the wall plates in howitzer onto the interior foliage. This in bend provides a steady repair for the balks, maintaining them align. Often though in modern traditional building the wall home bases would be strapped to the interior foliage with galvanised straps. The map of this is besides to halt the roof lifting in high air currents.

Why is it usual to ‘bird-mouth ‘ the balks over the wall home base?

This is a notch cut at the bottom portion of the balk which rests on the top of the wall. It is usual because without the bird oral cavity merely the tip of the bottom border of the balk touching the top of the wall. The bird oral cavity allows a broader surface to nail the balk to the top of the wall. The usage of this joint reduces the opportunities of roof spread, they besides help aline the tops of balks.

What is the map of a ridge board?

The ridge board runs along the top border of a balk of a roof and holds them in topographic point. The ridge board makes it easier to construct the roof on site. It helps to administer air current lading on the brick gable ends into the roof construction ; halting any motion of the brickwork.

How are the terminals of purlins normally supported?

The typical manner of back uping the purlins is by usage of a brace of lumber prances situated opposite each other at 90 grades to the common balks. It can besides be done by a truss balk or being built into the masonry wall or gable. Though there are issues of safety, the best system is to border the purlin against the wall alternatively of implanting it.

Some roofs contain hangers and binders. What are they for and how do they work?

The weight of the ceiling can sometimes do the ceiling joist to droop ; so the hangers and binders are usually required to give extra support to the ceiling joists. The terminal of the binder is frequently built into the gable.

Roof Structure ( tied balks ) :

Briefly describe the advantages of tied balks when compared to more traditional signifiers of roof building.

There are many advantages of utilizing tied balks when compared to traditional roofing methods. It is cheaper and is a batch faster to build, this is mostly because of the pre-fabricated constituents ; this in bend saves infinite on site since there is no demand for timber storage. Furthermore reduces site waste and loss of stuffs. Trussed balks use around 40 % less lumber than traditionally built roofs.

There are besides other advantages such as skilled labor is non needed, unlike more complicated methods. Finally tied roofs do non necessitate internal support from burden bearing dividers.

What is the intent of the brace in tied balk roofs?

Longitudinal and diagonal brace is indispensable to bring forth structural integrity between the single trusses ; strapping is necessary at the gable terminals. Wind tonss can do racking, toppling of the balks, diagonal brace is a necessity to forestall this.

Why should upper floor dividers be fixed after a roof is covered?

The roof should ever be covered before the upper floor dividers are fixed, because if they are done before the roof is complete the dividers may good clasp.

Describe three methods of supplying equal airing to the eaves of a modern roof.

For normal double-pitch roofs there should be ventilation gaps at the eaves level to bring forth transverse airing. The ordinary manner of supplying this airing is by the usage of specially manufactured soffit boards, plastic air outing strips, or by maintaining a infinite between the soffit and the wall.

Eavess to eaves airing is suggested by the edifice ordinances, but ; it is non ever that effectual compared to eaves to ridge airing. This signifier of airing ventilates the whole of the roof nothingness ; plus it functions even without air current.

Why and how should modern roofs be strapped to the gable walls?

It is a demand of the edifice ordinances that the gable walls are tied back to the roof construction at infinites of 2m upper limit. The restraining straps are installed to convey air current tonss on the walls into the roof construction ; forestalling motion of the gable.

Typically this would be achieved by utilizing 20 ten 5 mm midst galvanised steel straps fixed to at least 3 trusses with 3.35 tens 65mm long corrosion restraint nails. On steep roofs strapping could be necessary at joist degree.

Roof Coverings:

Explain the difference between individual and dual lap pitched roof coverings?

Single lap coverings are where each one of the tiles laps apart of the tile below it. Where as dual lap pitched roof coverings means that each tile laps non merely the one underneath it ; but the one underneath that every bit good.

Double lap pitched roofing is a more expensive method of covering, plus there is a demand for somewhat higher skilled labors ; adding to cost.

What is the map of underfelt and how should it be fixed?

Underfelt provides insularity and a barrier for any wet which gets under the roof covering. It should be foremost nailed to the balks and so to the wooden battings.

What is a dry brink?

The dry brink is a agency of utilizing meshing screens which fit over the border of the roof tiles and cover up all the cracked unsightly mortar. Some industries produce particular dry brink tiles which can be used on field tile roofs, this is a reasonably fast building method ; and is besides really lasting.

What is an undercloak?

An undercloak is a class of field tiles used under the first class at the eaves. Herpes zosters are a roof covering with overlapping tiles. The undercloak provides a little overhang and support for the howitzer indicating which will make full up the infinite between undercloak and the tiles.


Explain the difference between direct and indirect cold H2O supply

Direct cold H2O supply is far more often used now yearss and does non necessitate storage. Indirect H2O supply requires a H2O cistern at high degree. Diagrams below illustrate the differences-

Supply a subdivision through a cold H2O storage cistern

How should cold H2O storage cistern ‘s be supported?

By British criterion BS4213:2004 – cisterns for domestic usage, quotation marks ;

‘the base of the cistern should be to the full supported over its whole country by a lasting, stiff, level and flat platformaˆ¦’A

The base should be supported by a platform and fixed across the joists, so firmly nailed to the joists.

Explain the difference between direct and indirect hot H2O cylinders

What is a ‘Fortic ‘ hot H2O storage cylinder?

Fortic is a type of cardinal heating boiler, the domestic hot H2O and cardinal warming H2O portion the same armored combat vehicle, instead than separate 1s. Fortic cylinders have as a characteristic CRT engineering ; this saves costs of installing etc by extinguishing the demand for a pipe fitter. Which other storage systems would necessitate.

What is he difference between difficult and soft H2O?

Water hardness relates to the sum of dissolved salts. Difficult H2O is alkali, doing a high deposition of Ca carbonate in installings ; chiefly where H2O is heated. There are two types of hardness permanent and impermanent, impermanent can be removed by boiling.

Soft Waterss are acidic and hence caustic. This can do major jobs when pipes are made of lead.

What stuffs are normally used for both hot and cold H2O distribution within a house?

Most normally used stuffs in both hot and cold H2O distribution within a house are ; Cu, the best and most common used type of pipe in modern twenty-four hours. Besides Galvanised steep pipes ( used to be galvanised Fe ) . PB ( polybutylene ) and PEX ( cross linked polyrthylene ) . Besides Lead was really common traditionally, but non today due to the possible wellness hazards.

Explain the difference between a traditional vented gas fired cardinal warming and hot H2O boiler and a non-vented combination boiler?

Combination boiler works likewise to system boilers though enlargement vass and safety features are inside the boiler. This system heats the H2O for rinsing immediately. It provides a lasting flow of hot H2O, though lower rate than most other hot H2O systems.

In vented systems they are unfastened vented, these requires a provender and enlargement cistern.

Explain the cardinal controls required for a modern gas fired cardinal warming system

There are many cardinal controls required for modern gas fired heating systems, such as the demand for programmable room thermoregulator with hot H2O timing, so if the temperature rises over a preferable temperature it will turn off. There is besides TRV ‘s on all the radiators except those suites with a thermoregulator. Other demands include cylinder thermoregulator, boiler interlock and the automatic beltway valve.

Explain the difference between a ‘two pipe ‘ and ‘single stack ‘ above land drainage

In 1900 two pipe above land drainage was the standard signifier of drainage. The Soli and blowhole pipe ( SVP ) is non trapped, but the waste stack is trapped. The traps besides fitted to single contraptions.

In Single stack, all healthful contraptions were discharged into the SVP. The SVP is non trapped ; it relies on the dependability of single traps.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a separate resistance drainage system?

In this system the disgusting H2O and rainwater flow in separate waste pipes, which in bend are connected to separate sewerage systems. There are many advantages and disadvantages of separate belowground drainage systems. An advantage is that there is less work load needed from the sewerage intervention works.

Disadvantages are that there is a batch more pipe work involved compared to combined systems. Separate systems are besides more expensive.

What is a Back Inlet Gully?

Back recess gullies are found on edifices with internal downspouts. The downspout is on the interior of the external wall and the gully on the exterior.

Why is entree to belowground drainage so of import and when might this be required?

Building ordinances require frequent entree adjustments ; via adult male holes, review Chamberss and rodding eyes. Access to underground drainage is really of import as if there is non sufficient drainage, there can be serious deluging when there is a heavy cloudburst.

What is the difference between a radial circuit and a ring chief?

First the CPC and impersonal travel back to the consumer board with the ring chief, this is non true with the radial.

Besides the ring chief uses a peculiar sized overseas telegram in order to transport more current than the radial circuit. This is done because of the nest eggs in Cu and cost. Finally the ring chief has near to no electromotive force bead ; it is used normally in edifices bigger than 100 meters squared.

What does the consumer unit make?

The consumer unit, or fuse box ; contains the brinies exchange which if switched can insulate all of the circuits in the house. It besides contains the fuses and sometimes circuit surfs. Within the consumer unit single circuits supplying the visible radiations and power are provided. Often fuses trip within families, repairing it would merely take a flick of the switch to return the power.

Explain the difference between an MCB and an RCD

Miniature circuit ledgeman ( MCB ) and residuary current devises ( RCD ) are similar in there responses. The MCB ‘s switch turns off when a mistake occurs, insulating the circuit. An illustration is if inside a house clasp there are to many contraptions on at one clip. When the mistake is recognised the switch is turned back on.

The RCD ‘s occupation is to forestall dangers such as electric dazes, by exchanging off the flow of electricity when an instability is detected between unrecorded music directors. RCD ‘s are usage on circuits which have socket mercantile establishments such as a hover or powered garden tools.

A large difference between the two is that, if the full system was protected by an RCD so all the power will exchange off ; including the lighting. This could non be done as no illuming would non be atom and unsafe itself. MCB ‘s on the other manus does non exchange the light off.

What is adhering and why is it so of import?

If any electrical escapes occur in the bathroom the leaking current will seek and happen a transition to Earth. This current will go down anything moist, metal or any other music directors ; a moist homo for illustration. It is hence highly of import that safety steps are taken ; otherwise it can be fatal. This is the bonding.

All metal objects such as Cu pipe work may come into contact with an electrical current, so adhering utilizing earth clinchs should see the Cu is connected steadfastly to the chief earth terminus.


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