SOLAR POWER MODELING

QUANTITATIVE MODEL

RESIDENCE IN BUFFALO,NY AND PHOENIX,AZ

1) QUANTITATIVE FORMULA:

Number of Solar Panels =

Electricity Demand of Site kwh/day

DE rate Factor * Power Produced by One Panel kW * Solar Insolation h/day

Area Required= Number of Panels *Area of Panel

2) ASSUMPTIONS:

Assume that all solar panels are oriented the same way

Assume intermittency is in terms of solar insolation

Assume that each residence in a city demands that same amount of electricity

Assume that only the Sharp ND-216UC1 solar panel is used

Assume the decimal in Computational Results for the number of solar panels are rounded up to the nearest whole number to account for a whole solar panel so sufficient electricity demand is met

3) VARIABLES USED:

Electricity Demand of Site (kwh/day)- the electricity consumed for the residence in one day

DE rate Factor- the conversion factor to convert DC electricity to more commonly used AC form

Power Produced by One Panel (kw)- the kilowatts of electricity produced by the specific panel being used, in this case Sharp ND-216UC1

Solar Insolation (h/day)- the average hours of sun radiation in the given area

Number of Solar panels- the number of solar panels it will take to provide sufficient electricity to the residence

Area of panel- The surface area of the panel in terms of how much space the solar panel will take up

Area required- the total space needed for the number of solar panels to produce a sufficient amount of electricity

4) VARIABLE VALUES:

BUFFALO RESIDENCE

VariableValue 1HyperlinkValue 2HyperlinkValue Used

Electricity Demand of Site kwh/day7.19Link 1

16.4Link 2

11.795

Derate Factor0.77Link 3

0.77Link 3

0.77

Power Produced by one Panel (kw)0.216Link 4

0.216Link 4

0.216

Solar Insolation h/day3Link 5

4Link 6

3.5

Area of Solar Panel (mm^2)1630160Link 7

1630160Link 7

1.63016

PHOENIX RESIDENCE

VariableValue 1HyperlinkValue 2HyperlinkValue Used

Electricity Demand of Site kwh/day35.67Link 8

14Link 9

24.835

Derate Factor0.77Link 3

0.77Link 3

0.77

Power Produced by one Panel (kw)0.216Link 4

0.216Link 4

0.216

Solar Insolation h/day8Link 10

7Link 11

7.5

Area of Solar Panel (mm^2)1630160Link 7

1630160Link 7

1.63016

HYPERLINKS:

LINK 1: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/states/residential.cfm/state=NY#elec

LINK 2: http://www.eia.gov/consumption/residential/reports/2009/state_briefs/pdf/ny.pdf

LINK 3: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/pvwatts/system.html

LINK 4: http://files.sharpusa.com/Downloads/Solar/Products/sol_dow_ND216UC1.pdf

LINK 5: http://www.nrel.gov/gis/images/map_csp_us_10km_annual_feb2009.jpg

LINK 6: http://www.solarpanelsplus.com/industry-professionals/insolation-charts/

LINK 7: http://files.sharpusa.com/Downloads/Solar/Products/sol_dow_ND216UC1.pdf

LINK 8:http://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=97&t=3

LINK 9: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/states/residential.cfm/state=AZ?print

LINK 10: http://www.solarpanelsplus.com/industry-professionals/insolation-charts/

LINK 11: http://www.nrel.gov/gis/images/map_csp_us_10km_annual_feb2009.jpg

MODEL RESULTS

1. Number of Solar Panels

Electricity Demand of Site kwh/dayDE rate FactorPower Produced by one Panel (kw)Solar Insolation h/dayComputational Results

Buffalo11.7950.770.2163.521

Phoenix24.8350.770.2167.520

2. Area Required

Number of PanelsArea of Solar Panel (in^2)Computational Results (m^2)

Buffalo211.6301634.23336

Phoenix201.6301632.6032

Number of PanelsArea of Solar Panel (in^2)Computational Results (m^2)

Buffalo211.6301634.23336

Phoenix201.6301632.6032

QUANTITATIVE MODEL

CENTER FOR FINE ARTS,UB NORTH CAMPUS

1) QUANTITATIVE FORMULATION: Model that calculated the number of SharpND-216UC1 solar panels needed to meet 100% of electricity demands at the Center for Fine Arts and the associated area required.

Number of solar panels=Electricity demand of site(kwh/day)

(Derate factor)*Power produced by one panel(kw)*Solar insulation(h/day)

Associated area = Number of panels*Area of each panel(m^2)

2) ASSUMPTIONS:

All solar panels are laid flat on the surface

Assume that the entire area for the Center for the arts is utilized for solar panels

Each panel should take up the same area

3) VARIABLES USED:

Electricity demand of site (VAR 1): How much KWH the Center for the Arts uses daily

Derate factor (VAR 2): factor that causes devices to run at less than its maximum power

Power produced by one panel (VAR 3): How many KW one solar panel is able to produce

Solar insulation (VAR 4): Measure of solar radiation energy on a given area over a period of time

Area of each solar panel (VAR 5): It is the area of each solar panel.

Number of solar panels (VAR 6): This value is calculated from the first equation and utilized in the second equation.

4) VARIABLE VALUES:

VARVALUE 1HYPERLINKVALUE 2HYPERLINKVALUE USED

VAR 17736.7LINK 17736.7LINK 17736.7

VAR 20.77LINK 20.77LINK 20.77

VAR 30.216LINK 30.216LINK 30.216

VAR 43.82LINK 44.35LINK 54.35

VAR 51.63LINK 61.63LINK 61.63

VAR 610694LINK 710694LINK 710694

HYPERLINKS:

LINK 1: This value has been provided by student leader Bob DeBortoli.

LINK 2: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/pvwatts/system.html

Link 3: http://files.sharpusa.com/Downloads/Solar/Products/sol_dow_ND216U2.pdf

LINK 4: http://www.porta-energy.com/Insolation_USA.htm

LINK 5: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/1961-1990/redbook/sum2/14733.txt

LINK 6: http://files.sharpusa.com/Downloads/Solar/Products/sol_dow_ND216UC1.pdf

LINK 7: It has been calculated using the best values of the variables.

MODEL RESULTS

VAR 5VAR 6RESULT

ASSOCIATED AREA1.631069417431.22

VAR 1VAR 2VAR 3VAR 4RESULT

NUMBER OF SOLAR PANELS7736.70.770.2164.3510694

QUANTITATIVE SOLAR MODEL

UB NORTH CAMPUS

1) QUANTITATIVE FORMULATION: Model that calculates the following:

a) The number of Sharp ND-216UC1 solar panels needed to meet 100% electricity demand of entire UB North Campus.

b) The associated area (m^2) required.

EQUATIONS:

Number of solar panels=Electricity demand of UB North Campus (kWh/day)

Derate Factor*Power produced by one panel (kW)*Solar Insolation (h/day)

Associated area=Number of solar panels*Area of each solar panel (m^2)

2) MODEL ASSUMPTIONS:

The whole area of North Campus is used up by the solar panels.

Each solar panel lies flat on its surface.

The area of each panel is the same.

The electricity consumption is the same on each day of the week.

The term h/day is obtained by multiplyingkWh/m^2/day by m^2/kW.

3) VARIABLES USED:

Electricity demand of UB North Campus (kWh/day) (VAR 1): The electricity demand of the whole of UB North Campus per day.

Derate Factor (VAR 2): The value that represents the losses from the DC nameplate power rating to determine the AC power rating; the system derate factor is the mathematical product of derate factors of individual components in a PV system.

Power produced by one panel (kW) (VAR 3): It is the power produced by one solar panel.

Solar Insolation (h/day) (VAR 4): Insolation (Incident solar radiation) is a measure of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area in a given time. (http://insolation.askdefine.com/)

Area of each solar panel (m^2) (VAR 5): It is the area of each solar panel.

Number of solar panels (VAR 6): This value is calculated from the first equation and utilized in the second equation.

VARVALUE 1HYPERLINKVALUE 2HYPERLINKVALUE USED

VAR 1430301.858LINK 1430301.858LINK 1430301.858

VAR 20.77LINK 2

0.845LINK 3

0.77

VAR 30.216LINK 4

0.216LINK 4

0.216

VAR 43.82LINK 5

4.35LINK 6

4.35

VAR 51.63LINK 7

1.63LINK 7

1.63

VAR 6594757LINK 8594757LINK 8594757

4) VARIABLE VALUES:

HYPERLINKS:

LINK 1: This value has been provided by student leader Bob DeBortoli.

LINK 2: http://www.nrel.gov/rredc/pvwatts/changing_parameters.html

LINK 3: http://la.solarworld.com/products/~/media/Global/PDFs/technical-bulletins/pv-watts-estimated-performance-data.pdf

LINK 4: http://files.sharpusa.com/Downloads/Solar/Products/sol_dow_ND216UC1.pdf

LINK 5: http://www.porta-energy.com/Insolation_USA.htm

LINK 6: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/1961-1990/redbook/sum2/14733.txt

LINK 7: http://files.sharpusa.com/Downloads/Solar/Products/sol_dow_ND216UC1.pdf

LINK 8: It has been calculated using the best values of the variables.

MODEL RESULTS

VAR 1VAR 2VAR 3VAR 4RESULT

NUMBER OF SOLAR PANELS430301.8580.770.2164.35594757

VAR 5VAR 6RESULT

ASSOCIATED AREA1.63594757969453.91

UB SOUTH CAMPUS

QUANTITATIVE MODEL

1)QUANTITATIVE FORMULAS:

Number of the Solar panels required =electricity demand of UB south campus (kWh/day).

De-Rate factor* Power output of one panel (kW)*Solar Insolation

Area required=electricity demand of UB south campus (kWh/day)* Area of a solar panel

De-Rate factor* Power produced by one panel (kW)*Solar Insolation

2)ASSUMPTIONS:

Assume that all panels are flatly-oriented

Assume that that the solar insolation is 1 kW/m2

Assume that all the area of UB south campus is used to build solar panels

Assume that we are only using the Sharp ND- 216UC1 solar panel.

3)VARIABLES USED:

Power output of a solar panel: It is the maximum power that a solar panel can produce measured in kW.

Solar insolation: is a measure of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area and recorded during a given time.

Electricity demand per day: It is the quantity of electric energy delivered to consumers per day.

DeRate Factor: It is the electricity losses throughout the system; through inverters and cables

Area of a Solar panel: it is the Area of panel varies according to its dimensions

Area of UB south campus

4)VARIABLE VALUES:

MODEL RESULTS

HYPERLINKS:

LINK 1: files.sharpusa.com/Downloads/Solar/Products/sol_dow_ND216UC1.pdf?

LINK 2: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/1961-1990/redbook/sum2/14733.txt

LINK 3: http://www.porta-energy.com/Insolation_USA.htm

LINK 4: Provided by student leader Bob Debortoli

LINK 5: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/pvwatts/system.html

LINK 6: http://www.buffalo.edu/about_ub/ub_at_a_glance.html

LINK 7: files.sharpusa.com/Downloads/Solar/Products/sol_dow_ND216UC1.pdf