Term Definition
meteor a streak of light in the sky produced by the burning of a meteoroid in Earth's atmosphere.
any of thousands of dense rocky objects in orbit around the sun between Mars and Jupiter.
comet A ball of ice, dust, and frozen gases that orbits the sun.
revolution the movement of an object around another object.
rotation the spinning motion of a planet on its axis.
outer planets gas giant planets found outside of the asteroid belt.
inner planets terrestrial (earth-like) planets that are dense solids located between the sun and the asteroid belt.
gravity the attractive force between two objects.

(The more massive an object, the greater its gravitational force. Example: Earth’s gravity is greater than the gravity of the moon.)

axial tilt the invisible axis that are tilted allowing for seasons to occur.
probe a robotic spacecraft that leaves Earth’s orbit and explores space.
satellite any object that revolves around another object in space. Can be artificial or natural like the moon
Nicolaus Copernicus’ idea that the Earth, planets, and stars all revolved around the Sun.
Geocentric Theory Aristotle & Ptolemy believed that the Earth was the center of the Universe and all objects revolved around it.
tides the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of gravitational forces exerted by the Moon.
greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without an atmosphere.
illuminated to light up

The moon is illuminated by the sun.

celestial objects Known collectively by astronomers as celestial bodies, astronomical objects, and astronomical bodies, they are the stuff that fills the empty space of the universe.
lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth is between the sun and moon. Sunlight is blocked by the Earth.
solar eclipse occurs during the NEW MOON PHASE when the moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and the moon fully or partially blocks the Sun.
autumn the season between summer and winter known as fall in North America.

Autumnal Equinox = first day of autumn; occurs around the 22nd of September

Vernal Equinox = first day of spring; occurs around the 20th of March

the time and date when the sun passes directly over the equator; the length of day and night are equal (12 hours each)

the time and date when the sun is at its greatest distance from the equator; length of day and night show greatest difference

orbit revolve around

circle around

go around

travel around

diameter The equator is the diameter of the Earth
survivable temperatures the highest and lowest temperatures that humans can stand without dying
astronomer the study of celestial objects (stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae)
and all phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth

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