CHAPTERISATION PART-I CHAPTER-01 1. PROJECT DESCRIPTION 2. INTRODUCTION 3. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT CHAPTER-02 2. 1FINDING AND LEASING A LOCATION 2. 1. 1 BUY/LEASE 2. 1. 2 LEASING 2. 1. 3 LEASING PROCESS 2. 1. 4 BUYING 2. 1. 5 KEY FINANCIAL FACTOR 2. 2 INSURANCE CHAPTER-03 3. 1 CONSTRUCTION 3. 2 EQUIPMENT 3. 2. 1 FOOD EQUIPMENT 3. 2. 2 BAR EQUIPMENT 3. 2. 3 OTHER EQUIPMENT 3. 3 STORE DESIGN AND DECOR 3. 3. 1 CUSTOMER AREA 3. 3. 2 KITCHEN AREA 3. 3. 3 BACKROOM AREA CHAPTER-04 4. 1 PREPARING TO OPEN 4. 1. 1 STEPS LEADING FROM 8 WEEKS TO OPENING DAY 4. 2 FOOD PREPARATION . 3 EQUIPMENT HANDLING CHAPTER-05 5. 1 CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE 5. 1. 1 CLEANING PROCESS 5. 1. 2 EQUIPMENT CLEANING 5. 1. 3 KITCHEN CLEANING 5. 1. 4 SANITIZING 5. 1. 5 TACTICS TO PREVENT FOODBORNE ILLNESS 5. 2 QUALITY CONTROL CHAPTER-06 6. 1 HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING 6. 2 MENU PRICING STRATEGY 6. 3 OPTIONAL PROGRAMS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The project i am dealing as a part of my MBA program is to prepare a procedure for for-profit foodservice operations whose primary business involves the sale of food/beverage products to individuals and small groups of guests.
Starting and operating a restaurant is a great deal more than a process. It’s a mixture of fear and hope, speculation and certainty, doubt and confidence, all blended together with a fair amount of money. It’s the beginning of a dream. Not every start-up restaurant is going to survive. The location isn’t right, the menu doesn’t work, costs are out of control, volume just never developed, or some combination thereof. The problems spiral beyond the owners’ control. A well prepared and planned restaurant can be very profitable.
I have plans to start a medium sized food and beverage outlet of my own. As a master graduate from tourism and hospitality industry I want to prepare a standard procedure for operating medium sized food and beverage outlet right from construction stage to practical implementation of marketing strategies in to the market. As more people eat out more often, the demand for restaurants continue to grow. But it takes a lot of research, creativity, and planning and substantial capital. Despite the enormous consumer dinner for restaurants, success in the business does not come easily.
Competition is fierce as more restaurants vie from the attention of the increasingly savvy consumer Based on researches on successful food and beverage outlet Xtreme sports bar, this project is to work on standard operating procedure to run the restaurant successfully. I did research on Xtreme sports bar using the database and preparing a procedure to operate food and beverage outlet successfully. The research i did to prepare a procedure is executed in Maybull info tech Pvt ltd which is a parent company of reputed food and beverage outlet ‘Xtreme sports bar’ which existed in 12 places national wide.
The research methodology i adopted here is to collect the appropriate data from the Xtreme sports bar and few of the other outlets in the Hyderabad and close talk with heads in finance, operation, marketing and segments that are necessary to run my business successfully. CHAPTER-01 1. 1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION: Standard Operating Procedure is used to maintain good ambience and high quality services consistently to customers from the time the customer enters the outlet to the time he or she leaves the outlet. Our waiter or manager in-charge should provide the best service they could give.
A good service means the customer will be likely coming back to our business and we could easily generate more sales and profit at the end. Customer wants to visit outlet in which he or she expects to receive excellent services and food from our establishment. This project is to prepare SOP like instructions. If deviations from this instruction are allowed, the conditions for these should be documented what exactly the complete procedure will be. The original should rest at a secure place while working copies should be authenticated with stamps and/or signatures of authorized persons.
All the instructions followed in this SOP project are under the guidelines of ‘Dheeraj Keswani’, Managing Director of the Maybull InfoTech Pvt Ltd which is parent company of Xtreme Sports Bar. 2. INTRODUCTION When we speak of hospitality it is important for us to get a clear understanding of the component parts of our industry. We can use the model to help us to do this and it also allows us to see the importance of each worker in the industry. As we can see the hospitality industry consists of two important parts: 1. The customer or Guest 2. The Service Provider (Hotel, Restaurant, etc. )
On the customer’s side we know that each customer has needs or expectations. A typical example of these needs exceptions would be: ? Quality of food ? Value for money ? Quality service ? Comfortable surroundings ? Safety and hygiene standards The service providers must ensure that they meet the exceptions of guests / customers by making the following available: ? Staff (sufficient in number) ? Products (of good quality) ? Service (of good quality) ? Environment (comfortable and clean) As we can see from our model, when the customer’s expectations are met or exceeded by the service provider, the customer feels for many people.
To meet all those standards we prepare a procedure to operate the business. Shortly “A Standard Operating Procedure is a document which describes the regularly recurring operations relevant to the quality of the investigation. The purpose of a SOP is to carry out the operations correctly and always in the same manner. A SOP should be available at the place where the work is done”. 3. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT: If a F outlet does not have a proper training manual or SOP for their staffs, it is quite hard to deliver the highest service standards of what our customer needs and what they do expect our outlet.
A good and well-managed outlet should provide a routine training session to all of their staffs covering each F operations technique. It can be weekly or bi-weekly training programs. By conducting several training programs, it can be much easier for an F business to maintain the effectiveness and efficiency of service operation. a. The SOP can be shown to have benefits to the employee in improving and simplifying job performance. b. That it provides an inclusive framework for decision making rather than an exclusive structure. c. The SOP is easily and rapidly accessible to all employees. d.
The role and importance of the SOP can be easily and clearly demonstrated in the accompanying explanation which details what needs to be done, why it needs to be done and what is considered best practice. e. The SOP leads to specific and ideally simple action which can be rapidly documented. Once again, to make it simple and easy to understand, F Establishment Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) is commonly used to help most outlet owners and managers to manage and guide the overall outlet team and staff to increase the service performance and the overall objectives and goals of the business. CHAPTER-02 . 1 FINDING & LEASING A LOCATION There are four crucial elements to consider when looking at a potential outlet location: Population Base – Site study helps to determine the population base of a particular area. A less expensive method to determine the population base of certain area is to use a circle graph, as well as asking the local chamber of commerce and town office for more information. [pic] Rough View of Circle Graph with number of people of different Ages Parking – Will there be enough parking to accommodate all the seats in our outlet? Or Is there public parking near the outlet location?
Accessibility – Xtreme sports bar which is good for caterings, leisure and recreational activities needs both commercial and resident areas to explore their activities. Likewise if we setup our outlet near colleges, universities, IT Parks, Shopping malls, and official complexes then we can expect a good number of customers visiting our outlets. Visibility – This goes along with accessibility and is very important for new outlet locations. People have to know the outlet is there. This is why property prices in downtown districts and developed strips are higher than other areas.
They offer a level of visibility that can bring in a great deal of walk-in business. 2. 1. 1 SHOULD WE BUY OR LEASE OUR OUTLET LOCATION?? The investment necessary to buy a property may be the deciding factor of whether to buy or lease a location for outlet. The key factors to consider in choosing the proper location are as follows: 1) rent affordability, 2) demographics to match our concept requirements, 3) trade area draw and 4) major market generators in the neighborhood. Two Main Outlet Structures There are essentially two ways to structure a new outlet venture in terms securing the capital assets required for operation.
The most widely used method is to obtain the use of a building space by leasing a facility from an unrelated third party. The other option is to directly, or indirectly through an affiliate, purchase the land and develop the physical structure or buy the land with a building already in place 2. 1. 2 LEASING: Start by leasing and work our way upto purchasing location is a good idea. Because 1. We can put capital towards upgrading kitchen, designing dining area 2. Promoting our outlet like marketing efforts and building up a customer base. 3.
No need of worrying about large mortgage payment but worry about rent though( which is comparatively less ) Possible problems of renovating a space for a new outlet include 1. Lack of public bathrooms 2. Lack of outside ventilation 3. No garbage pickup If a spot has been vacant for several months we can probably haggle with the monthly rent or get the first couple of months (your start-up phase) free but We need to know why space is vacant and will the space work for our outlet. Common lease negotiations include: • Not paying rent at all until the restaurant opens for business • Pro-rating rent.
We may pay a very low rent the first year of the lease, then gradually increase it each year thereafter. • Including building repairs in the rent. If we make significant repairs to the plumbing or heating, then we can ask if they can be deducted from regular rent. Most landlords would rather give free or reduced rent one month than shell out cash to make repairs. Terms of the Lease We shouldnot lock ourself into a long lease, at least not the first year we are in business. If outlet fails (hard to think about, but a necessity to consider) we don’t want to be locked into four more years of rent that we cannot pay.
If the space we want to rent is only available with a long term lease (more than a year or two) think long and hard about whether or not it is really worth the risk. A pro-business landlord should be willing to start with a year lease and work from there. If the landlord refuses to negotiate, they probably won’t be any easier to work with in the future and more trouble than the space is worth. And also The cost of leasing overtime can surpass the cost of buying. 2. 1. 3 LEASING PROCESS 1) Identifying the Leasing Parties 2) Finding the Landlord 3) Initial Meeting With The Landlord ) Preliminary Negotiations With The Landlord Potential locations can be analysed through estimation of start-up costs and considering factors like 1. Operating costs 2. High risk area 3. The cost of leasehold improvements 4. Rent 5. The distance from the building to the street 6. The exterior appearance of the building 7. Zoning/regulatory agency requirements 8. Size and positioning of signage 9. Common area maintenance charges/outgoings 10. Fees for sewer services , water consumption, etc. 11. Taxes 12. Insurance 13. Break-even point Breakeven point= Fixed Costs ?
Gross Margin Ratio Gross margin ratio= 100% – Variable Cost % Renewals Renewal options are negotiated into our lease when discussed economic terms with our Landlord. Each option period allows the opportunity to renegotiate the lease or to terminate the lease with limited liability. 2. 1. 4 BUYING: Buying a location is a major and typically a long term commitment. The primary factor to consider is the ability of that location to attract customers. An attractive property in a well-traveled vacation destination or in a growing community, without a glut of competitors, can be a solid investment.
We also need to know what the local planning commission has in mind regarding construction and changes in zoning and accessibility. Major advantage to owning a location is that 1. We will not have to worry about a rent hike. 2. As an owner we do not have to work within the parameters as set up by a landlord, giving us more freedom to do as we like with our property, as long as we stay within zoning laws and health code requirements. The final consideration when buying any real estate is the projected value of the property. Will the price of the property appreciate in the coming years? . 1. 5 Key Financial Factor There’s one key financial factor that points to success or failure in this business probably more than any other. It’s referred to as the sales to investment ratio. That is, how many rupees of annual sales can we reasonably expect a proposed outlet to generate for every dollar of invested capital it will take to take to open it. The sales to investment ratio is calculated by taking the projected annual sales of a proposed outlet and dividing it by the total projected startup investment required to open the outlet and get it operational.
As the sales of a new outlet increase relative to its startup investment, so too increase it’s chances for profit and financial success Leasehold Case Starts by calculating the total projected start-up investment. For purposes of calculating the sales to investment ratio include the cost of “all” the assets regardless of how they will be financed. The next step is to estimate the annual sales volume of the proposed outlet. Below is an example of a worksheet to make a more systematic and logical estimate of the sales volume in a proposed outlet.
Step 1: Estimate the number of customer we expect to serve at each meal period in a typical week. Step 2: Enter the customer counts for each meal period along with an estimate of the check average. This will help us determine an estimated sales volume for a typical week as in the worksheet below: [pic] Leasehold Example Case in Point: Leasehold Most, if not all, national chains use the sales to investment ratio or some variation of it to evaluate specific sites they’re considering for expansion. Here’s how a successful national steak chain uses this ratio.
This operator invests around $1,200,000 to open new outlet in leased locations. They expect to do at least $3,600,000 in annual sales which gives them a very healthy sales to investment expectation of around 3 to 1. [pic][pic] This chain’s entire site selection philosophy is influenced by the sales to investment ratio. They often pass on high traffic corners and highly visible sites because they reason that the added cost of acquiring those locations won’t result in proportionately higher sales. Instead, they often seek out lass “B” locations in class “A” markets to obtain lower startup costs and rental rates that will enable them to maintain their high sales to investment ratio goals. This mindset has paid off handsomely as they are consistently one of the most profitable companies in our industry. Designing dining areas When designing dining areas the following components need to be examined: 1. Size of the outlet 2. Kind of service 3. The carrying capacity of the outlet 4. Type of the cuisine 5. Number of meals served per day 6. Table shapes, sizes and positions 7. Number of seats at each table . Multiple floors, steps, or elevated areas of seating 9. Paintings, posters or murals 10. Type & intensity of lighting 11. Planters, partitions, or screens 12. Blocking of any undesirable views 13. Placement of service areas Restaurants offer alternative service methods. Restaurant (Independent): Properties owned/operated by an entrepreneur which are not affiliated with a franchised or multiunit organization. Restaurant (Multiunit): Properties which are affiliated with a franchise or other organization containing multiple (sometimes thousands) properties; also called a “chain”.
Franchise: An arrangement whereby one party (the franchisor) allows the owner of the hospitality business (the franchisee) to use the franchisor’s logo, name, systems, and resources in exchange for a fee. Franchisor: Those who own and manage the brand and sell the right to use the brand name to franchisees. [pic] 2. 2 INSURANCE The most common types of F outlet insurance available include: • Property Insurance- – Protects your property in case of fire or other events. It may not cover natural disasters, such as floods or earthquakes (see below for a policy that does. If you have any kind of mortgage on your business and/or equipment, then you should carry a property insurance policy. • General Liability – This is the umbrella policy that protects you in the event someone slips and falls in your restaurant, gets sick after eating there (whether it was your fault or not). This is a must have in today’s sometime sue-happy world. • Liquor Liability – Most states require that any establishment holding a liquor license carry liquor liability as part of their insurance. It helps protect you if a customer has too much to drink and drives and hurts themselves or someone else. Workers Compensation – Protects you if an employee is hurt at work. Most states require that all employers carry some type of workers comp. • Unemployment Insurance – Is for your employees who no longer work for you until they find employment. • Life Insurance – Depending on your mortgage and financing you may need to carry a hefty life insurance policy to satisfy your lender. It is also a good idea to have life insurance, in case something does happen to you and your family isn’t left with a restaurant they don’t know how to run and bills they can’t pay. There is insurance for just about any object, action or person out there.
Here are some other types of insurance you can purchase for your restaurant. But keep in mind, these extras will cost you as much or more than whatever it is you are insuring. • Loss of Business Insurance – If you lose sales through a specific cause, this type of policy can recoup some of the income. Keep in mind the premiums and deductible may make you break even, depending on how much you lose. • Food Contamination Insurance – If you lose power, because of fallen power lines or a storm, and the entire contents of your walk-in and freezer spoil, this policy would pay to replace the food. • Specific Peril
Insurance – This covers many natural disasters that general liability insurance doesn’t. Events like earthquakes, floods or power outages due to either, may be covered under this insurance. CHAPTER-03 3. 1 CONSTRUCTION: Hiring a General Contractor/Builder Our contractor/builder will handle all aspects of obtaining permits and the building of our outlet for an agreed upon price. OUR TASKS: 1. We give each a set of plans and meet them at the outlet for a site evaluation and answer any questions they might have. 2. Establishing the criteria for the submission of their bids/tenders, and set a deadline for submission of proposals.
Proposals must be in writing. 3. Establish commencement and completion dates. Make contractors/builders aware of the importance of starting right away and getting the outlet open quickly. It’s good to obtain at least three bids/tenders for each job to be contracted out. Bidders should provide us a) A Signed contract b) Certificate of Insurance c) Lien releases 3. 2 EQUIPMENTS: Wide ranges of equipments are available in market for both food and beverages. Common equipments that we need to operate a medium sized F outlet are 3. 2. 1 FOOD EQUIPMENT: 1) Tandoori oven for making kababs 2) 2 Ranges.
One is for Chinese food and the other for continental food. 3) Griller 4) Electronic deep fryer (for French fries, crispy corn etc) 5) Dish working table 6) Salamander (for toasting) 7) Frying pan 8) Freezer (for raw materials) and deep fridge (for meat storage) 3. 2. 2 BAR EQUIPMENT: 1) Ice crusher machine 2) Visi cooler 3) Bottle coolers 4) Garnish tray 5) Cocktail shaker 6) Wine chiller 7) Wine stand 8) Measuring jar 9) Peg measure 10) Ice bucket 11) Wine opener 12) Bar counter spoon 13) Draught beer machine 3. 2. 3 OTHER EQUIPMENTS: 1) Glassware 2) Compartment sinks 3) Glass racks 4) Taps ) Dispensing system for beer and soft drinks 6) Ice bins, pick, scoops 7) Dish washer 8) Storage cabinet and 9) Display shelves Cost of our total equipment includes equipment package and buffer (10-15%). Buffer covers things like sales tax, carrier charges etc. Equipment can either be leasing or buying. a) Some equipment like ice machines, coolers have very short lives and there is no market for the used ones. So preferring to lease is the good option for short life equipments. b) Some equipment like dish machines etc are very expensive and hence costly equipments can be taken for lease. ) Other equipments like gas ranges, ovens, fryers (with working thermostats), grills, small wares etc are good to buy than leasing. 3. 3 STORE DESIGN AND DECOR WORKING TRIANGLE We can segment our outlet into 3 major ideas. i) Customer Area ii) Food preparation or service Area iii) Backroom Area 3. 3. 1 CUSTOMER AREA: Minimum considerations for customer area are 1. Seating: Before planning for seating mix, we have to consider size and design of outlet and our budget for it 2. Trash units 3. Divider units 4. Ceiling 5.
Lighting: Recessed lighting and track lighting with dimmer switches allow us to control the light, adjusting it for the time of day. 6. Ceiling fans 7. Clock 8. Music system 9. Customer guidance system (optional) 10. Window shades if we have sun exposure problems 11. Thermostats 3. 3. 2 KITCHEN OR SERVICE AREA: First aspect in kitchen design starts with choice of fuel which depends mainly on the location of outlet. Fuel can be anything like wood, Natural Gas, Propane Gas, Electric Steam Heating Oil. In large cities, natural gas and electricity are widely available, and a combination of both is wise.
In some regions, steam may be available and recommended for certain pieces of equipment. There is also steam generating units ready to install. Propane is recommended where neither gas nor electricity is available. During planning, there are few more things to consider Departmentalisation: To achieve division of labour Smooth traffic flow Increased efficiency Sanitary conditions Once these are settled, the following points become important: Lighting: Fluorescent light fixtures are good for kitchen fixings which prevents accidents and waste.
Ventilation: Canopies equipped with filters (wire mesh, baffle, liquid), motor to move the air Sprinkler system: Carbon dioxide mixed with fire extinguishing chemicals is doing great than simple water releasing. Floor covering: Continuous non-slip floor covering containing stone chips is the most suitable. It can be applied quickly and inexpensively. They are easy to clean and prevent insect infestation. Wall covering: We can use either Tiles or High Gloss finish paint which is most common for Food and beverage outlets. Tiles are initially expensive and Gloss finish paint becomes expensive in long run.
Kitchen equipment Kitchen equipment is grouped into five categories. [pic] 1) Storage: Two kinds of storage equipments; a) Wire shelving for canned goods or boxes b) Solid Shelving like Freezers and refrigerators. They are easy to clean. Freezers are of two types. Chest freezers (Preserve cold air but utilizes more space) and upright freezers(Less floor space but cold air escape each time the door is opened) 2) Preparation: Equipments for chopping, dicing, cubing, peeling, slicing, mixing, processing. 3) Cooking: Standard cooking equipments are Ranges, Deep fryers, Broilers, Salamanders.
Steam filled equipments like Steam jacketed kettles, Pressure steamers, Ovens, Griddles, Tilting frying pans occupies less area in the kitchen 4) Accessories like Electronic thermostats, Energy load levellers (reduce peak electricity demand), automatic shutoff switches 5) Service equipment to keep prepared foods hot like steam tables, Flambe carts, Gueridons, Small wares(pots, pans, whips, scoops) self levelling plate dispensers, dish washers, compactors, filtering devices. SERVICE SYSTEM: Service movement is from Kitchen Area – To table – Back towards dish washing Region.
This flow pattern plays important role in busy nights. So distance between kitchen and Dining area plays important role. I think pass window (for waitstaff) can make out the flow pattern easier in our busy nights. Pass window should be masked from public view by wall or portion. To make our flow pattern smooth, three places like getting region where raw materials unlocked, Recieving region (close to back door) and storage should be closer. Storage is much a lot useful when placed close to preparation region than near receiving region. 3. 3. 3 BACKROOM AREA:
Walk-in cooler, Food preparation worktable, and the compartment sink are placed as close together as possible to promote an efficient operation while preparing food. Few types of equipment that are used in backroom area are Freezer, Cooler, 3-Compartment sink, Hot water heater, Mop sink, Dry storage shelving, Cleaning supply storage area and Stainless steel food preparation table. Other areas that help for the smooth operation of our outlet like • Office – The office needs to be a secure area in which we can store money and other important things for our Outlet.
Security is important for office room • Restrooms – Should be spacious enough to accommodate multiple people, if at all possible. • Employee restrooms – They should be a separate addition away from the public’s restrooms. • Cashier Area. CHAPTER-04 4. 1 PREPARING TO OPEN First priority for us is to advertise widely the grand opening of our outlet. ? Offering special discounts and door prizes for this opening. ? Newspaper advertisements and business cards (loyalty, gift, beer card etc) will also let people know that our outlet is open for business.
Steps needed to take in the weeks leading up to the opening of outlet Eight weeks before opening outlet: Getting the preliminaries out of the way. First thing first: We have to prepare our pre-opening budget and start conveying our Sports bar image. 1) Then, set out on obtaining the necessary background materials and legalities and consider specifics, like scope/lines of products available, delivery times/frequency, prices on key products, credit terms, electronic or Internet ordering options, and other support services offered, such as business reviews, consultation, staff training. ) Establish our insurance policy and apply for the necessary licenses from the health department, the food manufacturer and the water department. Also, determining local certification requirements (HACCAP training), checking local health codes and ordinances 3)Determine requirements for our alcoholic beverage server, and make sure our business and liquor licenses are in order and that we are set up correctly for sales and use tax. 4) In addition, we can start ordering our cooking equipment, small wares and Tabletop items, like flatware, tableware, glassware and kitchen utensils.
Also, order our beverage service, point-of-sale (POS) system and store decor; order menu boards, exterior signage, office equipment (fax, computer, calculators etc), and office furniture (desk, chair, filing cabinet, etc. ). Seven weeks before opening outlet: Following up on what we started. Things should be beginning to take shape in this week. So we have to 1)Check the statuses of our licenses with the health department, food manufacturer and water department, as well as with our business license, liquor license and sales and use tax.
Also, check the status of our sales, federal, state and local tax numbers. 2) Establish our banking system and accounts and obtain bids for local trash pick- up, grease removal, extermination services, laundry, appliance repair, fire extinguishers, music system, security alarms and security systems, knife and blade sharpening, window washing and dishwasher service. 3)Determine emergency plans, exit procedures and create maps, finalize our POS decision and acquire software needs for our office (MS Office, scheduling, food management software, etc. ) Six weeks before opening outlet: More preparations.
We should be receiving our tax numbers now. We have to 1) Order Opening Soon and Now Hiring banners for our windows, and a Grand Opening banner for the front entrance. Also, ordering plastic engraved signs for pertinent information (Ladies, Men, No Smoking, Delivery Hours, etc. ), and set up order books, a maintenance and cleaning calendar and an inventory system. 2) Conduct a walk-through with the contractor to make sure he or she is familiar with those systems as well, and retain a full set of building and equipment plans for operational files. ) Check inspection dates and acquire mandatory posters, amenities (high chairs, boosters etc. ). 4) Set up communications for our office, like a fax machine, pagers, and hostess station equipment. Set up credit card merchant accounts, and select an accounting service or in-house bookkeeper and acquire the appropriate software. 5) Also, obtain menu materials – covers, inserts, to go menus, catering, and order restroom accessories, like hand towels and air dryers, soap dispensers and trash receptacles. 6)
Identify what our staffing needs will be exactly, and then develop an action plan for meeting those needs. Also, order a valet stand and key control system, acquire entertainment permits, and craft a list of potential entertainers (including an invitation list for pre-opening parties and order invitations). Five weeks before opening our Outlet: Yet even more preparations. We have to 1) Continue planning and set-up work, to ensure small issues wont become larger problems later on down the line. Set up our equipment maintenance log book.
Order office and miscellaneous supplies. Finalize vendors for food/beverage products and set up delivery schedules with them (and commissary) include backup vendors. 2) Set up fire and health inspections. Label valves, switches, compressor and breakers and check for accessibility. Also, acquire bids and select vendors for decor, like interior plants and landscaping. In addition, acquire janitorial equipment (wet floor signs, mops, buckets, vacuum, and trash receptacles). 3) While doing this, continue our staffing plans.
Purchase training materials for food safety training, develop deposit procedures (establish armored car service or other), finalize food and supply orders for training, mock shifts, and opening week. Also, setup an employee filing system, acquire a first aid box, create a seating chart and wait staff sections, setup a petty cash system. Four weeks before opening Outlet: Time to start setting up. 1)Around this time, we should be receiving our case work and furniture, including our counters, cabinets, menu board frames, tables, chairs and barstools. So that will need to be installed. )Also, by this point, we should also have a number of candidates in mind for staff positions. To accommodate, start scheduling and preparing interviews and prepare a training schedule for those we will hire. Also, set up our POS or register for training our management and crew and create job aids (pictures of menu items, procedure steps, etc. ) for the kitchen staff. This is also a good time to determine our emergency equipment shutoff procedures. 3) In addition, continue to think about opening night. Send out our opening party invitations and press releases to local media.
Three weeks before opening Outlet: Getting into gear. Timing becomes crucial at this point. We need to make sure several smaller tasks get completed while still keeping our larger projects moving. 1)First and foremost, we will be interviewing and hiring possible employees and getting them trained as soon as possible. That means we will have to have our training sessions finalized and assign our hired employees for HACCP training and certification. In addition, We will need to get employees certified for alcoholic beverage service and conduct alcoholic beverage and wine service training. ) Assemble our new-employee supplies, such as applications, uniforms, employer-employee agreements, cash register policies, and employee handbook and more. Also order our initial food for training, as well as our first paper goods order. To make sure everything is accounted for, create detailed inventory worksheets or count sheets and prepare our delivery schedule for our vendors. 3) To ensure training commences smoothly, we will need to have our beverage service and POS system installed and ready to go. In addition, obtain bags and night deposit keys, deposit stamps and slips, coin rolls and bill bands. ) On top of this, the final load of our supplies and equipment should be coming in, such as our smallwares, ice machine, janitorial supplies, Ansul System, alarm system, fire extinguishers and more. We will need to install these items and then ensure everything meets your satisfaction. Obtain sub-contractors telephone numbers in case repairs are needed, and set up all equipment maintenance and repair instructions in designated spots in case fixes must be done in-house. In addition, create a control system for padlocks for cooler doors and conduct a safety audit. Two weeks before opening: Outlet Interior design
By this point, we should have received nearly all of our equipment and furniture, including our tables, chairs, table tops, benches, canopy awning or canvas and more. That means its time to make sure everything fits, works and looks like it should. so we have to 1) Test all of our equipment. Check the walk-in and refrigeration temperatures. Calibrate the temperatures for our fryers and griddle, oven and stove. Also, set up and organize our supply stations, including shelving for walk-in and dry storage (which also must be labeled), and get our hostess stand supplies (reservation book, call clock, pencils, notebook) in order.
Also, finalize our hiring and get our employees into training. 2) Start a construction punch list in case final work needs to be done, and begin to clean and sanitize the walk-in area. Also, set our exterior signage light timer, place our initial alcoholic beverage order and determine light levels and label for each period of the day. One week before opening Outlet: Crunch time. No task is too small during this stretch. Granted frustration will be high but if all preparations have been met beforehand, we should be able to sail into a successful and well-prepared Outlet opening day, we have to
First and foremost, get our decor and equipment ready. Hang inside decor, washing windows, install plants(Installing plants is up to us. but gives great look), clean all equipment, smallwares, and stainless steel, complete equipment warranty cards and run the ice machine, empty it, sanitize it and refill it. All the while, continue updating our construction punch list. In addition, we have to hold our final inspections, receive our certificate of occupancy, finalize our opening week schedules, finalize the clean-up of interior and exterior, complete our pre-opening checklist, take open inventory on all food and beverage items.
In the meantime, also conduct our training, finalize our training certification and conduct a practice run (dress rehearsal) of opening night. After that, we should be ready for business. 4. 2 FOOD PREPARATION: Most people rarely get sick from contaminated foods because their immune systems are strong enough to protect them. But when harmful bacteria multiply beyond safe limits due to unsafe food handling or lack of refrigeration, that’s when food poisoning strikes. When the immune system is impaired by sickness, age, or other factors, food poisoning is also more likely. 1. Handle food as little as possible. . Throw away plastic gloves after one use. 3. Keep fingers away from mouth, hair, face, skin and other parts of the body. 4. Use the rest room sink or the hand washing sink in the food preparation area for washing hands, not the food preparation sink. 5. Wash fresh produce under running water before it is served either raw or cooked. 6. Thaw frozen foods in the refrigerator, under cold running water, or as part of the cooking process. 7. Prepare precooked frozen foods exactly as the directions state. 8. Have foods ready at serving time but not any longer than necessary before serving time. . Do not leave cooked foods at room temperature 10. Clean and sanitize food preparation surfaces between different types of raw food products and between the preparation of raw products and ready to eat products. 11. Avoid placing cartons or boxes on surfaces used For food preparation. 12. Wipe food contact surfaces with clean cloths which are used only for that purpose. 13. Keep kitchens free of clutter. 14. Keep worktables clear and clean while in use. 15. Wash and put away equipment that is not being used. 16. Wash and sanitize flatware or other utensils, which fall to the floor. 7. Do not taste foods with any utensil used either to mix or stir foods. 18. Do not use fingers to sample food. Always use a clean spoon. 19. Wash and sanitize flatware or other utensils, which fall to the floor. 20. Do not taste foods with any utensil used either to mix or stir foods. 21. Do not use fingers to sample food. Always use a clean spoon. 22. Use clean tongs, scoops, forks, spoons, spatulas, or other suitable utensils to handle food. 23. Avoid wearing jewellery, false nails or other items that might fall into food 24. Pick up and hold all tableware by the handles. 25.
Store tableware away from dust. 26. Provide straws either individually wrapped or from an approved dispenser. 27. Serve butter or margarine in individual servings. 28. Ice machines should be covered. Ice should be transferred to serving containers using approved scoops. Never use hands, cups, or glasses to scoop ice. Keep scoops protected when not in use. Do not store food items on ice used for drinks. 29. Use a spoon or other suitable utensil to remove any serving or mixing spoon that falls into the food. 30. When handling plates and trays do not touch eating surfaces with fingers.
Each food item served will need its own flow chart, which looks at every step of the food’s journey. The steps in between include storage, preparation, holding/display, service, cooling, storage of leftovers and reheating techniques. Staff and other food handlers Personal Hygiene All food handlers should: (a) Thoroughly wash (using warm water and liquid soap) and dry (using disposable towels or air, not apron) their hands regularly when handling food, in particular: Before handling food Immediately after handling raw food, especially raw meat or poultry After going washroom.
After handling money After blowing their nose, sneezing or coughing After breaks (b) Wear clean clothes, apron and, where practicable, protective food handling gloves and food handling tongs (to reduce direct contact with food) (c) Tie hair back and use a hair net or cap (d) Cover cuts or sores with clean waterproof dressings (e) Not cough or sneeze over food (f) Not smoke Illness Food handlers with symptoms of food poisoning, such as diarrhoea, vomiting or stomach pains, must not handle food and must leave food preparation areas immediately.
All other illnesses and skin conditions must be reported to a manager or the license holder who then needs to determine if these conditions pose a risk of spreading bacteria or disease should the person continue to handle food. Safe Food handling during food preparation Food should be handled so as to prevent contamination and handlers should: Observe good personal hygiene Use different chopping boards/work surfaces, equipment and utensils for raw and ready-to-eat food Clean equipment and surfaces thoroughly before and after use Avoid unnecessary handling of food
Minimise the time chilled food remains out of the fridge Cooking All poultry, pork, minced/chopped meat (including burgers and sausages) and rolled joints should be cooked thoroughly with the centre of the meat maintained at: 60 degrees Celsius for at least 45 minutes; or 65 degrees Celsius for at least 10 minutes; or 70 degrees Celsius for at least 2 minutes; or 75 degrees Celsius for at least 30 seconds; or 80. degrees Celsius for at least 6 seconds Whole cuts or joints traditionally served pink or rare are exempt where they have not been pierced or on the bone.
Where cooked food is not being kept hot until serving, it should be cooled as quickly as possible. Reheated food should be piping hot all the way through and should not be reheated more than once. All probes, skewers and thermometers should be maintained clean and disinfected between foods. Food Hygiene Strategies The maintenance of good food hygiene shall be achieved through ensuring that: (i) Food preparation, handling and storage areas are kept clean and food handlers maintain good standards of personal hygiene at all times (ii) All foods are cooked properly, especially meat iii) Foods are kept at the right temperature with chilled foods maintained cold and hot foods cooled as quickly as possible and then chilled (iv) Raw foods are prevented from cross-contaminating ready-to-eat foods 4. 3 EQUIPMENT HANDLING: Food handler should consider few techniques while handling the equipments. These techniques differ from equipment to equipment. So few do’s and don’ts handler should follow Mincers, choppers, dicers, slicers Always use push sticks or tamps to feed or remove food from these types of machines. Do not use your hands to feed smaller pieces of meat through slicers.
Make sure you are using any machine guarding that is provided to prevent access to cutter blades. Do not bypass safety guards. Do not open up or put your hands into an operating machine to stir contents or guide food. Turn off and unplug the machine before disassembling and cleaning. Food processors, mixers Do not attempt to remove items (for example, a spoon that falls into the mixture) from dough while the machine is mixing. Do not open up the lids of processors to stir contents while food is processing. Make sure the processor is off before opening the lid or adding items. Turn off and nplug machinery before cleaning or removing a blockage. Use any machine guards provided. Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that could become caught in machinery. Microwaves: Make sure the microwave is located at approximately waist level and within easy reach, to provide for ease in the lifting of hot foods. Follow manufacturer’s instructions for operating microwave ovens. Cover foods cooked in microwaves to avoid splattering. Use caution when opening tightly covered containers. Open containers away from your face because they may be under pressure and could be extremely hot.
Use appropriate personal protective equipment such as hot pads when removing foods from microwave. Make sure door seals are in good condition and free from food or grease build up. Do not use a microwave if it has a door that is damaged or doesn’t lock properly. Damaged ovens may emit harmful radiation. Do not microwave metals, foil, or whole eggs. Keep the interior of the microwave clean to avoid splattering and popping. If you notice any sparking inside the microwave, immediately turn off the microwave, unplug it, report it to the supervisor, and do not use it.
Be advised that microwaves may interfere with the workings of pacemakers. Be aware that food cooked in the microwave can remain hot long after the microwave turns off. Steamers: Do not open the door while the steamer is on, shut off the steam, and then wait a couple of minutes before releasing the pressure and opening. Clear the area around the steamer before opening. Open the steamer door by standing to the side, keeping the door between you and the open steamer. Use oven mitts to remove hot trays from the steamer. Place hot, dripping steamer trays on a cart to transport.
If trays are carried by hand, they will drip on floors and create a slip hazard. If a steamer is stacked, remove the tray from the top steamer first, then the lower one, to prevent burns from rising steam. Pressure Cookers: Shut off the steam supply and wait for the pressure to equalize before opening the lid of the pressure cooker. Stand to the side and open the pressure cooker away from yourself, keeping the open lid between you and the pressure cooker. CHAPTER 05 5. 1 CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE 5. 1. 1 THE CLEANING PROCESS The complete cleaning process consists of three steps: washing, rinsing, and sanitizing.
Our three-compartment sink is designed specifically for these steps. The first sink is for washing, the second for rinsing, and the third for sanitizing. Washing is the process of removing dirt and impurities using water and a cleansing agent. Rinsing is the process of using clean, clear water to remove soap/detergent or impurities. Sanitizing is the process of removing bacteria and conditions conducive to infection or disease. 5. 1. 2 EQUIPMENT CLEANING: All the equipments can’t be cleaned in the same process. Each has its own technique for effective cleaning.
Blenders -Fill part way with hot water and add a drop of detergent. Cover and turn it on for a few seconds. Rinse and drain dry. Broilers – Sprinkle the hot pan with dry laundry detergent. Cover with a dampened paper towel and let the burned food set for a while. The pan should require little scouring. Can Openers – Loosen grime from by brushing with an old toothbrush. To thoroughly clean blades, run a paper towel through the cutting process. Crystal – . Rinse with 1 part vinegar to 3 parts warm water. Air dry. Cutting Boards – For odours, rub the surface with the cut side of a lemon or lime.
To clean and sanitize it, pour liquid bleach on the cutting board and rinse well. Deodorizer – Boil a teaspoon of cloves in a half-cup water to dispel cooking odors. Detergent – Add some vinegar to the dishwater to cut the grease. Disposals – Grind one half lemon or orange rind in the disposal . . Food Grinders – Get all the ground material out and make the grinder much easier to clean by running a slice of bread through it before dismantling. Grills – Place in a plastic garbage bag after it has cooled with 1/2 cup Cascade (powder) dishwasher detergent.
Pour hot water to cover the grill, seal and shake it to dissolve the powder. Let it stand for several hours. Rinse thoroughly. Before ever using your grill, spray vegetable oil. You can also use leftover brewed coffee. Pour it on a hot or cold grill and wipe off. Meat Grinders – Run a piece of bread through it before washing. Microwaves – Cover it with a wet paper towel and put the oven on HIGH for 10 seconds. Wipe it up when the cloth cools. Odours – Rub your fingers on stainless steel under running water to remove onion or garlic odours.
Sink – For grease clogs, pour 1 cup salt and 1 cup of baking soda followed by boiling water. . Stainless Steel – Shine with a sponge dipped in vinegar. For stubborn build up around faucets and fixtures, put towels around the fixtures and soak with vinegar until build-up comes off. 5. 1. 3 KITCHEN CLEANING: Throughout every cooking shift one has to • Brush grill between cooking red meat, poultry and fish • Wipe down the line and prep areas • Switch cutting boards • Change sanitizing water and cleaning rags • Empty trash bins After each cooking shift one has to • Clean the fryers Brush the grill • Empty sanitizing buckets • Put all cleaning rags in dirty laundry • Put all aprons and chefs coats in laundry (not with cleaning rags) • Wash and sanitize all surfaces (cutting boards, reach-in, line, prep tables) • Empty steam table and clean • Wash meat and cheese slicer after each use • Cover all bins in reach-in cooler with plastic wrap • Wash floor mats • Sweep and mop the kitchen floor • Sweep walk-in refrigerator Daily Kitchen Cleaning List • Clean out grease traps • Change foil linings of grill, range and flattops • Wash the can opener Run hood filters through the dishwasher Weekly Kitchen Cleaning List – these duties can be rotated throughout the week • Empty reach-in coolers and wash and sanitize them • Delime sinks and faucets • Clean the ovens. • Sharpen knives • Oil cast iron cookware • Use drain cleaners on floor drains Monthly Kitchen Cleaning List • Wash behind the hot line (oven, stove, fryers) to cut down on grease build up, which is a major fire hazard • Clean freezers • Empty and sanitize the ice machine • Calibrate ovens • Calibrate thermometers • Sharpen the meat and cheese slicer Wash walls and ceilings • Wipe down the dry storage area • Change any pest traps • Restock our first aid kit • Update our material safety data sheets, which outline how to safely use any chemicals in our outlet. Yearly Kitchen Cleaning/Safety List • Check fire suppression system • Check fire extinguishers (this may need to be done twice a year, depending on where you live) • Clean hoods twice a year. • Clean pilot lights on gas kitchen equipment. Cleaning Agents Cleaning is done with a cleaning agent that removes food, soil, or other substances.
The right cleaning agent must also be selected to make cleaning easy. Cleaning agents are like Detergents – to wash tableware, surfaces, and equipment. Detergents can penetrate soil quickly and soften it. Solvent cleaners – For surfaces where grease has burned on. Solvent cleaners are often called degreasers. Acid cleaners — These cleaners are often used to remove scale in ware washing machines and steam tables. Abrasive cleaners — To remove heavy accumulations of soil that are difficult to remove with detergents. Some abrasive cleaners also disinfect.
FOOD BAR CLEANING PROCEDURES CHEMICAL SAFETY EQUIPMENT: ? Biological Powder Rubber Gloves ? Dishwasher Detergent (Task 1) Rubber Gloves ? Dishwasher Rinse Aid (Task 2) Rubber Gloves ? Detergent (Task 3) Rubber Gloves ? Degreaser Rubber Gloves ? Face Mask ? Goggles ? Bacterial Hard Surface Cleaner Rubber Gloves ? Handwash Soap Walls, worktops, cupboards, fridges & freezers, microwaves: These areas are to be cleaned using Bacterial Hard Surface Cleaner, with paper towels or clean cloths. All work surfaces are to be cleaned on an ongoing basis and recorded on the cleaning Chart.
Floor: The floor is to be swept as and when necessary. After the kitchen has been cleaned down and the floor swept it must be mopped, using hot water and one plastic cup of biological powder. • All spillages must be cleaned up immediately • Care must be taken when the floor is wet and other staff warned Fryers and griddle: The fryers and griddle are to be wiped down with a paper towel after the close of business. • All equipment will still be very hot – care to be taken • No water is to be used on this equipment • Lids are to placed on fryers when cleaned
Griddle: Once per week the griddle has to be cleaned back to the bare metal. There are griddle stones, scourers and screens. • If the griddle is cold switch is on for 10 minutes to warm up • Pour some oil onto the surface •We can use the griddle stone in a forward and backward motion, applying pressure whilst moving • The griddle stone can also be used to clean around the edges, using the edge of the stone • Scrape off the dirty oil to ascertain progress. Continue with the stone until there are no black carbon eposits left • Clean of dirty oil and apply new oil and use the griddle scourer and screen to buff up the surface of the griddle • Use the special handle when using the scourer and screen • Thoroughly clean off the griddle surface using clean oil and paper towels The daily cleaning tasks should include 1. Bar Stools and Legs 2. The Bar 3. Tables 4. Chairs and Chair Legs 5. Toilets and Washrooms 6. Mirrors 7. Picture Glass and Frames 8. Vending Machines/Fruit Machines 9. Walls 10. Doors 11. Stairs 12. Banisters 13. Wooden Floors 5. 1. Sanitizing Sanitizing is done using heat, or chemicals. The item to be sanitized must first be washed properly before it can be properly sanitized Sanitizing Methods Heat. There are three methods of using heat to sanitize surfaces – steam, hot water, and hot air. Hot water is the most common method. If hot water is used in the third compartment of a three-compartment sink, it must be at least 171oF (77oC). If a high-temperature warewashing machine is used to sanitize cleaned dishes, the final sanitizing rinse must be at least 180oF (82oC).
For stationary rack, single temperature machines, it must be at least 165oF (74oC). Cleaned items must be exposed to these temperatures for at least 30 seconds. Chemicals. Chemicals that are approved sanitizers are chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium. Chemical Sanitizers Different factors influence the effectiveness of chemical sanitizers. The three factors that must be considered are • Concentration — The presence of too little sanitizer will result in an inadequate reduction of harmful microorganisms. Too much can be toxic. Temperature — Generally chemical sanitizers work best in water that is between 55oF (13oC) and 120oF (49oC). • Contact time — In order for the sanitizer to kill harmful microorganisms, the cleaned item must be in contact with the sanitizer (either heat or approved chemical) for the recommended length of time. FAT TOM: F is for food. Bacteria require a high protein, high carbohydrate source Ex: Meat, seafood and poultry and cooked plant food(baked potato, pasta, rice) A is for Acidity. Bacteria can not reproduce on highly acidic food like lemon T is for Temperature.
Bacteria rapidly reproduce from 41 f to 135 f. This zone is called Danger Zone T is for Time. Max time to be free from Danger Zone is 4 hours O is for Oxygen. Some bacteria requires oxygen to reproduce. They are ‘Aerobic bacteria’. Bacteria which reproduce without oxygen are ‘Anaerobic bacteria’. M is for Moisture. Bacteria require moist foods in which to grow. Plain water has the water activity of 1. 0 and bacteria requires water activity of more than 0. 85. The best way to manage sanitation in a outlet is to know and implement a system of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP).
FOODBORNE ILLNESS: A sickness caused by consuming food which has been contaminated by microorganisms, chemicals, or physical hazards. F outlets known to have continual sanitation-related problems can never be successful. Those with even occasional problems will likely suffer reduced guest counts and lost revenues for many months or longer if serious problems become known to the public. ADULTERATED FOOD : Food that is unfit for human consumption because it contains filth, is decomposed or produced under unsanitary conditions, contains poisons or harmful substances, or is otherwise unfit to at. MISBRANDED FOOD: Food that is packaged with false and/or misleading information on its label. INSPECTION (FOOD): Activities including the inspection of animals slaughtering conditions and meat processing facilities to assure that food being produced is fit for human consumption. WHOLESOME (FOOD): Food which is suitable for human consumption. GRADING (FOOD PRODUCTS): An assessment of foods relative to pre-established quality standards; grading is optional for all food products. MICROORGANISMS: Living forms of life that are too small to be seen without magnification; also called microbes.
Fortunately, most microorganisms are not harmful to humans. In fact, many are beneficial to us. Relatively small but potentially very dangerous number of microorganisms are pathogens, which are harmful to humans. PROPER AND FREQUENT HANDWASHING IS CRITICAL Effective hand-washing procedures can do much to reduce the possibility of foodborne illness because organisms are frequently transferred to food from the hands of employees who handle the food. Examples of times when hands should be washed include: • before reporting to work after using the restroom • after taking a break • before beginning food preparation • after touching any part of the body • after sneezing, coughing, eating, drinking, smoking, or using a handkerchief / tissue • after performing any task that might contaminate hands, such as cleaning tables or floors, handling clearing supplies, picking up items from the floor, and taking out the garbage Some food handlers mistakenly believe that using plastic gloves eliminates the potential to spread microorganisms.
In fact, plastic gloves are effective only until the first time they come in contact with soil or microorganisms. For example , they are “clean” when first worn. However, after an employee handles money, ties his / her shoes or scratches his / her face, they are just as contaminated as would be skin on an uncovered hand. Note: many persons have allergies to latex, which is used in the manufacturing of many plastic gloves. we should consider purchasing latex-free gloves for outlet if these items will be used. THE “RECIPE” FOR EFFECTIVE HAND-WASHING
Step 1 – wet hand with hot running water Step 2 – apply soap Step 3 – lather soap by rubbing between hands (20 seconds minimum) Step 4 – use a brush to clean under fingernails and between fingers Step 5 – rinse hand thoroughly under hot running water Step 6 – dry hand with a clean paper towel or hand dryer Step 7 – if possible, turn off water faucet with paper towel PATHOGENS: Microorganisms that are capable of causing disease, often called “germs” Conditions for optimal growth Microorganisms are living forms of life, and like humans, they require certain conditions to remain alive.
These include: • Moisture: moisture in a usable form must available for growth and reproduction. Freezing products does not kill organisms in the food being frozen; rather, it only prevents the organisms from growing and reproducing while the food is frozen. • Oxygen: some (aerobic) organisms require oxygen. Others (anaerobic) cannot survive if oxygen is present. Still others (facultative anaerobic) bacteria can grow regardless of whether oxygen is available. Organisms that cause foodborne illnesses are of all three types. • Time: Microorganisms can grow and reproduce quickly. Temperature: Some (psychrophilic) bacteria grow best at cold temperatures ( 0 – 21 degree C). Others (mesophilic) bacteria grow best at temperatures around that of the human body (37 degree C). Still other (thermophilic) microorganisms grow best at temperatures above (43 degree C). Organisms that cause foodborne illnesses grow best at a temperature range of (5- 60 degree C). • Acidity • Food: most organisms like protein-rich foods, such as meats, poultry, and seafood, for example, and those that are high in protein such as casserole dishes containing these item, and beans, potatoes, and rice.
AEROBIX MICROORGANISMS: Microorganisms requiring oxygen to live. ANAEROBIC MICROORGANISMS: Microorganisms that can live only when oxygen is not present. FACULTATIVE ANAEROBIC MICROORGANISMS: Microorganisms that can live with or without oxygen present PSYCHROPHILIC BACTERIA: Those which grow best at cold temperatures MESAPHILIC BACTERIA: Those which grow best at temperatures around that of the human body THERMOPHILIC BACTERIA: Those which grow best at temperatures above (43 degree C). CONTROLLING GROWTH OF MICROORGANISMS Food borne illness require six elements for optimal growth and reproduction.
They are moisture, oxygen, time, temperature, acidity, food. Of these, three are the most important: time, food and temperature. Let’s look at these three factors more carefully; • minimize time : food-handling procedures must minimize the time that microorganisms have to grow and reproduce. • Potentially hazardous foods: While all foods are potentially hazardous, protein content are among the most potentially hazardous. • Temperature danger zone: the temperature range of most potential concern for foodborne illness is (5 to 57 degree C). MICROORGANISMS AND FOODBORNE ILLNESSES
Food can become contaminated by microorganisms in one of two ways: • The presence of microorganisms: food infections • The presence of toxins (poisons) in the food : food poisonings • NOT ALL FOODBORNE ILLNESSES ARE FOOD POISONINGS FOOD INFECTION: A foodborne illness caused by the presence of microorganisms in food FOOD POISONING: A foodborne illness caused by the presence of poisons (toxins) in the food which are produced by microorganisms SOME COMMON FOODBORNE ILLNESS Bacterial Intoxications (Poisonings) Bacterial Infections Viral Infections HOW TO KNOW IF FOOD IS CONTAMINATED ?
Some foods that are safe to eat may smell, can be cloudy, or might even feel somewhat slimy (as in the case of fish or meat), other foods, by contrast, that are not safe to consume may have no unusual smell, look, or feel. Most contaminated food does not have an unusual taste (if it did, guests eating it would eat only the first bite rather than the entire meal). Some contaminated foods do not even contain living microorganisms, For example, food containing organisms causing food intoxications can be cooked to high temperature for a sufficient period of time to destroy the microorganisms in the food.
Unfortunately, however, the toxins they produced while living may remain harmful because the poison is not “killed” or inactivated by heat. Since WE do not have access to sophisticated testing methods required to detect the presence of microorganisms and / or their toxins, it becomes necessary to focus their efforts on preventing rather than on detecting contaminated food. 5. 1. 5 TACTICS TO PREVENT FOODBORNE ILLNESS – Purchasing – Receiving – Storing – Production – After Production Handling – Managing leftovers – Clean Up Purchasing
Food is purchased only from approved vendors to assure the safety of food served to customers. Procedure: Employees purchasing food must: 1. Understand regulations for specific foods: • Purchase packaged or processed food only from suppliers who receive their products from licensed reputable purveyors and manufacturers, who adhere to good manufacturing practices. • Fresh produce may be purchased directly from local growers as there is no inspection process for these non-potentially hazardous foods (with exception of melons and fresh alfalfa sprouts).
When making direct purchases, buyers should ensure packages are clean and will maintain the integrity of the food item, as communicated through product specifications. • Meat and fresh shell eggs may be purchased from local licensed producers, but because these foods are considered potentially hazardous, the products must be inspected for safety. An inspected shield should be on the package. Beef or pork that is processed in a state inspected locker may be purchased by the restaurant. Poultry must also be processed in a state locker or facility.
State inspection is sufficient if the food is purchased by a restaurant within that state. These facilities are required to have HACCP plans in place. In many states, inspection standards are more stringent than USDA regulations. • Purchase pasteurized diary products. 2. Visit approved vendors to ensure that they maintain clean warehouses adhere to safe storage and handling practices and have a secure facility to minimize intentional contamination. 3. Observe the delivery vehicles to ensure that they are clean and temperatures are controlled. 4. Request photo ID badge of delivery person. . Use written product specifications to ensure that the vendor knows what is to be delivered. The outlet manager will: 1. Develop and implement written product specifications to ensure products purchased consistently meet restaurant expectations. 2. Coordinate delivery times with vendors/suppliers to ensure that deliveries are made when they can be stored immediately. Schedule receiving times when product quantity and quality