Strategic information communication systems


Over the old ages, information proviso was uplifted and bastioned. It was even regarded as a corporate plus in organisation ( Cattela, 1981 ) . That information though demands to be managed and unafraid carefully within the organisation. The discovery of Information Communication and Technology ( ICT ) patterns in organisation takes topographic point in this present form. The mushrooming concern bureaus every bit good as other organisation towards ferocious competition, increase the demand on Information System ( IS ) development in order to execute strategic direction in their organisation severally ( Rogerson & A ; Filder, 1994 ) .A prodigious investing on the IS signifies that the undertaking needs to be planned carefully. Weather the system was developed by the organisation itself or by outsourcing other company, Strategic Information System Planning ( SISP ) should be hold decently. In IS, database development stage is considered as a important stage.Asdatabase direction invariably has been a challenge in organisational database development and execution, the SISP attack may be usefulwithin the database development intended forthe best consequence and planning procedure. Further treatment on the attack of SISP in Database Development Life Cycle ( DBLC ) is touched to demo the relationship of SISP to the database development and execution phase.

1.0 Introduction

Information System ( IS ) leads to enormous benefits for organisation. It promotes touchable benefits along with intangible benefits to the organisation including the tax write-off on work undertaking, betterment on direction and efficiency, sweetening of mechanization, advancement in gross and others. However, IS development procedure involves a tough phase and stage. Even the issues on SISP betterment became critical among practicians ( Brancheau & A ; Wetherbe, 1987 ) as cited in ( Lederer, et. al. , 1988 ) . It requires a item survey on the concern patterns and ends to guarantee the dependability and effectivity of the IS.

The indispensable portion is that the system itself should supply affirmatory transmutation to the organisation and align with the key concern ends. In position of the fact that information system promotes high benefits, tonss of organisations are willing and fix to put a immense sum of budget to develop adept system. An organisation may hold more than one system to back up the different organisational degrees and functions. As the undertaking of IS ever involves high sums of investings, the development procedure should be as fluid and success as it can.

2.0 Organizational Database Development

Information System ( IS ) handiness in organisation allows informations and information be managed efficaciously. IS is build with the combination of constituents such as package, database ( s ) , hardware, application plans and processs. Database is a group of related points of information that is stored in a computing machine in some sort of signifier ( Reymann, 1984 ) . Database can besides cognize as a construction or formation that be able to hive away information about assortment types of entities and about the relationship among it ( Prat & A ; Adamski, 2000 ) . This will necessitate a careful program, committedness and direction in order to acquire the best consequence and merchandise of IS.

The SISP Perspective

Planing procedure is a premier map of direction ( Wang & A ; Tai, 2003 ) . A good planning will take to a good direction pattern. There are many attacks that can be usage or select by organisation in their planning procedure. Partss of the attacks available including operational planning, direction control and strategic planning.A Strategic planning involves people to categorise aims for system development, constitution of policy and assessment of computing machine systems possible.

As for Strategic Information System Planning ( SISP ) , it can be specifying as a method that can change over inputs into end products ( King, 1988 ) as cited in ( Hartono et al, 2003 ) . It is besides a procedure that map to set up a plan or application and execution of IS therefore giving benefits to organisation ( Hartog & A ; Herbert, 1986 ) as cited in ( Lederer, et. al. , 1988 ) in footings of the effectivity of the information resources ( Remenji, 1991 ) as cited in ( Rogerson & A ; Filder, 1994 ) . SISP is besides good known as a procedure of depicting a portfolio of computing machine based applications that will help organisation concern programs and ends ( Hartono et al, 2003 ) .

SISP is more common to Information System Planning ( ISP ) that was recognized in the early 1969 ( Lederer,1989 ) . However, the usage of SISP attack besides be usage and adapt in the database development, as the database is a portion of IS.

There are many techniques that can be use by developers to back up the SISP procedure, including value-chain analysis ( VCA ) , critical success factor ( CSFs ) and SWOT analysis ( strengths, failings, chances and menaces ( Rogerson & A ; Filder, 1994 ) . Each phase or stage in the Database Life Cycle ( DBLC ) could do usage of the attack. Sing that there have been many theoretical accounts and models being discussed for the SISP attack ( Earl, 1989 ) as cited in ( Rogerson & A ; Filder, 1994 ) , it was the occupation of system developers and database developers to do determinations on what model to be chosen. Database is considered every bit important as the system itself since database besides support those applications.

3.0 The Importance of SISP

SISP is an attack that can be use in database development. The attack can be absorbed into the database planning procedure. SISP will provide the large or big position of IS and database planning will touch and concentrate to database development. SISP and database planning is an of import facets that must be consider by undertaking squad. It can assist an organisation to observe the most information systems applications needed to be focus or invest ( Henderson & A ; Sifonis, 1988 ) . This is because by developing program, there will be clear and comprehensive thoughts and concurrencies on what are the database demands ( CompuMentor, 2001 ) , is it low-cost and can the database able to be support.

Besides that, strategic planning is of import for the ground that it examines and inspects current information and do clear on future demands ( CompuMentor, 2001 ) . Appropriate database need the undertaking squad to analyze the information moves within organisation. In add-on, be aftering theoretically will take to enhancement of communicating with users and to magnify the direction support ( McLean & A ; Soden, 1977 ) as cited in ( Lederer, et. al. , 1988 ) .

During database planning, security steps are considered really of import. Database security may be divide into two degrees, which is security on calamity such as larceny and against the indefensible usage. Eventuality program should be form to cover the security issues. ( Rolland, 1998 )

Hazard on SISP Abundance

Planing procedure will minimise the opportunities of failure. In other words, it can be said that without planning, database will neglect ( Lederer, 1989 ) . The effectivity of planning is non merely depends on the planning procedure, but someway besides depending on the organisation features and IS map ( Wang & A ; Tai, 2003 ) . Effectiveness will derived from be aftering capableness and the fulfillment of the objectives.A On the other manus, for those who implemented SISP, they besides face a decisive and critical issue. This is because SISP frequently unsuccessful. Thingss that have been proposed in the SISP sometimes were ignore and other applications are applied ( Earl,1990 ) .

4.0 SISP Difficulties on Database Development

SISP execution procedure may take a long clip to be accomplished. This besides depends to the troubles or challenges faced by the undertaking squad. The challenges at some phase in database development may possibly different with each organisation, however there still be similarity with it.

The common challenges appear while holding database development is the resource related jobs. These include the enlistment or job of time-requirements, forces and top direction support that normally happened during the initial survey phase ( Lederer, et. al. , 1988 ) . Troubles will ease to go on when the planning squad involves excessively many people ( Vacca, 1983 ) as cited in ( Lederer, et. al. , 1988 ) . Engagement of more people will convey and show assortment thoughts and demands. Therefore, it will be difficult to comeout with an understanding.

Choosing a squad leader besides brings challenges. Team leader plays an of import function in the SISP whereby the success of it is greatly rely on the squad leader ( Zachman, 1982 ) as cited in ( Lederer, et. al. , 1988 ) . In add-on, many support forces are needed during the initial survey ( Rockart, 1979 ) as cited in ( Lederer, et. al. , 1988 ) . This is because informations garnering procedure and analysis may affect a long period of clip.

Sometimes, it is besides hard to aline the undertaking with the direction ends and aims every bit good as obtaining their apprehension ( Kearns, 2004 ) of the database strategic functions ( Lederer,1989 ) . Additionally, there could besides be challenge to find the terminal users ‘ demands. The thoughts and demands from both of top direction and terminal users may be diverse with each other and besides alteration from clip to clip. This state of affairs will give troubles to project squad to follow the day of the month line. If the client keeps altering demands, the database interior decorator should do farther survey and supply other database design, before proceed to system development. For this sort of state of affairs, database interior decorator and other squad members must be prepare to alter.

The execution of SISP methodological analysiss besides faced the jobs of procedure related. It occurs when there were restrictions on the analysis done throughout the planning phase. For illustration, parts of the organisation studies or paperss could non be entree by the undertaking squad or worse, the certification of the organisation is unequal and improper.

Finally, the end product related jobs. Is the end product or database planning comprehensive and appropriate for the system and does the organisation direction or users satisfy with the database? .A Therefore, through SISP for the database, undertaking squad shall believe out and see the possible troubles raised and what solution they could transport out.

Adapting from the success factors of IS be aftering procedure from Md Hafiz Selamat, , the success indexs can besides be position from the database planning facets. The points can be view as follows:

* It is necessary to aline the corporate aims with the database development scheme.

* A primary inspiration and inducement should be pattern in the initial planning procedure.

* The database planning and development relates to the organisation degree and adulthood.

* The most suited method must be usage in the database planning.

* Measure the effectivity of the database planning

* Include readying of execution program so that it meets the SISP aims.

5.0 SISP Practice in Database Development

Before traveling much further, it is of import to foreground the elements of database. Database should back up concern ends and concern schemes. In this treatment, six stage of DBLC will be touched by alining with the SISP attack.

( Beginning: Rob & A ; Coronel, 2007 )

SISP should be pattern every bit shortly as the first stage of database development started. Get downing with the database initial surveies, the developer and user truly necessitate to collaborate together. In this phase miss-communication may go on. To hold the same apprehension, many meetings have to be arranged. It is of import for both parties to run into the same apprehension.

Database Initial Study

The initial survey stage involves the activity of analysing organisation ‘s ends and aims, constructions and operations that was in pattern. The accurate information received from an appropriate organisation survey will provide jobs and restraints designation to the undertaking team.A Revision on paperss and studies should non be ignored. This is because studies will let the squad to place the database outcomes. The squad should do certain that the database does non roll up excessively wide or excessively narrow information ( CompuMentor, 2001 )

In this phase, SWOT analysis on old system used by the organisation demand to be perform. This measure allows the squad members to place the strengths, chances, menaces, jobs and failings for the current database procedure.

The squad can place whether they merely need to repair the database or replace it with new databases. If they were to make up one’s mind constructing new databases, they may build database system specifications whereby aims, range and boundaries for the database were identified.

There are several grounds why organisation wanted to replace their existing databases ( CompuMentor, 2001 ) . Some of the grounds are:

I. The current database depends to old platform such as Disk Operating System ( DOS ) but the package used demand to be run on current platform.

two. It is complicated and difficult to repair bugs or upgrade the system, therefore new system need to be developed.

three. Good and proper studies could non be generate from the database and heightening the database requires high cost.

Database Design and Information Flow

The 2nd stage of database development is the database design.A Before planing the database, there are several basic stairss to be followed such as garnering all information needed, place the entities or objects, model the entities, placing the types of information for each entity and besides clear up the relationships (, 2009 ) . After informations required are gathered, the squad should form it into the types of informations object, depends on the DBMS used ( Rolland, 1998 ) .

It is necessary for the squad to interview the organisation staffs those involve with the system to acquire the demand from the database. Collection of client statements, direction studies any other paperss related to the bing system will be utile for planing stage. Planing on informations and information required should be handle in progress so that undertaking squad clear about their undertakings ( CompuMentor, 2001 ) .

This stage prosecute the conceptual design, logical design and besides physical design. In bring forthing the conceptual design, survey on demands and analysing informations is important. This is to make informations patterning for the database. Database interior decorator should roll up information that will assist him or her to construct a good design for the database. The information normally could be obtained by researching the current system in the organisation, garnering informations from terminal users and besides through communicating with undertaking squad members (, 2009 ) .

Subsequently so, Entity Relationship Modelling and standardization should be carry out. Database interior decorator can utilize several tools in order to bring forth conceptual theoretical account. They are Entity Relationship Diagram ( ERD ) , standardization and eventually informations lexicon. In this phase, interior decorator must place the entities, properties, primary keys and foreign keys. All definitions have to fulfill the terminal users and processing demands. After make up one’s minding the intervention of multivalent properties, derived properties every bit good as sorting the relationships, interior decorator could build ERD and normalise the informations theoretical account. In add-on, standard calling conventions must be usage so that the ERD is easy to be understood.

Following, informations theoretical account confirmation demand to be done. This portion is critical to have terminal users satisfactions and understandings and besides to analyze the processing contentment. Confirmation can be made through a few reviews. First through terminal users data positions and necessitate minutess. Then, interior decorator can prove the entree way and security control and in conclusion, a trial on concern imposed information demands.

When come ining the logical design portion, it really defines the conceptual design. In this phase, Database Management System ( DBMS ) dependant is consider. Then, for physical design, interior decorator will choose informations entree and informations storage features of the database. In this phase, interior decorator counter with several challenges that needed him or her to be detail in planing database. Besides the issue on database public presentation, the database interior decorator should besides see on the security issues. Database should be ever in a secure environment. Other than the physical security, entree rights and audit trails besides need to be on manus. Other than anything else, the database should hold backup and recovery system. As the information being kept is the plus for organisation, its being demand to be assured. Once the database have jobs such as clang, the squad should hold backup program to cover it.


Execution phase requires installing of DBMS and creative activity of all databases. It starts from making database storage group and tabular arraies to infixing informations to the database. During the procedure of execution, there may be affect the procedure of making database, modifying database, sing database metadata, documenting and scripting databases and canceling a database. In each procedure, everything should be done base on the strategic planning. The undertaking squad member should mention to the database decision maker for any new troubles occur.

Testing and Evaluation

This stage is a critical stage whereby squad could re-analysis the map of the database. Normally, coders will utilize any database tools such as screen painters or study generators to come out with paradigm (, 2009 ) . During the testing period, if any job occurs or happens, the squad could do solutions. Of class they may necessitate to re-modify the physical design and look back at the Database Management System ( DBMS ) specifications and constellations. Then, the undertaking squad must up-grade and settle all jobs occurred.

Operation, Maintenance and Evaluation

After rating stage have passed, database can be put in operational phase where farther analysis could be perform. Maintenance besides should be on manus to back up the database public presentation. Some care methods that can be performed are such as security audit, disciplinary care and preventative care.

6.0 Decision

SISP betterment becomes a challenge for the practicians today. Either it is being used for IS development or focal point for database development, SISP could non be a base on balls ticket of IS accomplishment. However, success is a half manner through if SISP is put into pattern. The other half could be derive if the planning is efficaciously and expeditiously being done every bit good as the execution of the SISP itself within the development procedure. Further analysis besides should be done after the SISP is complete. The failure on SISP will do the organisation to lose competitory advantage ( Hartono, et. al. , 2003 ) .

Planing requires many resources. Even to obtain top direction committedness could be a challenge. It is a must for holding their engagement in the planning procedure so that the program is aligned with the concern ends and supports concern schemes. Even though there were confrontations throughout the SISP procedure and even more challenges in practising the SISP, the undertaking squad and the top direction still should keep it in order to acquire the best consequences or results.


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