Over the past decennary, the growing of information system has been enormous. However, concern administrations need to be cautious in following any signifier of engineering so as to harvest the benefits. They have to carefully survey and make up one’s mind which 1 is appropriate for an administration to utilize. Thereby, enable any administration to accomplish its end.
Currently information systems are indispensable in any administration unlike decennaries before. There are different types of information systems. Any company should hold a clear apprehension on the appropriate 1s for the specific use. Thereby, indispensable to hold information engineering experts or directors who will advice the company on what systems to utilize to be able to understate costs and add value to a concern administration.
More so, directors and staff would cognize how to accept the alterations brought approximately by the information systems positively to enable them to work decently towards accomplishing the pre determined ends.
The article gives an account as to what information system entails as refering to a concern administration or company and how it should be used manus in manus with the strategic planning to guarantee the smooth running of any administration and its success. It farther entails and gives illustration of two companies and how they operate with respects to information systems and the strategic programs of a concern.
It is merely limited to the technological facet and the foreseen marks for the operation efficiency of an administration, it does non integrate other factors that enhance efficient direction. Merely two companies found in the UK were used to demo instance the survey at manus.
The article entails an evaluatory research of information systems and the strategic planning of two companies ; Company A and Company B.Thereby, giving a footing of how the companies should utilize the two at the same time. It is besides descriptive in the sense that it gives a clear image on the application of eight dogmas.
The research in the article is interpretive in the sense that it the reader enlightens the reader on what is needed or expected to guarantee efficiency on the direction of information systems alongside with the strategic programs of the administration.
Importance OF THE STUDY
Strategic planning is a tool used in any concern administration to demo where the administration wants to be or accomplish in future. Most schemes are either short term or long term depending on the administration itself.
However, the concern universe is non as it used to be due to the technological alterations and promotions. In some concern administrations, sections have been done off with while others have freshly emerged due to computerisation. Customers are able to cover with providers or manufacturers straight therefore extinguishing the usage mediators as was before. Furthermore ; the cyberspace has greatly changed the concern scene.
It is evident that any administration has to make alterations so as to maintain up with the ever-changing and lifting demand for engineering. An administration has to be abreast with its information system so that it can cognize its bing rivals in the current concern state of affairs. Basically, have an overview of the current situational demands and alterations of an administration ensuing into placing the strengths and weaknesses both internally and externally and if need be right to guarantee maximal success.
The article clearly emphasizes on the demand of both information system and strategic planning for the operational efficiency. It clearly shows the troubles of pull offing the former since planning is systematic whilst engineering is non. Some companies incorporate the two otherwise and are still successful while others do non. All this depends on the type, size and location of the concern administration.
Much as both information system and strategic planning are instilled, an administration needs to work the chances and menaces to guarantee its endurance and success. This survey is meant to supply a model for the usage of information systems in an administration such that it will heighten effectivity and efficiency.
In position of this, good operational efficiency does non merely entail strategic planning but besides involves other factors like effectual direction every bit good, so as to heighten the success of any administration. Other factors that need to be considered to guarantee the smooth running of any administration include good employer/employee relationship, good communicating among staff and so on.
DEGREE OF CONTRIBUTION AND ORIGINALITY
In the 80 ‘s and 90 ‘s, as a consequence of substructure development of organisational capablenesss at that place has become a necessity to spread out the construct of information systems which have strategic importance in any concern administration. Later, with the enlargement of efficaciousness of any type of computing machine system led to the strategic planning of information systems to go an of import issue. The precedences in a program of the development of systems need to be identified into specific undertakings planned for the hereafter. For any company, it is really of import to hold a concern program in the capacity of a flexible and changeless development of organisational capablenesss which leads non merely to gain and enlargement of the company, but besides it is one of the foundations of stable competitory advantage.
Assorted writers who have made a large part into the development of Strategic Information Systems Planning such as John Ward, Joe Peppard, Martin J. , Earl MJ, and George Philip. Furthermore, an of import part in this country has been made by writers or research workers such as Samandra Pant and Cheng Hsu. They presented their work on an international conference, which was a requirement for the big development Strategic Information Systems Planning.
Consequently, a set of different theoretical and practical researches are seen. If a analogue is drawn between the two researches, most of the bow mentioned writers rely on the theoretical footing. However, among the listed writers merely George Philip uses an academic theory in pattern. The importance of his work lies in the fact that he is seeking to cut down the distance between the theoretical attack to concern procedures and application to the two companies. George Philip has made research based on related literature on Strategic Information Systems Planning therefore on footing of eight dogmas by demoing an illustration of two companies in the different countries of development.
In analysing the article it can be said that the degree of the research was evaluated to give a clear significance on the use of information systems and strategic planning at the same time. The generated work by the writer shows that there was summarisation of the related beginnings in the country and created a new way for any concern administration to hammer in front in the ever-changing technological universe. While it is really hard to depict that the attack is original it still creates a good overview of the information and creates consciousness that in information systems more or new research has to be done ever to maintain up with the alterations in concern scene to fit up with engineering.
As seen 8 dogmas were used to demo the use of both the strategic programs and information systems for the success of any concern administration. The research worker tries to make a perfect theoretical account of concern development on how any concern administration can be successful by usage of the dogmas. However, any concern administration can still be successful without following the theoretical accounts. Assorted methodological analysiss have been put frontward towards the principle of strategic planning and information systems. Thereby, any concern administration can take any methodological analysis to develop their concern based on their capablenesss and marks.
The usage of eight dogmas and methodological analysiss used is a clear indicant of a grounded theory whereby the implicit in belief is that the information holds the hint to the account. In this instance, the eight dogmas and that the accounts are meaningful to those whose actions are being studied. ( Denscombe, 2003, pg124 ) .
This is non appropriate because small range is given to other factors that besides affect the public presentation of a concern administration like the economic factors and societal factors.
RESEARCH METHODS ADOPTED
There are two methodological analysiss information systems that is impact and align methodological analysiss ( Lee and Gough, 1993 ; Booth and Philip, 2005 ) . The importance of impact methodological analysis is to accomplish competitory advantage through the use of information engineering whilst the chief intent of the align methodological analysiss is to a set up mutualism relationship between information system scheme and aims of the concern itself. ( Reich and Benbasat, 2000 ) .
It is evident that the most prevalent planning methods are the 1 that take a top-down business-led attack ( Premkumar and King 1994 ) , and are designed to convey about part between the information systems scheme and the concern scheme. Align methodological analysis includes the development scheme, which by and large goes through two chief phases:
Top-down analysis for clear uping concern demands and placing Information System demands.
Bottom-up rating of already bing Information System for rating their effectivity.
Impact methodological analysis includes the geographic expedition scheme which aims to supply the strategic or competitory advantage for the concern.
The research analysis used in the article was qualitative method. The method, in contrast to the quantitative method which focuses on the statistical measurings, relied on the
apprehension, account and reading of empirical informations and the beginnings of the formation of hypotheses and productive thoughts. In simple footings, qualitative method does non react to the inquiries of “ How much? ” “ What? ” “ How? ” and “ why? ” . Furthermore, in qualitative method, researches widely use projective and enabling techniques.
By exposing some facts from the article, it is apparent to cognize the pertinence of the method of research used. Assorted writers used for research “ instance survey ” , “ questionnaires ” , ” scientific articles ” , “ text ” , “ observation ” , “ paperss ” and thenceforth, resulted into 8 dogmas for information systems planning, this shows that the qualitative research method was largely used suitably in the research of information systems. ( Orlikowski and Baroudi, 1991 ; Alavi and Carlson, 1992 ) .In add-on the above said confirmed the undermentioned look that: utilizing the instance survey, as a problem-solving technique, which is rarely undertaken in administrations since instance surveies covering with jobs similar to the 1 experienced by a peculiar administration of a peculiar size and in a peculiar type of puting are hard to happen. More to that, Secaran ( 2000 ) suggested that the informations aggregation methods like personal interviews within assorted groups in the administration ( primary informations ) , scrutiny of company ‘s studies, informations, academic and industry studies ( secondary informations ) were used as an illustration of the qualitative research methods.
The footing of research was proposed by the two schemes: “ development scheme ” and “ geographic expedition scheme ” . In the article we have used primary beginnings ( researches ) ; Text and empirical informations for reading. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //wire.rutgers.edu/research_assignments_pri_second.html ) and secondary beginnings ( researches ) – ” Research based on the work of others. Literature that interpret or remark upon the primary beginnings ” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //wire.rutgers.edu/research_assignments_pri_second.html ) .
There are ever two types of cogency which are internal cogency and external cogency. The former of this was an end product made by the writer after the survey, or the consequence obtained on the footing of the survey. In this article, it is seen on the usage of two types of schemes and reappraisal of 8 dogmas for successful information systems planning. The latter refers to generalisation. External cogency was seen as a decision made by the writer after the cross comparing of the instance survey of the two companies. It is non clear plenty whether to speak on the internal and external actions of the instance, although the primary and secondary beginnings of informations are available. The article does include any new methods. As seen, that the writer used a more qualitative methods, with all its attender belongingss. Thereby doing the survey based on the two schemes and the reviewing of eight dogmas.
KEY FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS
Presently, the universe is in the technological epoch. Peoples and concern administrations are utilizing information systems to do life easier. In the article, there are some schemes used to hold a really strategic information systems program and doing certain that those companies reach their end.
The treatment based on the survey was on the development and geographic expedition schemes. Harmonizing to the Galliers, ( 2001 ) the company ‘s information systems scheme should use the two schemes. The development scheme, is chiefly focused on how to better the operational efficiency of a company whilst in geographic expedition scheme, it is normally used to do any concern administration have a competitory advantage. ( Philip, 2007 )
The instance survey emphasized the demand for operational efficiency in any concern administration. Operational efficiency is when the company uses the right combination of people and engineering to heighten the productiveness of the concern operation while doing certain that they are still in the budget. ( Ensynch, 2009 ) Companies must guarantee that they have the right engineering and people to be efficient in the effectual running of any concern administration. However, companies are confronting troubles in obtaining qualified employees who have technological accomplishments and cognition. They ever need to determine whether the employees have the right makings. ( Ensynch, 2009 ) .
It dwelled on the Eight Tenets in holding a successful Information system planning in order to be efficient when it comes to the operations of any concern administration. They are as follows: ( Philip, 2007 )
Developing a Business and Information System Strategy at the same time.
Using Top-down and Bottom-up Listening and Communication
Developing a High-level program with wide rules, non specific actions.
Should hold the support of the Top-Management
Using Opportunist Methods.
Mandate Proactive Implementation
Build in a Frequent Review Process and Contingency Planning
Information Technology Leaders are engineering lookouts and translators
Developing a concern and information system scheme at the same time, is when we ascertain that the concern program and the information system program go manus in manus. The procedure involves the full executive squad with the Chief Information Officer.
Communication is one factor that makes the program successful. Taking to the employees would assist them in their planning. The company needs to cognize what the employees think about a certain state of affairs and besides, those employees would assist them to bring forth some thoughts to do certain that the program made would be successful. Geting feedback sing the public presentation of the systems is besides of import so the company would cognize whether the system is making all right or non and whether it needs betterment or non.
Making certain that the program made is high-ranking plenty ; intending the program should let some alterations when implementing the plan without rewriting the whole program. By making this, they could concentrate on doing a solution when they overcome a job instead than doing the program once more.
Support from the top direction is important in holding a successful program. The senior executives must be active and makes certain that they have the right stuffs to do the program. They should besides take an immediate action when they faced a job sing the program.
The company should do certain that their program is put into pattern proactively in order to maximise the benefits of the program. They should do certain that the enforced scheme is to be effectual to avoid any jobs or incommodiousnesss when the program is implemented.
Reviewing the program is besides important. Normally, the company reviews their program at least twice a twelvemonth and directors and information engineering forces normally review the program. The reviewing of program help the Chief Information Officer to cognize if they are still on budget or non. Besides, they would cognize whether the program is making great ; whether they are making their end or non.
Last, the Chief Information Officer should hold the cognition when it comes to the development of the information systems program. The Chief Information Officer acts like a engineering lookout in an organisation. They should do certain that the engineering used incorporates with the mission and vision of the company. The Chief Information Officer should besides be cognizant of the latest engineerings in the market. He/she should cognize the right clip of puting a new engineering. They should do certain that when they buy a new engineering, it still fits within the administration ‘s budget. The Chief Information Officer should cognize the concern linguistic communication and the engineering linguistic communication for proper reading and use of both technological and concern footings.
Case surveies have become highly widespread in research. When research workers dwell on a instance survey they look into a set of related thoughts and penchants therefore when combined give the attack its typical character. However they are non alone in the sense that the footing of puting has ever been done already. ( Denscombe, 2003, pg 31 ) .
The article is clearly a instance survey on usage and pertinence of information systems and strategic planning for the operational efficiency of any concern administration. Assorted writers have put forward their sentiments whilst theories written for justification intents. However, no solid generalizations can be made ; in the sense that it would depend on 1s advantageous position point of the whole scenario and apprehension as refering to any concern administration. A director would take to follow whatever benefits the company. There is no exact expression or specific manner of pull offing the two at the same time to accomplish the administration ‘s pre-determined ends. The other issue is that information represented in the instance perchance is non to the full dependable and accurate. There is ever hazard that instance can incorporate mistakes and inaccuracy.
Apparently, the article based the research work on a qualitative attack. However, two methods of attack should hold been used, that is the qualitative attack and the quantitative attack, to bring forth an indifferent terminal consequence. In the former, it is ever natural for the research worker position non to be eliminated in the procedure.
The other restriction as clearly seen in the article is whereby merely two companies from the UK have been used in the research work. This is non equal. It should hold involved more companies since planning and usage of information systems is critical to any administration. There was besides a fluctuation in the manner he provided and collected the informations in that the companies are internationally based but merely sited the UK 1. However, different attacks or theories may use otherwise to different nationalities due to technological factors, cultural barriers, political barriers and so forth.
Furthermore, the comparing made on the two articles lacked equality. The day of the months of the research analysis done were different, In company A it was dated 2003 whilst in Company B it was dated 2004.Since the writer rated the public presentation of each comrade on the technological footing, it was non appropriate because how a company performs depends besides on other factors like rising prices rate, the state ‘s financial twelvemonth and possibly the national income for 2003 may non hold been the same as for 2004.
It is logic for programs and the manner information systems are handled to alter from clip to clip in the sense of recent information. Information systems and programs of any article besides provide recent information to be used but the research obtained dates back 5 old ages or 6 old ages or so. The article did non show how all these statements should alter in the fast growth and developing concern environments therefore no exact description of how all this eight dogmas can be effectual.
More so, the research worker should hold used existent life current state of affairss to asseverate his logical thinking and decisions. Other theoretical findings should hold been included to give a thorough and more precise apprehension of the research at manus.
Other restrictions in the research worker ‘s article included the failure to discourse the possible effects that would go on to both companies given the dogmas and that Company A did non follow most of the dogmas but still remained successful.
In this current technological epoch, companies are utilizing engineering to do work easier and derive competitory advantage in any concern universe. However, there are some companies who are non utilizing the full capacity of engineering in footings of being competitory in the market.
Companies are non enthusiastic in using the Strategic Information Systems Planning due to the fact it is expensive and it will non assist in the attainment of long term aims. In add-on, other companies do non utilize information system and strategic planning due to miss of proper cognition of the technological factors or others may be due to ignorance. However, to be competitory in the market, Strategic Information System Planning needs to be incorporated to heighten the public presentation of the concern and assistance in the normal operations of a company therefore guaranting efficiency.
Other companies should hold been used in the research procedure. It should non merely be based on this two companies when utilizing the eight dogmas since every company is different on how they approach activities carried out in any concern administration.
The research worker should hold explained more on the eight dogmas. It is non stated in the article on the effects of the eight dogmas and the utility of the dogmas on any concern administration. The research worker should besides hold emphasized more on the eight dogmas and how it can impact the fast moving and developing companies. Companies should non merely utilize the eight dogmas merely to do an information systems scheme, but seek to look for ways on how to hold an efficient operating system.
Strategic planning and information systems are critical constituents in any company ‘s end in accomplishing operational efficiency and in giving aid in the company ‘s decision-making activities. However, prudency is needed when integrating the two for the concern to gain maximal benefits.
In making so, the research worker tried to explicate on the relevancy of information system and strategic planning, in the article, by the debut of eight dogmas moving as guidelines. Thereby, any concern administration would be able to make up one’s mind the best ways on how to manage the two for operational efficiency of the organisations.
Apart from the model given, farther accounts and an thorough research should hold been brought to attending so as to do clear generalizations thenceforth, therefore make pertinence in any concern administration easier to grok and follow.
All in all, the message was still passed across by the research worker on the comparings and distinction on how different companies, in this instance, Company A and Company B, use the 8 dogmas for successful information systems and the strategic planning for operational efficiency. Thereby, enabling an analysis to be done on such a instance survey.