Students Unrest in Institutions of Higher Learning Essay

UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA ( NSUKA ) RESEARCH PAPER AUTHOR: HENRY ONYEKACHI NWAPA TITLE: A SURVEY OF STUDENTS UNREST IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING, CAUSES, EFFECTS, AND SOLUTIONS FACULTY: BUSINESS DEPARTMENT: MARKETING DATE: AUGUST 2010 SIGNATURE A SURVEY OF THE STUDENTS UNREST IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING, CAUSES, EFFECTS, AND SOLUTIONS A RESEARCH PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF BUSINESS, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKA IN PARTIAL FUFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN MARKETING BY HENRY ONYEKACHI NWAPA GSP- 101 DEPARTMENT OF MARKETING. AUGUST, 2010 II DEDICATION This work is dedicated to the God almighty, who is the giver of life, Who freely gives wisdom to all. Who inspired me all through this work. III ABSTRACT This study is aimed at looking into student’s unrest in institutions of higher learning, causes, effects and solutions.

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And the scope of this research is not focused on a particular institution, but a general over-view of all the institutions in NIGERIA The following three research questions form the bases of this investigation. (1) To what extent does the difficulty experienced by the students at school lead to student’s unrest? (2) To what extent does the activity of secret societies in the institutions of higher learning lead to student’s unrest? (3) To what extent does student’s protest of unwelcomed policies lead to student’s unrest?

The population of this research was drawn from students in various universities across the country. A mail questionnaire was designed to elicit information as answers to the above research questions. The replies to the questionnaire were analyzed using the simple mean and standard deviations. The results of the study as shown by the analytical method are as follows: – (1) The difficulties experienced by students in the institutions led to students’ unrest. (2) The activities of secret societies in the institutions contributed greatly to students’ unrest. 3) Students protest of unwelcomed policies led to unrest. IV TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No Dedication and acknowledgement………………………………. ii Abstract ……………………………………………………………………… iii Table of contents ………………………………………………………… IV List of Tables……………………………………………………………….. V CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………. 1 1. 1 Background of the study ……………………………………. 1 1. 2 Statement of the problem…………………………………… 4 1. 3 Purpose of the study …………………………………………. 6 1. 4 Significance of the study …………………………………. 6 1. 5 Scope of study……………………………………………………. 7 1. 6 Research question………………………………………………. 7 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………. 8 2. 1 Definition of students’ unrest……………………………. 8 2. 2 Difficulties experienced by students at school…… 9 2. 3 Activities of secret societies………………………………. 10 2. 4 students protest unwelcomed policies………………. 12 2. 5 Summary of review…………………………………………… 14 CHAPTER THREE EFFECTS, SOLUTIONS, CONCLUTION……………………………. 15 3. 1 Effects…………………………………………………………………… 15 3. Solutions ……………………………………………………………… 16 3. 3 Conclusion …………………………………………………………… 18 3. 4 References …………………………………………………………… 19 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 1Background of the study Nigerian higher educational institution is established with the aim of giving any student who enrolls, a very sound and qualitative education, to be able to function effectively in any environment in which he/she may find him/herself; so as to become more productive, self-fulfilling and attain self-actualization (Federal Government of Nigeria, 1981).

Under the Nigerian Policy on Education of 1977, revised in 1981, higher education aims at: (a) The acquisition development and inculcation of the proper value – orientation for the Survival of the individual and society; (b) The development of the intellectual capacities of individuals to understand and appreciate their environments; (c) The acquisition of both physical and intellectual skills which will enable individuals to develop into careful members of the community; and (d) The acquisition of an objective view of the local and external environment (Fafunwa, 1991).

Specifically, Nigerian universities are expected to pursue the above mentioned goals through: (i) Teaching, (ii) research, (iii) dissemination of Existing and new information (especially through publication); and (iv) the pursuit of service to the community and being a store house of knowledge (Fafunwa, 1991; Federal Government of Nigeria, 1981). The above mentioned objectives were formulated because education in Nigeria during the colonial era was tailored to meet the demand of the colonial masters.

Most of the educated elites were trained to become civil servants, teachers, and preachers. Though there were skilled professionals like engineers, lawyers, and doctors, these had there training abroad. So, skilled manpower were lacking in the Country at independence. To mitigate this anomaly, Nigeria had to embark o Importation of skilled manpower needed for her economic construction while, at the same time, she sponsored students to study abroad to gain the required skills. The government also undertook the provision of higher institutions to complement those studying abroad. Nigeria depended solely on petroleum export, at the mercy of fluctuating price on the world market. So the provision of free education up to university level became A substantial drain on her economy resulting in a high cost of living and a fall in standard of living. It was therefore no wonder to find Nigerians at the tax-payers’ expense deciding to live and work abroad instead of returning home to help in their countries’ development. Despite the above stipulations, research (i. e. Akinade, 1993; Aluede and Aluede 1999; Aluede, 2000; Ehiametalor, 1979; Nwokwule, 1992; Tawari, 1986; Yalokwu, 1992) Does indicate that many of Nigerian universities are finding it increasingly difficult to achieve the highlighted goals because of the many attendant problems that they are made to face. These difficulties are largely due to the problems which students who enroll these institutions either face or cause irrespective of their home backgrounds (Tawari, 1986). These problems make students’ life within and outside Nigerian university campuses, frequently a traumatic experience; which is the major reason why tudents of various Nigerian university campuses frequently demand an overhaul of the entire system (Tawari, 1986) Today, in Nigeria, students’ militancy in the Nigerian universities has come to be recognized as one of the most visible perennial problems of significance When compared with other social vices in Nigeria university campuses like campus cult activities, cases of examination malpractices, And drug abuse and addiction. Such that in the history of Nigeria, no group has established itself more in terms in frequency and intensity of such violent incidents as the student population.

Hence, unrest is proving to be one of the most ubiquitous single factors characterizing these members of the society (Nwokwule, 1992). In Nigeria, cases of student unrest were reported as far back as 1945. Ezera 1960 (as cited in Onwuejeogwu, 1991) posits that between 1940 and 1945, the West Africa Students Union (WASU) had agitated in pamphlets and public lectures for Political reforms in all British West African territories. In doing so, they aroused 2 Fairly enthusiastic audience of the British public opinion in favour of Africa freedom.

Similarly, Ajuluchukwu 1962 (as cited in Onwuejeogwu, 1991) note that from the inception, the National Union of Nigerian Students (NUNS) embarked upon deliberate campaigns of fostering national consciousness and inspiring a strong sense of militancy in the Nigerian people’s liberation struggle (Aluede, 1995; Babatope, 1974). Babatope (1974) and Onwuejeogwu (1991) note that the students’ union was born and nurtured in the womb of colonial protest. Hence student unionism was more of a protest union rather than student union, which was aimed at far reaching changes in the society.

One incident of student unrest in 1960 was essentially due to students’ dissatisfaction with government insensitivity to national issues, and its inability to address them appropriately. Nigerian students aware of the British government’s intention to establish a military base in Nigeria and by so doing perpetuate a neo-colonial state, decided to stage a protest against the proposed Anglo-Nigerian Defense pact in Lagos on November 14, 1960. Another incident was students’ dissatisfaction with newly introduced educational policies.

Before independence, only mature students were admitted into the few existing tertiary institutions. Although, they paid minimal fees, their clothes, including bedding was laundered at government expense. At independence, and thereafter, there occurred an explosion in student population and proliferation of higher education, which brought in its train a teeming population of adolescents (Ehiametalor, 1979). Added to this, was the withdrawal of tuition fees in all tertiary institutions in Nigeria. This act of the government led to the 1978 student crisis “Ali Must Go”.

Since these events, students have used several opportunities to express their grievances. Table 1 below indicates a very brief sketch of the prevalence of student unrest in Nigeria. It is evident from the table1, that protest and unrest are regular features in Nigerian tertiary institutions. 3 Year Institutions stated causes of unrest Consequences 1981 Ahmadu Bello Religion and against Vice- Student died and Vice-Chancellor dismissed. University, Zaria Chancellor over alleged Rice deal 984 Many Nigerian Proposed introduction of Many Universities were closed down for Tertiary institutions tuition fees and the scrapping months of catering services 1986 Many Universities High handedness of the Most Universities in Nigeria were closed In Nigeria Vice-Chancellor of Ahmadu down for months. While several students Bello University, Zaria were expelled. 988 Many Nigerian Removal of subsidy from many schools were closed for a period of Universities petroleum and allied products Six months. 1989 Several schools Introduction of Structural Improved conditions of service for workers In many parts of Adjustment Program closure of several institution for about six Nigeria (SAP) by the military months.

Government Many students lost their lives during the protest as a result of open shooting by Police/Army 1992 Many Universities Deregulations of Nigerian Several students died, workers’ conditions In Nigeria currency and mounting of service were improved, while several Hardship schools were closed for months 1998 Ambrose Alli Uni. Cult Activities Violent leading to the death many students Ekpoma, Nigeria 2003 Many universities increase in the prices of Peaceful in some campuses violent in others In Nigeria petroleum products The intent of this paper is threefold: (a) to state the issues that had in the past Precipitated student unrest in Nigeria; (b) the effects (c) and to proffer solutions 1. 2Statement of the problem

Students’ unrest in institutions of higher learning had perturbed the minds of Educational administrators, parents, and governments. Nigerian experience had been so much that it had been termed ‘an annual event’. As the national concord (1990) reports 4 When the federal military government reopened the higher institutions That had been shut in the wake of the last May’s anti-S. A. P riot, the Publics expectations was that these institutions would settle down to Orderly academic work, in a climate of peace and tranquility.

As so much of Precious irretrievable time had already been lost to last year’s long spell of Closure, it was only expected that both students and the authorities would, Therefore, work out a mode of orderliness and cooperation on campuses, to Avert any further disruptions. Regrettably, however that expectation has not Been realized. Over the last few weeks, a growing number of the nation’s Higher institutions have been shut for various reasons.

Only last week, just as The Ahmedu Bello and Obafemi Awolowo universities were announcing Their new resumption dates, students of the University of Port Harcourt in River states were again sent packing from their campuses. The picture emerging is that nation’s students are now constantly on the move, moving into their campuses one day, and moving out the next. Even at the huge expense students, parents, guardians, who not only have to pay unbudgeted transport cost but also suffer grave anxiety each time the schools are closed down.

It also cost thousands of students a lot as they now have to make do with haphazard emergency exterminations. Finally, the nation the brunt of the whole thing as she now annually delivers thousands of poorly-taught, half-baked graduates. This situation of affair must not be allow to continue, for it will drag educational development in particular as well as the entire development of the nation to the mud. The main problem facing this study therefore is finding out the causes of students unrest in institutions of higher learning, the effects, and olutions, and recommend ways of preventing future occurrences, for as Onanuga (1987:11) put it The trend is worrying. It must not be allowed to continue The image of the higher schools needs an urgent redemption. The university’s tradition as a place of excellence must not Die. If it does, our society dies with it. 5 1. 3 Purpose of study Students’ unrest has become a recurrent event in educational establishments all over the world. It has become an annual problem in Nigeria.

The riot of 1989 termed, “SAP RIOT” which involved higher institutions in the country was so disastrous that the country and the citizens were highly alarmed. The riot took a very dangerous trend. It was the most disastrous of all the riots that had ever occurred in the country. The rioters went to the extent of releasing prisoners, setting government vehicles and building ablaze. Many lives and property were lost. This act of indiscipline Brings untold hardship to the government, the institutions, and the parents who are often asked to pay for the damaged property.

This study, therefore is aimed at finding out the cause of students unrest in institutions of higher learning, effects, and recommendation of possible way’s of preventing future occurrences, 1. 3Significance of the study Unrest is not conducive to teaching and learning. As has been established earlier, a lot of damages are being done to life and property. If the situation is not checked, education, society and future generation will be badly affected. The result of the study should of necessity be directed to the government and educational institutions for use, with a view to reducing the incidence of tudents’ of unrest. The government, students, society, and staff shall definitely benefit if factors that cause students’ unrest are identified and well handled. Students will then study under peaceful atmosphere. The staff will be free to carry out their work without fear of molestation and interruption. Government and parents will justify their huge expenses on education and also parents would be saved the problem of being asked to pay for damages being caused by their wards. 6 1. 4Scope of the study The study was aimed at finding out the cause of student’s unrest in institution of higher learning.

The researcher examined the extent to which the factors below caused students’ unrest in institutions of higher learning. The factors are: 1. Difficulties experienced by students at school. 2. Activities of secret society in the higher institutions. 3. Students’ protest unwelcomed policies 1. 5Research Questions For effective study, the researchers posed the following research questions to guide the study. 1. To what extent does the difficulty experienced by the students at school lead to student’s unrest? 2. To what extent does the activity of secret society in institutions of higher learning lead to student’s unrest? . To what extent does student’s protest of unwelcomed policies lead to student’s unrest? 7 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 0 Introduction The researcher consulted a few libraries. In these sources, much literature dealing directly on the subject was found and so the researcher organized the review under the following sub-headings. 1. Definition of students’ unrest 2. Difficulties experienced by students at school 3. Activities of secret society in higher institutions 4. Students protest unwelcomed policies . External factors 6. Summary of review. 2. 1 Definition of students’ unrest The term ‘students’ unrest’ connotes a feeling of dissatisfaction by the students either with the authority of the general conditions of the student’s body. This dissatisfaction is usually manifested in such overt behavior as boycott of lectures, refusal to take part in examinations, meals or part in sporting activities, demonstration, riots, and strikes. It sometimes takes the form of frivolous outburst, football riots, pantry raids and faddish activities.

It can be an open manifestation of conflicts between the student body and the school authority and/or between the student’s body on the one hand and the government on the other. Oloko (1981: 3) defined the term ‘students’ unrest’ as A situation in which students in secondary or other higher Institutions resort to the use of or threat of use of violence Against persons or properties in their attempt to resolve any Issue of conflict of interest they may have with other people In their own interest.

These other people may be other students, Staff or the administrators on one hand or public authorities, National or foreign on the other. 8 Students’ unrest in our institutions is a big social problem for it affects our society in general. As a societal problem, it is very necessary for everybody in the society with it. This goes to explain why there has been a lot of newspaper articles and radio broadcast on students’ unrest from day to day. Sanya (1981:3) commenting on the issue said, “Nigeria was rocked almost to its foundation by waves of students’ unrest in 1970 to 1980 decade… . 2 Difficulties experienced by students at school Students react violently when they are deprived of certain pleasure and when they face frustrating situations. Yusuf, the pro-chancellor of the university of the university of illorin (1989:8) commenting on the standard of living of most of the students said Most of our students are living far below the poverty Datum line, and a truly hungry man or woman, Particularly an adolescent, tends neither not to care About GOD or country.

Poor sanitary conditions in the institutions also lead to student’ unrest as was indicated in the Nigerian mirror (1990:2) Official activities were paralyzed for more than three Hours in Ado-ekiti local Government secretariat on Wednesday as students of ondo state university, Ado- Ekiti besieged the secretariat protesting the poor sanitary Conditions of their satellite hostel…. These students also complained about their water pipes that are damaged.

Before the students’ riot at the university of Nigeria, Nsuka on 17th of February 1981, the students wrote the Vice-chancellor of the university telling him of all 9 Their problems which ranged from poor sanitary conditions of hostels, lack of toilet rolls, beddings-pillow, bed-sheets and pillow cases, seats, blackout at toilet ends, dangerous obstructions with beds, mattresses and lockers in hostel veranders, no common rooms in some halls. Lack of classrooms laboratory and library accommodations, poor catering services, poor quality and quantity of food, poor service. They also complained about the accounts department.

They urged that those in that department be made to do their work promptly to alleviate the problem encountered by students. They also complained about scarcity of drugs at the medical centre and also absence of doctors there. These students equally requested that those in the works department should sit up and mend the facilities that are damaged in the campus and also finish up the work at the students’ centre. The students equally demanded for the removal of the Dean of student whom they alleged do not represent their interest and is the cause of their suffering as he failed to represent them well before the authorities.

They issued an ultimatum that if their problems are not solved by the 16th of February that they will endure the situation no more. The letter to the Vice-chancellor was dated 9th February 1981. The students of the university started demonstrations on the 17th of February 1981 after the expiration of the ultimatum and nothing visible to them was done. 2. 3 Activities of secret societies in higher institutions Secret societies as Sunday best (1990:7) defined it as groups or organizations characterized by the use of secret initiation and other rituals, oaths and signs or recognition between members.

According to it (Sunday best) the first rule and cardinal obligation of a member of most secret societies is the maintenance of absolute secrecy both of his or her identity, those of fellow members and of the activities of the society. 10 In an answer to the question on why secret societies exist on campuses; the Sunday best (1990:7) said that It is first of all a carry-over from society at large. It went on to explain that some of the secret societies In the campuses are branches, so to say of parent Societies outside the campus.

It gave examples with Such societies, the pyrates, the Eckanker and other Popular fraternities known and existing in the larger Society which are found on the campuses. According to the Sunday best, some of these campus societies are quite independent of outside parent societies, merely copings of them while some are directly sponsored and financed by parent societies outside the campus. They have various callings and objectives.

Among the secret societies that originate on the campuses are the more sinister and violence-oriented ones that are really the cause of rumpus in the campuses. Their usual method as the Sunday best said, is intimidation and harassment of non-initiate students and staff with the objective of instilling fear and submission in them, thereby enthroning their authority to be law unto themselves and hence achieve their selfish ends. These ends, according to the Sunday best, could range from passing an examination, satisfying sexual esires, attracting financial support or even resisting sabotaging college policies and regulations. Talking more on the activities of the societies, the Sunday best said that members of such organizations could walk into bar and order non-member to leave or else force them to buy drinks for them. A member could order a female student to sexual intercourse or more appropriately, rape her without as much as the girl or madam daring to make noise in the form of official report, as such action could mean much more bitter chastisement and harassment for her.

The secret societies sometimes engage each other in bloody fights as a result of rivalry and clash of interest. The incident at the University of Nigeria a few years ago in which one student was killed and two other seriously wounded by unknown people gives an insight to the activities of these secret cults, for the following day as Usen (1990:14) reported 11 A vicious cult gang which called itself the Ever-ready-souls of the Concern, claimed responsibility for the bloodbath.

In the statement Issued on a piece of paper, smeared with blood, the gang, better Identified as the Buccaneers, said its midnight attack was a Revenge against “acts of terrorism” by another underground Campus cult called the pyrates. It warned the pyrates and other Members of the university community to be ready to shed more Blood and lives anytime from now. One can then imagine the kind of teaching and learning that take place under this condition.

This situation is not peculiar to university of Nigeria, Nsuka; these activities occur in higher institutions in the country. Students are even more distraught, said I. M. Onuoha, student union leader of ASUTECH as Usen reports. He said: The whole thing is getting out of hand. The (campus cult) Have become so heartless and callous that students no Longer feel safe to pursue learning under an ideal, happy And healthy environment. Commenting on the issue, Mike Ibekwe (1991:5) said “if secret cults exist in our educational institutions, it is goodbye to the education of the nation. 2. 5 Student protest unwelcomed policies During Babangida’s regime, students protested because of S. A. P and the way government officials behave. The sap pains were not evenly distributed as the nation continues to witness an uninterrupted flow of V-boot Mercedes; the lip-service paid to the curtailment of extravagant perquisites by senior government officials, the high level sharing of prime land, the booming luxury apartment when the entire populace is suffering led to the students’ unrest in 1989. 12 According to Omuabor and Co’s 91989:22) account; The nation began to witness the SAP rebellion. University Of Benin was the start-off point of the protest… the students Marched out with mock coffin, headed for the government house, Benin crying “SAP must go”, “We are dying of hunger in the name of SAP, “and Babangida must go” In 1978 during Obasanjo’s regime students protested the astronomical increase in food prices in universities. They blamed government policies on education on Ahmadu Ali, a colonel and commissioner for education, and demanded his immediate removal. ALI must go”, they said. In the spreading violence more than six students were killed in clash with police. Students’ unrest are caused by the attitudes of those in power who look on students as rabble-rousers, lay-about and misguided lots. According to Obanigba (1988:13) When students in Apartheid South Africa go on protest, They are quickly hailed as patriots who are fighting for Their future… But when Nigeria students protest against The implementation of the I.

M. F-sponsored economic policies As subsidy removal, they are dubbed unpatriotic. This should Not be so. Students are too patriotic to sit still and watch while Their future is mortgaged… students in this country have always Borne the brunt of our leaders’ painlessness…. Students’ unrest are at times caused by students’ solidarity in support of their fellow students or lecturer whom they feel are being victimized by the government or the school authorities.

For instance, after the April 1988 demonstration against the removal of petroleum subsidy which started at the university of Jos, the federal government closed down the school that participated and went on to shower those that did not participate with gifts but the gifts were turned down by the students who felt that the government wants to bribe them and break their solidarity. As Elumunor and co. 91988:9) put it The federal government made a dramatic gift of three buses To Ahmadu Bello university (ABU), Zaria and two to the University of Benin (UNIBEN), as “a mark of gratitude from the 13 Government for their maturity in not joining their colleagues Else where in demonstrating against the hike in petroleum Product prices”. In a swift move, the students of both

Universities turned down the vehicle offers; the UNIBEN students Described the gift as “a bribe too stinking for our dignity” and went Ahead to demand the very things for which students else where Went on strike- the restoration of oil subsidy, release of detained Student’s leaders and the immediate reopening of the closed Schools. A. B.

U students followed suit saying the gesture was a “Bribe,”… “An attempt to break the unity and solidarity among Students and to set the working masses and the general populace Against us”. 2. 8 Summary of Review The review shows that the following factors contribute to students’ unrest in institutions of higher learning: 1. Difficulty experienced by students in the institutions. 2. Activities of secret societies in the institution 3. Students protest unwelcomed policies. 4 CHAPTER THREE EFFECTS,SOLUTION,CONCLUTION EFFECTS As we can see, students’ unrest is highly counter-productive to education. Education ought to take place in a conducive atmosphere free from bitterness and rancor. The issue of closing down the institutions now and then because of students’ unrest does not benefit either the students or the society. It rather results to the production of half-baked graduates for most of the times courses and exterminations are rushed in order to meet up with time.

The effect of the above action is often very costly and shameful. Many lives and property are lost during these unrests. Many parents and teachers are demoralized. Even some innocent students get disenchanted with the school system. The school authorities are also highly affected since they have to contend with an unhappy environment full of bitterness. The lecturer and others in the campus often live in fear. Many people both students and staffs of the institutions find it difficult to go about their business on the campus.

Academic and research works that are done in the higher institutions are highly tasking and need to be done by peaceful minds for positive achievements to be made. The researcher therefore decides to address this issue of students’ unrest which does not make for productive work in the institutions. Though many people have talked on this issue of unrest, the situation remained unabated. One can hardly pass any month in the year without hearing of the incident occurring in one institution or the other.

The researcher decided to dig-deep into the causes of these students’ unrest with a view to recommending solutions which, if adhered to, will help in curbing students’ unrest in higher institutions in the country 15 SOLUTIONS Based on the researcher’s findings, the researcher makes the following recommendations which she feels if implemented, would help in curbing students’ unrest in institutions of higher learning in Nigeria in particular, so that education will no longer be interrupted and teaching and learning will take place in a conducive atmosphere.

They are as follows: 1. Students should be provided with adequate hostel accommodations. This will include beds and beddings as well as toilet facilities. These are very necessary since the students engage in serious academic and research works they need to have adequate rest to help them keep fit. 2. The environment should be kept clean, starting from the hostels down to the lecture rooms, the libraries, laboratories, recreation grounds and most importantly the toilet ends. This is very necessary to avoid epidemics on the campuses.

Cleaners should be employed to do these jobs since the students are engaged in their studies most of the times. But they should help at least once in a month in keeping their environment clean. 3. Since most of the hostels are far away from the lecture rooms, the libraries and laboratories and these places most of often are highly separated, transport within the campuses is very necessary. All the school should be provided with some buses or/and taxi cabs to help in conveying the students inside the campuses. The prices should also be controlled to avoid exploitation of the students. . Contractors now provide food for students in the institutions and they are very much after making profits. Their activities should be checked by an honest food committee to make sure that they do not exploit the students and also that the food is prepared in a clean environment. 5. Lecture rooms are very necessary in the institutions. Students deserve to sit comfortably and receive their lectures, but this is not the case in our institutions. Students struggle for even spaces to stand and listen to the lecturers, not to talk of where to sit down. This should not be the case.

I recommend that provision of lecture rooms and seats for students should be a number one priority in every institution. Students should be provided with comfortable lecture rooms, where they can sit down, see whatever is written or demonstrated in the lecture room, hear the lecturer as he speaks. 16 6. Library books are highly indispensable especially these days that books are very expensive. Not all parents can afford the money for these books, so if meaningful teaching and learning can take place in the institutions the libraries need to be well equipped. 7.

Laboratory equipment is also very essential in the higher institutions since learning there is done through teaching and research. The laboratories should not lack any of the things needed for the researches. 8. Students should be given regular bursary award, since most of them come from poor families. They ought to be helped for their education will be for the benefit of the whole nation. 9. There is an adage which says that ‘health is wealth and a healthy mind dwells in a healthy body’. Since this is the case, we see that providing medical services in our institutions is very necessary.

Most of the times, doctors assigned to the medical centers’ in the higher institutions do not turn up. They do private practices to the detriment of their official duties with the result that most of the times doctors are not available at the medical centres. These doctors should be made to do their jobs. Drugs should be provided in the medical centres. It should not be the question of recommending drugs for the students to go and buy for this exposes them to the exploitation of the traders who most of the time sell expired drugs to them thereby putting their lives in danger. 0. It has been made clear that secret societies are not desired in the higher institutions. Most of them cause a lot of havocs in the institutions. These bad ones should be sought out and stamped out. The authorities have already started this but they need to pacify efforts to fish all of them out and bring them to book. Anyone found guilty should leave the campus. 11. The government should avoid being deceitful and hypocritical in her policies.

For instance, the structure adjustment programme issue which is meant for the people to curtail luxury ought to have affected every section of the society, but the high ranking military officers and a few others in the society appeared to be immunized. So the majority of the populace whom the student represents see themselves as being cheated. 12. Finally, students should make conscious efforts not to engage in the destruction of properties whenever they have a cause to demonstrate. History has shown that they always bear the consequences of the destructions directly or indirectly. 7 CONCLUSION It is imperative to recognize those issues that are likely to generate campus unrest, especially in the subsequent decades of the millennium: student campus life issues; poor funding of Nigerian universities by the government; and withdrawal of subsidy from petroleum products. In appreciation of the potential issues that would generate student protests in the near future, student services professional would be challenged to evolve strategies that would help to bring the incidents of student unrest in Nigerian universities to the barest minimum. 18 REFERNCES Akinade, E. A. 1993. “Guidance and Counselling Strategies for Preventing or Controlling Students Activism in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions”. pp 130 – 138. in O. Animba, D. Denga and P. F. Omoluabi (eds. ), An Appraisal of Student Unrest in Nigeria. Enugu, Nigeria: AB/C Publishers. -Aluede, O. O. 1995. Factors Influencing Student Unrest in Tertiary Institutions in Edo State of Nigeria. Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria. -Aluede, O. O. 1996. “Counselling intervention strategies in curbing student unrest in Nigerian tertiary institutions”.

Journal of Educational and Vocational Studies, 1(4): 24- -Charlotte buhler & co. (1958). Childhood Problems USA: Henry holt and co -Dowse and Hughes (1972). Political Sociology New York: John Wiley and sons ltd -Eleanya Leo (1991). Great lessons for the third Republic. Enugu: auto-century Publishing ltd. -Ozigi Albert (1976). A handbook on school Administration and management. London: Macmillan Education ltd DOCUMENTS 1. National Policy on Education, 1981 2. University of Nigeria Report of Inquiry into students’ Disturbance and act of vandalism at Nsuka Campus (24th Feb. 1981 19

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