Study Guide

Question Answer
What happens to air pressure as altitude increases? It decreases.
What are auroras? Shimmering lights caused by ions radiating energy.
Where are auroras found? They are found in the ionosphere which is in the thermosphere layer.
What is the ozone layer? Part of atmosphere that absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
Where is the ozone layer? It is found in the stratosphere.
How are the 3 main gases distributed in the air? Nitrogen 78%, Oxygen 21%, and Other Gases 1%.
List the layers of the atmosphere from sea level. Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, and Thermosphere.
What is another name for the distance above sea level? Altitude or Elevation.
What property are the layers of the atmosphere based on? Temperature.
How does temperature change as you move through the layers of the atmosphere? Warm to cold/cold to warm.
What is the atmosphere? A mixture of gases that surround a planet or moon.
What is significant about the troposphere? We live here in this layer. It is the densest.
What is significant about the mesosphere? It is the coldest. Meteors burn up.
Air has mass because it has ____________________ and _______________________. Air pressure, density and volume.
Where are satellites found? In the exosphere.
Explain the three transfers of heat. Conduction – direct contact
Convection – circular pattern
radiation – transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves.
What is the greenhouse effect? The warming of the Earth's surface due to thermal energy.
How is most of the heat transferred on Earth? Through convection; cold rises and warm air sinks.
Describe the movement of convection currents. Circular movement of air pushes.
What causes global warming? The burning of fossil fuels increases average global warming.
Explain Coriolis Effect. The apparent curving of the path of a moving object due to Earth's rotation.
How are all winds created? The movement of air caused by differences in air pressure.
How are global winds formed? The Coriolis Effect produces patterns of air circulation.
List the 3 Global Winds. Trade winds, Westerlies, and Polar Easterlies.
List the 2 Calm Areas. Doldrums and Horse Latitudes.
What are some differences between global and local winds? Global winds are all around the world; Local winds are just around you and can come from any direction.
How are mountain breezes and valley breezes different? Mountain breezes are cool and valley breezes are warm.
Describe properties of warm and cool air. Warm air – low pressure, low density, rises
Cool air – high pressure, high density, sinks
How does air move at the equator and at the poles? Circular air movement. Warm air rises at equator and cool air sinks at the poles.
Which direction do winds move in the northern hemisphere? Clockwise or to the right.
Describe the jet stream. A narrow belt of strong winds that blow in the upper troposphere.
What parts of the earth cools faster and heats up faster? Land heats and cools faster than water.
Describe Land breezes. Local night winds where warm air rises over land and lowers over water. Cools at land.
Describe Sea Breezes. Local day winds where cooler air sinks

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