I have made this study file on the subject MOBILE PHONE CLONING. I have tried my best to clarify all the relevant item to the subject to be included in the study. While in the beginning I have tried to give a general position about this subject. My attempts and wholehearted co-corporation of each and everyone has ended on a successful note. I express my sincere gratitude to ………… . . who helping me throughout the prepration of this subject. I thank him for supplying me the support. assurance and most significantly the path for the subject whenever I needed it.
Mobile communicating has been readily available for several old ages. and is major concern today. It provides a valuable service to its users who are willing to pay a considerable premium over a fixed line phone. to be able to walk and speak freely. Because of its utility and the money involved in the concern. it is capable to fraud. Unfortunately. the progress of security criterions has non kept gait with the airing of nomadic communicating. Some of the characteristics of nomadic communicating make it an tempting mark for felons. It is a comparatively new innovation. so non all people are rather familiar with its possibilities. in good or in bad. Its newness besides means intense competition among nomadic phone service suppliers as they are pulling clients. The major menace to mobile phone is from cloning.
WHAT IS CELL PHONE CLONING?
Cell phone cloning is copying the individuality of one Mobile telephone to another nomadic telephone. Normally this is done for the intent of doing deceitful telephone calls. The measures for the calls go to the legitimate endorser. The cloner is besides able to do efficaciously anon. calls. which attracts another group of interested users. Cloning is the procedure of taking the programmed information that is stored in a legitimate Mobile phone and illicitly programming the indistinguishable information into another nomadic phone. The consequence is that the “cloned” phone can do and have calls and the charges for those calls are billed to the legitimate endorser. The service supplier web does non hold a manner to distinguish between the legitimate phone and the “cloned” phone. WHEN DID CELL CLONING START?
The early 1990s were roar times for eavesdroppers. Any funny adolescent with a A‚A?100 Tandy Scanner could listen in to about any parallel mobile phone call. As a consequence. Cabinet Ministers. company head and famous persons routinely found their most intimate conversations published in the following day’s yellow journalisms Cell phone cloning started with Motorola “bag” phones and reached its extremum in the mid 90’s with a normally available alteration for the Motorola “brick” phones. such as the Classic. the Ultra Classic. and the Model 8000. GSM
Global System for Mobile Communications. A digital cellular phone engineering based on TDMA GSM phones use a Subscriber Identity Module ( SIM ) card that contains user history information. Any GSM phone becomes instantly programmed after stop uping in the SIM card. therefore leting GSM phones to be easy rented or borrowed. Operators who provide GSM service are Airtel. Hutch etc. CDMA
Code Division Multiple Access. A method for conveying coincident signals over a shared part of the spectrum. There is no Subscriber Identity Module ( SIM ) card unlike in GSM. Operators who provides CDMA service in India are Reliance and Tata Indicom. IS FIXED TELEPHONE NETWORK SAFER THAN MOBILE PHONE?
The reply is yes. In malice of this. the security maps which prevent eavesdropping and Unauthorized utilizations are emphasized by the nomadic phone companies. The bing nomadic communicating webs are non safer than the fixed Telephone webs. They merely offer protection against the new signifiers of maltreatment SECURITY FUNCTIONS OF THE GSM AND CDMA
As background to a better apprehension of the onslaughts on the GSM and CDMA web The following gives a brief debut to the Security maps available in GSM. The undermentioned maps exist: A? Access control by agencies of a personal smart card ( called endorser Identity faculty. SIM ) and PIN ( personal designation figure ) . A? Authentication of the users towards the web bearer and coevals of A session key in order to forestall maltreatment. A? Encoding of communicating on the wireless interface. i. e. between nomadic Station and base station. A? hiding the usersa„? individuality on the wireless interface. i. e. a impermanent valid Identity codification ( TMSI ) is used for the designation of a nomadic user alternatively Of the IMSI. HOW BIG OF A PROBLEM IS CLONING FRAUD?
The Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association ( CTIA ) estimates that fiscal losingss in due to cloning fraud are between $ 600 million and $ 900 million in the United States. Some endorsers of Reliance had to endure because their phone was cloned. Mobile Cloning Is in initial phases in India so preventative stairss should be taken by the web supplier and the Government. HOW IS CELL CLONING DONE?
Cloning involved modifying or replacing the EPROM in the phone with a new bit which would let you to configure an ESN ( Electronic consecutive figure ) via package. You would besides hold to alter the MIN ( Mobile Identification Number ) . When you had successfully changed the ESN/MIN brace. your phone was an effectual ringer of the other phone. Cloning needed entree to ESN and MIN braces. ESN/MIN braces were discovered in several ways: Sniffing the cellular
Trashing cellular companies or cellular resellers
Choping cellular companies or cellular resellers
Cloning still works under the AMPS/NAMPS system. but has fallen in popularity as older ringer able phones are more hard to happen and newer phones have non been successfully reverse-engineered. Cloning has been successfully demonstrated under GSM. but the procedure is non easy and it presently remains in the kingdom of serious hobbyists and research workers.
ARE OUR CELL PHONES SECURED?
Excessively many users treat their nomadic phones as appliances instead than as concern assets covered by corporate security policy. Did you realize there’s a moneymaking black market in stolen and “cloned” Sim cards? This is possible because Sims are non web specific and. though tamper-proof. their security is flawed. In fact. a Sim can be cloned many times and the resulting cards used in legion phones. each feeding illicitly off the same measure. But there are locking mechanisms on the cellular phones that require a PIN to entree the phone. This would deter some aggressors. foil others. but might non work against a well financed and equipped aggressor. An 8-digit PIN requires about 50. 000. 000 conjectures. but there may be ways for sophisticated aggressors to short-circuit it.
With the displacement to GSM digital – which now covers about the full UK Mobile sector – the phone companies assure us that the bad old yearss are over. Mobile phones. they say. are unafraid and privateness friendly. This is non wholly true. While the recreational scanner threat has been mostly exterminated. there is now more possible than of all time before for privateness invasion. The alleged security of GSM relies on the myth that encoding – the mathematical scrambling of our conversations – makes it impossible for anyone to stop and understand our words. And while this claim looks good on paper. it does non stand up to scrutiny. The world is that the encoding has intentionally been made insecure. Many encrypted calls can hence be intercepted and decrypted with a laptop computing machine. WHAT ARE EMIE AND PIN?
ESN mean Electronic Serial Number. This figure is loaded when the phone figure is manufactured. this figure can non be tampered or alterations by the user or endorser. if this figure is known a Mobile can be cloned easy. Personal Designation Number ( PIN ) . every endorser provides a Personal Designation Number ( PIN ) to its user. This is a alone figure. If PIN and ESN are cognize a nomadic phone can be cloned in seconds utilizing some softwarea„?s like Patagonia. Which is used to clone CDMA phones. WHAT IS PATAGONIA?
Patagonia is package available in the market which is used to clone CDMA phone. Using this package a cloner can take over the control of a CDMA phone i. e. cloning of phone. There are other Softwarea„?s available in the market to clone GSM phone. This softwarea„?s are easy available in the market. A SIM can be cloned once more and once more and they can be used at different topographic points. Messages and calls sent by cloned phones can be tracked. However. if the accused manages to besides clone the IMEI figure of the French telephone. for which softwarea„?s are available. there is no manner he can be traced. CAN DIGITAL PHONES BE CLONED?
Yes. Digital phones can be cloned nevertheless ; the nomadic phones using digital TDMA and CDMA engineering are equipped with a characteristic known as “Authentication. ” Some newer theoretical account parallel phones besides have this characteristic. Authentication allows the nomadic service supplier web to find the legitimacy of a nomadic phone. Telephones determined to be “clones” can be immediately denied entree to service before any calls are made or received. HOW TO KNOW THAT THE CELL HAS BEEN CLONED?
Frequent incorrect figure phone calls to your phone. or hang-ups. Trouble in puting surpassing calls.
Trouble in recovering voice mail messages.
Incoming calls invariably having busy signals or incorrect Numberss. Unusual calls looking on your phone measures CAN CALLS ON CLONED PHONE BE TRACKED? Yes. A SIM can be cloned once more and once more and they can be used at different topographic points. Messages and calls can track sent by cloned phones. However. if the accused manages to besides clone the IMEI figure of the French telephone. for which softwarea„?s are available. there is no manner the cell can be traced.
HOW TO PREVENT CELL CLONING?
Uniquely identifies a nomadic unit within a radio carrier’s web. The MIN frequently can be dialed from other radio or wire line webs. The figure differs from the electronic consecutive figure ( ESN ) . which is the unit figure assigned by a phone maker. MINs and ESNs can be checked electronically to assist forestall fraud. . Mobile rivers should ne’er be trusted for communicating/storing confidential information. Always set a Pin that’s required before the phone can be used. Check that all nomadic devices are covered by a corporate security policy. Guarantee one individual is responsible for maintaining checks on who has what equipment and that they update the cardinal registry. How do service suppliers handle studies of cloned phones? Legitimate endorsers who have their phones cloned will have measures with charges for calls they didn’t make. Sometimes these charges amount to several 1000s of dollars in add-on to the legitimate charges. Typically. the service supplier will presume the cost of those extra deceitful calls. However. to maintain the cloned phone from go oning to have service. the service supplier will end the legitimate phone subscription. The endorser is so required to trip a new subscription with a different phone figure necessitating reprogramming of the phone. along with the extra concerns that go along with phone figure alterations.
WHAT EXACTLY IS AUTHENTICATION?
Authentication is a mathematical procedure by which indistinguishable computations are performed in both the web and the nomadic phone. These computations use secret information ( known as a “key” ) preprogrammed into both the nomadic phone and the web before service is activated. Cloners typically have no entree to this secret information ( i. e. . the key ) . and hence can non obtain the same consequences to the computations. A legitimate Mobile phone will bring forth the same deliberate consequence as the web. The nomadic phone’s consequence is sent to the web and compared with the network’s consequences. If they match. the phone is non a “clone. ” ARE THESE METHODS EFFECTIVE?
Yes. for the most portion. However. Authentication is the most robust and dependable method for forestalling cloning fraud and it is the lone industry “standard” method for extinguishing cloning. The fact that it is standardized agencies that all nomadic telecommunications webs utilizing IS-41 can back up Authentication. There is no demand to add proprietary equipment. package. or communications protocols to the webs to forestall cloning fraud. IS MY PHONE AUTHENTICATION CAPABLE?
If the phone supports TDMA or CDMA digital wireless. so yes. Otherwise. it depends on how old the phone is and the brand and theoretical account. Almost all phones manufactured since the beginning of 1996 support the Authentication map. The best stake is to look into with your service
ROLE OF SERVICE PROVIDER TO COMBAT CLONING FRAUD?
They are utilizing many methods such as RF Fingerprinting. subscriber behavior profiling. and Authentication. RF Fingerprinting is a method to unambiguously place nomadic phones based on certain alone wireless frequence transmittal features that are basically “fingerprints” of the wireless being used. Subscriber behavior profiling is used to foretell possible deceitful usage of nomadic service based on the types of calls antecedently made by the endorser. Calls that are non typical of the subscriber’s past use are flagged as potentially deceitful and appropriate actions can be taken. Authentication has advantages over these engineerings in that it is the lone industry standardized process that is crystalline to the user. a engineering that can efficaciously battle wanderer fraud. and is a bar system as opposed to a sensing system.
WHAT IS IS-41?
IS-41 ( Interim Standard No. 41 ) is a papers prescribing criterions for communications between nomadic webs. The criterion was developed by the Telecommunications Industry Association ( TIA ) and is used chiefly throughout North America every bit good as many Latin American states and Asia. The IS-41 web communications criterion supports AMPS. NAMPS. TDMA. and CDMA wireless engineerings. IS-41 is the criterion that defines the methods for automatic roaming. handoff between systems. and for executing Authentication.
WHAT CAN Be DONE?
With technically sophisticated stealers. clients are comparatively incapacitated against cellular phone fraud. Normally they became cognizant of the fraud merely one time having their phone measure. Service suppliers have adopted certain steps to forestall cellular fraud. These include encoding. barricading. blacklisting. user confirmation and traffic analysis: Encoding is regarded as the most effectual manner to forestall cellular fraud as it prevents listen ining on cellular calls and makes it about impossible for stealers to steal Electronic Serial Number ( ESN ) and Personal Identification Number ( PIN ) brace. Blocking is used by service suppliers to protect themselves from high hazard companies. For illustration. international calls can be made merely with anterior blessing. In some states merely users with major recognition cards and good recognition evaluations are allowed to do long distance calls. Blacklisting of stolen phones is another mechanism to forestall unauthorised usage. An Equipment Identity Register ( EIR ) enables web operators to disenable stolen cellular phones on webs around the universe. User confirmation utilizing Personal Identification Number ( PIN ) codes is one method for client protection against cellular phone fraud.
Trials conducted have proved that United States found that holding a PIN codification reduced fraud by more than 80 % . Traffic analysis detects cellular fraud by utilizing unreal intelligence package to observe leery naming forms. such as a sudden addition in the length of calls or a sudden addition in the figure of international calls. The package besides determines whether it is physically possible for the endorser to be doing a call from a current location. based on the location and clip of the old call. Currently. South Africaa„?s two service suppliers. MTN and Vodacom. usage traffic analysis with the International Mobile Equipment Identity ( IMEI ) aˆ? a 15 figure figure which acts as a alone identifier and is normally printed on the dorsum of the phone underneath the battery aˆ? to follow stolen phones. Other warning marks that endorsers should watch out for to observe deceitful activity include: Frequent incorrect figure phone calls to your phone. or hang-ups. Trouble in puting surpassing calls.
Trouble in recovering voice mail messages.
Incoming calls invariably having busy signals or incorrect Numberss. Unusual calls looking on your phone measures.
Soon the cellular phone industry relies on common jurisprudence ( fraud and larceny ) and in-house counter steps to turn to cellular phone fraud. Mobile Cloning Is in initial phases in India so preventative stairss should be taken by the web supplier and the Government the passage of statute law to prosecute offenses related to cellular phones is non viewed as a precedence. nevertheless. It is indispensable that intended nomadic offense statute law be comprehensive plenty to integrate cellular phone fraud. in peculiar “cloning fraud” as a specific offense.
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