Studying complex ions of copper (II) Essay


In portion A of the practical, the empirical expression of hydrated Cu ( II ) sulfate was determined, is the Waterss of hydration of H2O of crystallization. Making complex ions of Cu ( II ) sulfate with Chloride and Ammonia ligands is done in portion B.


In this instance, Cu ( II ) exists as a hydrous molecule, besides, x is frequently equal to 5 in the expression CuSO· 5HO. First, these experiments largely involve Cu ( II ) sulfate. Hydrous Copper ( II ) sulfate, CuSO· 5HO, is a blue and crystalline stuff which can be used to do pigments, disinfectants and batteries ( Your Dictionary 2009 ) . The construction can be seen below in Figure 1.

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Copper ( II ) sulfate reacts with hydrochloric acid and ammonia solution. Second, Hydrochloric acid is a colourless, toxic, fuming, extremely acidic watery solution of H chloride, which can be written as HCl, used as a chemical semi – maker and in fossil oil production, etc. It is discovered in the tummy in thinning signifier ( Answers Corporation 2009 ) . Harmonizing to The Free Dictionary ( 2009a ) , ammonia solution, NH3 are colorless and irritant, widely used in the industry of chemical fertilisers and azotic acid. Besides, it is used in doing other nitrogen-bearing compounds.

Hydrate, which means solids complexed with Waterss of crystallization. Copper ( II ) is a passage metal. It is claimed ( Clark 2003a ) that passage metals are in the center of the Periodic Table, the topographic point where the vitamin D orbitals are being filled, and 500 block elements are called widely. The general definition of a passage metal is one which forms one or more stable ions which have partly filled vitamin D orbitals ( Clark 2003a ) , see figure 2.

The definition of complex formation is given. It is reported that when a passage metal ion is besetted by other molecules or ions which use lone brace to do up dative covalent bonds with the vitamin D – block metals, a composite is formed ( Lister and Renshaw, 2000 ) .

The theory of the hydrated Cu ( II ) sulfate coloured can be given, and it can be regarded as the cause of why the Cu solution is bluish. If white visible radiation base on ballss through Cu ( II ) sulfate solution, soaking up of some wavelengths in the visible radiation is done by the solution ( Clark 2003b ) . A Cu ( II ) ion in solution absorbs visible radiation in the ruddy part, and therefore reflects bluish and has all ( Clark 2003b ) . Except for the ruddy coloring material, the light base on ballss through the solution and the colors in it, this mixture of wavelengths can be seen as pale blue or cyan. ( Clark 2003b ) .


In this experiment, hydrated Cu ( II ) sulfate ( s ) , hydrochloric acid and ammonia solution were used as samples. A dessicator, a crucible, a paper cartridge holder, a burner, a base, a spatula, tongs and an electronic balance were used as simple points. Laboratory coats and safety spectacless were used to guarantee safety.

Harmonizing to the press release ( Lane 2009 ) , these stairss were done during the hydrates Cu ( II ) sulphate experiment:

First, a fabric was used to clean the interior of the crucible. Second, after making this, a paper cartridge holder was placed in the crucible and it was weighed on the electronic balance. 0.01g was written down. Third, the melting pot was put on the little electronic balance and the spatula was used to put approximately 2 to 3 g of Cu sulfate in the melting pot. After that, it was weighed. Fourthly, the burner was illuminated and placed under the base ; the melting pot was placed on the base and it was heated for approximately 5 proceedingss. Fifthly, the crystals were stirred with the paper cartridge holder to interrupt up. The alteration in coloring material was noted. Sixthly, the tongs were used to put the crucible inside the dessicator for about 5 proceedingss to chill down ( the paper cartridge holder was left in the dish ) . When it was cool plenty to touch, the melting pot was weighed. Step 4 to 6 can be repeated to look into the weight stays the same after heating. Finally, some H2O was added to the melting pot.

During the experiments in portion B, these stairss were done ( Lane 2009 ) :

First, some Cu sulfate and H2O were added into 3 conelike flasks, they were shaken to fade out. After making this, a pipette was used to drop concentrated hydrochloric acid into one flask until the coloring material changed. Next, another pipette was used to drop some ammonia solution into a 2nd flask until the coloring material changed. Then, more ammonia solution was added.


To guarantee the experiments were performed accurately, the processs were read carefully before the practical, such as composing down the weight to 0.01g, waiting about 5 proceedingss for the crucible to heat, puting approximately 2 to 3g of Cu sulfate and adding hydrochloric acid into the flask until the coloring material alterations. These are all about truth. Besides, the simple points had to be used right, for illustration, the paper cartridge holder could non be put outside the crucible, or a loss of mass could go on.

Possibly some possible mistakes have been made during the experiment, such as the melting pot was non heated plenty or cooled plenty. To avoid this possible mistake, detecting the alterations of the Cu sulfate in the crucible carefully are indispensable.

In portion A, The value of x of empirical expression of hydrated Cu ( II ) sulfate was calculated:

CuSO· xHO ( s ) CuSO ( s ) + xHO ( g )

1.23 ( 160+18x ) = 160*1.93

196.8+22.14x = 308.8

22.14x = 112

ten = 5.06

The definition of molecular mass is given. Harmonizing to ( 2010 ) , it gives the mass of a molecule links to that of the C atom, ‘which is taken to hold a mass of 12 ‘ , the figure peers to the amount of the atomic mass of an atom in a molecule. In this instance, 160 mean the amount of atomic mass of Cu, sulfur and O, 160= 64+32+16*4, and besides, 18=1*2+16.

The ground for the equation is, 1.23g is the mass of anhydrous Cu sulfate, and 1.93g is mass of hydrated Cu sulfate, utilizing the ratio and so calculates the ten. Therefore, harmonizing to the empirical expression, ten of CuSO· xHO is 5, CuSO· 5H O is obtained.

CuSO· 5H O ( s ) CuSO ( s ) + 5H O ( g ) is besides obtained.

The ground for reiterating heating the Cu sulfate is to guarantee the all hydrate H2O was evaporated. If the Cu sulfate was overheated, the chemical reaction below can happen.

CuSO· 5HO ( s ) CuO ( s ) + SO ( g )

The solid would turn black of coloring material because the coloring material of CuO, Cu ( II ) oxide is black. However, this reaction will non go on in the research lab because of the equipment, for illustration, the burner, the maximal temperature of its fire can be 400 – 500? ( 2009 ) , however, CuO can non be formed until the temperature has reached 650? ( 2009 ) . As a consequence, in this instance, this reaction will non go on.

The theory of portion B experiment is given here. Harmonizing to Clark ( 2003c ) , the theory is about Cu ( II ) ion and conc hydrochloric acid. The coloring material of the tetrachlorocuprate ( II ) ion, [ CuCl ] , is practically ever seen mixture of the original hexaaque ion, [ Cu ( HO ) ] ( Clark, 2003c ) .

The equation of the reversible reaction can be given ( Clark 2003c ) :

[ Cu ( HO ) ] + 4Cl [ CuCl ] + 6 HO

The coloring material of [ CuCl ] is described as olive-green or xanthous ( Clark 2003c )

It is claimed ( Clark 2003d ) that, hexaaqua reacts with ammonia solution metal ions in two clear ways, ‘because it can move as a base every bit good as a ligand ‘ .

If a little sum of ammonia solution is added, precipitates of the metal hydroxide – will be obtained, in this instance, the ammonium hydroxide is moving as a base ( Clark 2003d ) . In some instances, these precipitates redissolve when more ammonium hydroxide is added, ‘to give solutions in which a ligand exchange reaction has occurred ‘ ( Clark 2003d ) .


The value of the ten of the empirical expression was calculated ; hence, Cu ( II ) sulfate can fade out in H2O and so organize hydrate Cu sulfate. In portion B, the observation is every bit good as what expected, from analyzing the theory, Chlorine and ammonium hydroxide ; these two ligand can replace the H2O in the chemical reaction.


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  • Clark, J ( 2003b ) [ Online ] Why is Cu ( II ) sulphate solution blue? Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Access day of the month: 27th December 2009 ]
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  • Lane, R ( 2009 ) Chemistry Practical 2: Complex ions of Cu ( II )
  • The Free Dictionary ( 2009a ) [ Online ] Ammonia Solution Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Access day of the month: 25th December 2009 ]
  • Your Dictionary ( 2009 ) [ Online ] Copper sulfate Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Access day of the month: 17th December 2009 ]

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