Summary diffusion/osmosis/cells energy (Chapter 4 text)

Term Definition
Protein A macromolecule in living things that is made of chains of amino acids subnuits.
Carbohydrate A type of carbon-based molecule in living things.
Nucleic Acid One of several carbon-based molecules that carry an organism's genetic code.
Protein Control the chemical activity of a cell and support growth and repair.
Carbohydrates Include sugars and starches used for energy or as structural materials.
Composed made up of, put together in form, ex: all living things are ______ of cells.
Carbohydrate molecules contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Energy can come by means of food-sun, glucose (sugar), carbohydrates. Helps us to do things.
Cellular Respiration A process in which cells use oxygen to release energy stored in sugars.
Fermentation A chemical process by which cells release energy from sugar when no oxygen is present.
Herbicide Effects, Kills, Damages: like vinegar on plants
Glucose A sugar molecule that is a major energy source for most cells, produced by the process of photosynthesis.
Solvent The part that dissolves something.
Solute The material that is getting dissolved.
Solution the outcome of two different items put together
Sustain to keep in existence; maintain or prolong, to meet the current needs without compromising the future needs of something.
Repel to keep away, stay away. Like lipid tails stay away from water.
Animal Cells has mitosis phase and centrioles
Plant Cells has mitosis phase but no centriole
46; 23 Every human has ___________chromosomes or ______amount of pairs
Passive During_____________transport, substances are moved from areas of low concentration to high concentration
Active In order for the process of passive transport to occur the cell must supply an energy source called_____________
Large; Endocystosis If particles that are too ________pass easily through the membrane it can enter a cell by a process called __________.
Exocytosis Large particles can leave a cell by the process called________.
Osmosis The diffusion of water through a membrane
Cell Membrane Materials move in and out of a cell by passing through the_________________. It allows some materials to pass but prevents others.
Water, Waste A cell only survives if ______________is taken into the cell and _______________ are taken out.
Thermal Radiation is the release (diffusion) of heat into the air. Ex: visible light
Diffusion (mixing) the constant random motion of molecules from an area of high concentration to low concentration
Gradient Is the difference in concentration (cell membrane could be one). During diffusion molecules like to move down the __________.
Gas, Liquid, and Solid Diffusion happens in 3 states:______,_______,_______
Gas Diffusion happens the fastest in this state
Solid Slowest moving diffusion. Vibrates- doesn't move a lot
Liquid The 2nd fastest diffusion
Temperature Rate of Diffusion: 1
Size of Molecule Rate of Diffusion: 2
Steepness Gradient Rate of Diffusion: 3
ATP Energy made from glucose and oxygen
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Protein, Nucleic Acids 4 types of Large Molecules
Water A ________ molecule, consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
Polar A water molecule is also a ____________molecule
Lipids Fats, Oils, Waxes found in living things.
Membrane; water Cell_______are composed of special lipids that have one end that _____water.

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