1. The intent of this Summary Environmental Impact Assessment ( SEIA ) study is to look into and measure the chief environmental concerns associated with the proposed Pasir Puteh Airport. The range of the Environmental Impact Assessment ( EIA ) survey covers both the building stage of Pasir Puteh Airport, look intoing and analysing
( I ) The effects of aircraft noise on institutional/residential countries, peculiarly at dark ;
( two ) Increased traffic congestion in the airdrome attacks ;
( three ) increased hazard from aircraft accidents in populated countries along the flight way ;
( four ) Fire jeopardies ;
( V ) Ambient air quality ;
( six ) Surface H2O quality ;
( seven ) Hydrogeology ;
( eight ) Impact on vegetations and zoologies ;
( nine ) Social perceptual experience ; and
( ten ) Emergency readiness.
B. Description of the Undertaking
2. The Undertaking consists of the design, funding, building, and operation of a new international airdrome rider terminus officially called Pasir Puteh Airport. The proposed new terminus will back up the bing airdrome in Kota Bharu, Sultan Ismail Petra Airport, Pengkalan Chepa, whose maximal capacity of 1,400,000 riders per twelvemonth. The new airdrome could be the new solution for population in Pasir Puteh, Machang, Bachok, Kuala Krai, Jerteh and Tanah Merah to go. This undertaking besides can diminish the congestion in Kota Bharu, particularly during fiesta season. The Malaysia Government has decided that Pasir Puteh Airport will be located on an about 22,000 km3 site within Pasir Puteh, Kelantan which is under the Islamic Party of Malaysia ( PAS ) . Pasir Puteh Airport will be designed to manage a upper limit of 2,500,000 riders yearly.
C. Description of the Environment
1. Physical Resources
A. The town of Pasir Puteh is situated on the bank ofA Semerak River, approximately 30 kilometers to the South of Kota Bharu. The dirt at the undertaking site is Lowlandss. Pasir Puteh is by and large affected by inundations each twelvemonth.
B. Similar to Hong Kong, the air quality in Malaysia is reported as the API or Air Pollution Index. Four of the index ‘s pollutant constituents ( i.e. , C monoxide, ozone, N dioxide and sulfur dioxide ) are reported in ppmv but PM10A particulate affair is reported in I?g/m3. This graduated table below shows the Health categorizations used by the Malayan authorities.
A A 0-50A A Good
A 51-100A Moderate
201-300A Very unhealthy
If the API exceeds 500, a province of exigency is declared in the coverage country. Normally, this means that non-essential authorities services are suspended, and all ports in the affected country are closed. There may besides be a prohibition on private sector commercial and industrial activities in the coverage country excepting the nutrient sector. An ambient air quality study conducted at the undertaking site showed an API degree above 100.
Pasir Puteh, Kelantan enjoys a pleasant tropical clime. It is about summer all twelvemonth unit of ammunition with reviewing intermittent rain. Longer and heavier rainfall is observed in November, December and January. Daily temperature ranges from 21A°C to 32A°C.A
C. The chief river is the Semerak River.
2. Ecological Resources
There are no fishponds, nor is at that place active fishing in the locality of the Project site. The merely conspicuous signifiers of wildlife are birds. There are woods near the Project site and endangered species of vegetations or zoologies.
3. Human and Economic Development
A. Population in Pasir Puteh is about 130,700 ( 2009 ) . The per centum of school-age population registration was more than 50 per centum. The dominant economic activity in Pasir Puteh is agribusiness.
B. The H2O supply of Pasir Puteh comes from Semerak and Kelantan River, managed by Tenaga Air Kelantan. However, merely 50 per centum of the population have H2O supply. Electric power is supplied by the Tenaga Nasional Berhad ( TNB ) .
4. Quality of Life
There are an estimated most of people in this country, remain in small towns. Merely 20 % of entire population was estimated corsets in lodging country, in town Centre.
Pasir Puteh has 11 public secondary schools, 21 public primary schools.
D. Skills and Per Capita Income
Most of the occupants were involved in agribusiness sector ( 70 per centum ) , with 29 per centum being authorities retainer. Other types of employment include those without any business or unemployed comprised 1.0 per centum. Approximately 70 per centum of families stated an mean monthly family income runing from RM350.00 to RM700.00.
D. Public Health
Pasir Puteh has one authorities infirmary ; Tengku Anis Hospital. There are 10 private clinics. The birth rate in Pasir Puteh is above 10 per centum while the decease rate is below 10 per centum.
E. Recreational Resources and Development
The major recreational installations in Pasir Puteh are the Pantai Bisikan Bayu, besides known as “ Pantai Dalam Rhu ” , located in the state of Pasir Puteh, near Semerak, approximately 50 kilometers from Kota Bharu.A Jeram Pasu waterfall, which is the most popular is located in Kampung Padang Pak Amat, approximately 35 kilometres south of Kota Bharu.A Linang waterfalls located in the small town Lepan Rambai about 15 kilometres from Bandar Pasir Puteh was besides the beautiful place.A
F. Archaeological or Historical Treasures
There are no known archeological or historical hoarded wealths within the Project site
G. Anticipated Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Environmental impacts are anticipated during both the building phase and the operational phase.
A. Construction Phase
Earthwork, dirt digging, constructing building, and land readying are non expected to adversely impact either Semerak or the Kelantan River, since both organic structures of H2O are rather far from the site. The Undertaking ‘s estimated day-to-day H2O demand of 990 three-dimensional metres ( M3 ) will non impact the supply of H2O to the occupants of Pasir Puteh.
The air quality within the locality is already above the API degree. Earthwork, dirt digging, land readying, and concreting activities will farther increase the API degree. However, a comprehensive system of sacking to be used every bit good as changeless day-to-day lacrimation of the land will extenuate the impact.
There will barely be any fire jeopardy, since no combustible stuff will be used, and no fires will be ignited. Solid waste generated by some 500 workers at the site every bit good as solid waste from building activities will be disposed of day-to-day by Pasir Puteh refuse trucks. Employment chances and other beginnings of income for the occupants of Pasir Puteh will be generated by the undertaking.
B. Operational Phase
No important addition in the already high degree of API of the air quality within the locality will be generated during operation. However, the terminus edifice will be to the full air-conditioned and equipped with dust a filtration system which that will be on a regular basis checked and cleaned.
The extra aircraft motions will increase the noise degree. However, flights are usually scheduled during daylight to minimise noise break to colonies comparatively near to Pasir Puteh Airport. Using the acceptable noise criterion for an airdrome of 65 Community Noise Equivalent Level ( CNEL ) ( the criterion for San Francisco International Airport ) , it is estimated that, for the old ages 2009, 2010, and 2025, the CNEL at the proposed undertaking site will be 32. Therefore, no breach of acceptable airdrome noise criterions will take topographic point. Further, the flight way of aircraft will non be over dumbly populated countries.
Pasir Puteh Airport will hold its ain sewage intervention works, which will decently handle wastewaters in conformity with Malaysia criterions before dispatching them into the Kelantan River. Solid waste will be sorted, treated, and so disposed of day-to-day by Pasir Puteh town refuse trucks.
The commercial operation of Pasir Puteh Airport may do a mild migration of possible occupation searchers to Pasir Puteh, since some 100,000 occupations will be created by the Project. Substantial extra grosss will be contributed by the undertaking to both the local authorities of Pasir Puteh and the National Government. Over a ten-year period, it is estimated that the Project will add some to the revenue enhancement aggregation of Pasir Puteh and National Government.
These facts imply a really little increased hazard from aircraft accidents at the airdrome. The hazard is farther reduced if one considers that the aircraft flight forms are mostly over low denseness colonies or enclaves. The hazard will farther be minimized through go oning betterments in surveillance installations and employment of extremely trained forces.
In the operation of the terminal edifice, edifice and fire codifications will be purely implemented. Fire asphyxiators and water faucets will be installed.
It is important to observe that the Fire Code does non province any specific steps required as safety steps against any fire jeopardy. However, the Code does province certain specific commissariats that must be incorporated in the needed fire safety plan ;
( I ) Use of fire protection characteristics such as sprinkler systems, hose boxes, hose reels or standpipe systems, and other fire contending equipment ;
( two ) Fire dismay systems ;
( three ) Fire walls ;
( four ) Fire-retardant stuffs for flooring and walls ;
( V ) Safe transition to a public manner or safe dispersal country ;
( six ) Fire exits ;
( seven ) Waterproofing of staircases, perpendicular shafts, and horizontal issues from fume and heat ;
( eight ) Self-closing fire immune doors ;
( nine ) Fire dampers in centralised air-conditioning canals ;
( ten ) Roof blowholes ; and
( eleven ) Properly marked and lighted issues.
C. Aesthetic Considerations
Landscaping will be undertaken to heighten the aesthetic value of the country and to heighten the capableness to absorb C dioxide.
If the Pasir Puteh Airport were non constructed there would be no effects, either positive or negative, on physical environmental factors. In add-on, no inauspicious impact would be suffered by the bordering metropolis establishments. There would be, nevertheless, other important sociological and economic losingss to the metropolis.
The loss of this installation would suppress terminal development and the economic and resulting sociological additions, and would conflict straight with established, approved maestro programs and ends. The international rider congestion would curtail the growing of terminal activities.
If Pasir Puteh Airport were non to be set up at the proposed site, the lasting constructions such as the simple school, the church, the community Centre, and residential houses would stay at their present site.
E. Cost-Benefit Analysis
In carry oning the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed Pasir Puteh Airport, the Financial Study prepared by Financial Consultants was used.
For the cost point, the estimated sum undertaking cost of RM882 million was used. The entire Undertaking cost includes the entire cost of resettlement of population lodging, estimated at RM12.25 million ; the cost of the Fire Prevention Plan ; the cost of sewage and drainage systems, estimated at RM3.5 million ; and such other costs as proviso of a auto park edifice ( RM36.75 million ) and route entree betterments. In footings of the benefit, the watercourse of hard currency flow after debt service but before revenue enhancement payments ( because revenue enhancement payments are considered as one of the benefits ) was used. The internal rate of return and net nowadays value are calculated as 21 per centum and $ 886.76 million, severally.
The direct negative sociological impacts of the Pasir Puteh will associate chiefly to Gaal Village. There will be a important supplanting of or alter in neighbourhood composing. The occupants will besides lose installations such as:
( I ) Rubber Plantation
( two ) Paddy
These installations will besides be temporarily subjected to nuisances associated with major building, including increased noise degrees, dust, heavier traffic on Jalan Nara, and other similar effects. On a lasting footing, the traffic and noise from terminal activities will do some perturbations. The perturbations will depend on the reaching and going of assorted types of aircraft.
There will be some direct costs related to the resettlement of affected abodes and installations. However, the Project will ensue in several good impacts on both a impermanent and a lasting footing.
Construction will necessitate about 500 laborers of changing trade and accomplishment degrees. The foreign exchange influx of RM612.5 million will better the foreign exchange militias of the state. About 70 per centum of the labor would necessitate no specific accomplishments or preparation, which could hold some positive impact on public assistance and unemployment.
49. It is estimated that the installation will pass about RM52 million per twelvemonth on direct purchases. This sum will assist the production and gross revenues of many local industries such as nutrient, steel, wood, trappingss, and other building stuffs. Based on the RM52 million spent each twelvemonth, the entire direct and indirect parts of the installation to the Malaysia economic system will be about RM21 million per twelvemonth. It is envisaged that at least RM70 million will be generated from tourism-related activities due to the undertaking.
The terminus will bring forth grosss for Pasir Puteh. These financess will non merely counterbalance for building costs, but will move as long-run beginning of gross.
Execution of the proposed Pasir Puteh Airport Project will supply the state a installation that could adequately suit 2,500,000 riders yearly and is expected to increase the touristry potency of the state. Employment chances that will be generated from the proposed Undertaking are estimated to be 1,500 individuals ( direct labor, 500 ; indirect labor, 1000 ) during building and 12,500 individuals ( direct labor, 2,500 ; indirect labor, 10,000 ) during operation.
Incremental foreign exchange will get down with the initial influx of the loan. During commercial operation of the undertaking, extra foreign exchange influxs will come from geting riders, who would pass a million at an mean outgo per geting rider.
The Malaysia Government is guaranteed to gain a million from the operation of the proposed Pasir Puteh Airport undertaking. It is envisaged that the undertaking will pay an one-year income revenue enhancement, while income revenue enhancement to be paid by the employment chances created.
The proposed Pasir Puteh Airport undertaking will decidedly be to public advantage. The major benefit will be socioeconomic. The primary long-range effects on the physical environment include the resettlement of several houses on Gaal Village. In add-on, the occupants of Gaal Village will be subjected to both impermanent and lasting additions in noise degree, which, nevertheless, in footings of degree, clip of happening, and distribution will non do a major impact. The building of the proposed undertaking will guarantee optimal usage of a subdivision of fresh land owned. Although it will ensue in a few limited impermanent environmental inauspicious effects, the life anticipation of the terminus ‘s productiveness will turn out profitable to society on both a regional and local footing.