A supermarket can be defined as a self service store which provides a wide choice of food and non food household items to its customers. It is generally bigger than a simple grocery store but smaller in size than a hyper mart. It caters to the needs of people by providing necessary products used by them on a daily basis at a cheaper rate. Today, shopping has become more individualized and more comfortable. Consumers enjoy more choices and have more information which influences their buying decisions. Customers now have a clear understanding of value, and delivering this value is an enormous challenge for retailers.
A major concept that has entered the retailing scene is to use innovative information systems. Customers demand more accurate price information, more complete and current product information, assistance in finding specific items, better and prompt services and quick billing techniques . We have developed a new and efficient information system for IBS Supermarket to manage its day to day operations in an effective manner which would not only save time but also be cost effective. The system is very simple, user friendly, easy to maintain and has minimum system requirements.
Microsoft Office Access Microsoft Office Access, previously known as Microsoft Access, is a pseudo-relational database management system from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software-development tools. Microsoft Access is used to create simple database solutions. Access tables support a variety of standard field types, indices, and referential integrity. Access also includes a query interface, forms to display and enter data, and reports for printing.
In enterprise environments, Microsoft Access is particularly appropriate for meeting end-user database needs and for rapid application development. Microsoft Access is easy enough for end users to create their own queries, forms and reports, laying out fields and groupings, setting formats, etc. This frees up the professional developers to focus on more complex portions of the application. One of the benefits of Access from a programmer’s perspective is its relative compatibility with SQL (structured query language) — queries can be viewed graphically or edited as SQL statements.
Access stores all database tables, queries, forms, reports, macros, and modules in the Access database as a single file. Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) The relational database was born in 1970 when E. F. Codd, a researcher at IBM, wrote a paper outlining the process. Since then, relational databases have grown in popularity to become the standard. Traditional databases were flat. This means that the information was stored in one long text file, called a tab delimited file. Each entry in the tab delimited file is separated by a special character, such as a vertical bar (|).
Each entry contains multiple pieces of information (fields) about a particular object or person grouped together as a record. The text file makes it difficult to search for specific information or to create reports that include only certain fields from each record. A relational database allows you to easily find specific information. It also allows you to sort based on any field and generate reports that contain only certain fields from each record. Relational databases use tables to store information. The standard fields and records are represented as columns (fields) and rows (records) in a table.
The “relational” part of the name comes into play because of mathematical relations. A typical relational database has anywhere from 10 to more than 1,000 tables. Each table contains a column or columns that other tables can key on to gather information from that table. By storing this information in another table, the database can create a single small table with the locations that can then be used for a variety of purposes by other tables in the database. Relational databases are created using a special computer language, structured query language (SQL) that is the standard for database interoperability.
SQL is the foundation for all of the popular database applications available today, from Access to Oracle. Normalisation is a design technique for structuring the RDBMS tables to make the complex database more efficient and more easily handled by the database. Objective of the Project The objective is to develop a Supermarket Information System is to simplify its various day to day operations and integrate its different departments with each other, thus bringing about cost efficiency, better time and personnel management and enabling it to offer better quality services.
The Supermarket Information System developed by us is low on cost but rates high on the parameters of efficiency and simplicity. Scope The proposed information system addresses the various requirements of a supermarket. The information system helps in handling all the tasks such as billing, maintaining product information, adding new products to the list of existing products, maintaining the list of customers for better customer relationship management, etc. Assumptions 1)All the customers possess loyalty cards provided by the IBS supermarket. 2)50 customers have visited the supermarket till date. )Number of employees in this Supermarket limits to 22 in number. 4)There are 96 products in total, whose transactions have been recorded in the database. 5)Number of Suppliers to the supermarket has been limited to 10 only. Limitation: 1. There is no facility in the system that incorporates the return of spoilt products to the supplier. 2. There is no facility in the system that incorporate the exchange of products in case a customer has a problem with any. 3. There is no facilty in the system for an automated buffer check to keep track of the stock of products. Thus,this would have to be done manually. . We assume that the quantity present n the database is the quantity on the shelf. Chapter 2 Entity – Relationship Diagrams (ER Diagrams) An entity-relationship (ER) diagram is a specialized graphic that illustrates the interrelationships between entities in a database. ER diagrams often use symbols to represent three different types of information. Boxes are commonly used to represent entities. Diamonds are normally used to represent relationships and ovals are used to represent attributes. An entity-relationship model (ERM) is an abstract and conceptual representation of data.
Entity-relationship modeling is a database modeling method, used to produce a type of conceptual schema of a system, often a relational database and its requirements in a top down fashion . Diagrams created by this process are called entity-relationship diagrams, ER diagrams. There are three building blocks of E-R diagram ENTITY, ATTRIBUTE & RELATIONSHIP. An entity may be defined as a thing which is recognized as being capable of an independent existence and which can be uniquely identified. An entity is an abstraction from the complexities of some domain.
When we speak of an entity we normally speak of some aspect of the real world which can be distinguished from other aspects of the real world. Entities and relationships can both have attributes. Examples: an employee entity might have a Social Security Number (SSN) attribute; the provedrelationship may have a date attribute. Every entity (unless it is a weak entity) must have a minimal set of uniquely identifying attributes, which is called the entity’s primary key. Entity-relationship diagrams don’t show single entities or single instances of relations.
Rather, they show entity sets and relationship sets. Example: a particular song is an entity. The collection of all songs in a database is an entity set. The eaten relationship between a child and her lunch is a single relationship. The set of all such child-lunch relationships in a database is a relationship set. In other words, a relationship set corresponds to a relation in mathematics, while a relationship corresponds to a member of the relation. Certain cardinality constraints on relationship sets may be indicated as well.