This paper forms a portion of our Economicss of Development class, a nucleus class under Maestro of Humanistic disciplines in Development course of study. The urban conveyance sector is undergoing a major revolution in India in this clip of rapid urbanization. A well-connected andA efficient urban conveyance web is indispensable for the metropolis ‘s economic development. Through the paper, we look atA one of the proposed options to this job, viz. the Bus Rapid Transit System, through two instance surveies one being of its execution in Ahmedabad metropolis and the other in Pune city.A The aim of the paper is to acquire an penetration into how BRTS has had both positive and negative impacts on the conveyance system, looking at the metropoliss and an analysis of the same.
The present work is an lineation of the secondary informations utilizing the assorted surveies conducted by assorted bureaus to look into the efficiency of BRTS as a conveyance system in India. The ground for taking this job of development is chiefly because it is one of the major issues most underdeveloped states face due to increasing population in the urban countries. Furthermore, transit is the basic anchor of any well-functioning and efficient economic system.
We hope that this enterprise will ease any farther surveies on the BRTS as a sustainable urban conveyance system.
Divya Nazareth ( MAD12022 )
R. Sridhar Rao ( MAD12088 )
Sonakshi Anand ( MAD12085 )
Sangita M. Palod ( MAD12069 )
This paper would non hold been possible without the counsel of many our Faculty Team. We acknowledge the aid and counsel of Prof. Chiranjib Sen and Prof. Vikas Kumar at the Azim Premji University, for their penetrations, suggestions, and guidelines to transport out this survey. Prof. Chiranjib Sen has been really sort to give us his cherished clip and assist us with the construction and to understand the job we needed to turn to through the paper.
This survey is qualitative in nature. It comprises entirely of secondary research, chiefly because our instance surveies where distant from Bangalore doing hard for us to roll up primary informations. For secondary informations, the survey has referred to many paperss including assorted studies and surveies conducted of the efficiency of BRTS, web sites and newspaper articles.
What is BRTS? aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦.aˆ¦aˆ¦..aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..7
The Ahmedabad BRTS Experience-Case Iaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦.10
The Pune BRTS Experience-Case IIaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦17
Sustainability in Transport Systemaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..24
Referencesaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … 26
Cities in developing states have become the major engines of growing. However, this growing has seldom been met with large-scale attempts to do metropoliss more efficient, inclusive and competitory. India ‘s urban conveyance system has non been able to maintain gait with the increasing demand for the proviso of public conveyance installation by its occupants. Increase in urban population and suburban venues in metropoliss have been continuously fuelling this demand. In 2001, there were 285 million Indians populating in urban countries and this figure is expected to increase to 540 million people by 2021. Another interesting phenomenon is invariably increasing figure of metropolitan metropoliss and their population ( Kumara 2009 ) . With the spread outing fringes of metropoliss, and specifically in metropolitans ‘ people are forced to go longer distances and the public conveyance system is expected to spread out and cover these fringes to run into these demands. Metropolitan metropoliss such as Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Hyderabad are today witnessing a rapid enlargement of their fringes. Thus the aggressively increasing degrees of motor vehicle ownership and usage, in peculiar, have resulted in dismaying degrees of congestion, air pollution, noise, and traffic danger. This has created a ambitious undertaking for the metropolis contrivers and urban conveyance development governments to develop a comprehensive and multi-model, cost effectual, efficient and sustainable agencies of public conveyance to transport high volumes of riders through dense, congested urban countries.
Beginning: Developing Bus Rapid Transit System in India ” by Madhuri Jain, Arti Saxena, Preetvanti Singh and P.K Saxena, p.3
To provide to the increasing demand for public conveyance systems, authoritiess have invested in local rail services, tubes and coach services. The metropoliss of Mumbai and Kolkata are located in the peninsular parts of the state and hence can non spread out their route conveyance webs ( Pucher, Korattyswaroopam and Ittyerah 2004 ) . Hence local trains are invested in and are widely popular as agencies of public conveyance. Whereas in metropoliss like Delhi and Chennai that face no such geographic limitations, the coach services are making out to the fringes. But more figure of people that rely on public conveyance, commute by coachs ( Ibid ) . Taking the factors of capacity, comfort and velocity into history, coachs are a preferable pick. But the jobs blighting coach conveyance in about all metropoliss in India are congestion on roads, pollution, limited webs, cost efficiency and safety ( Jaiswal, et Al. 2012 ) . With more people preferring to have their ain vehicles, the traffic on the roads has increased doing it hard for coachs to run. With a assortment of vehicles such as personal conveyance, coachs and bullock carts busying the streets, traffic sufferings and congestion farther worsen. This consequences in increased costs and clip which discourage people from going in coachs. All these contribute to the air and noise pollution in metropoliss. Limited coach paths have non merely made transposing a incubus for citizens but besides led to overcrowded coachs which have resulted in a figure of accidents which has become a cause of great concern. There are about 80,000 deceases that take topographic point in India yearly due to mishaps on the route ( Jain, et Al. n.d. ) .
Another of import factor that has been responsible for inefficient coach services in the states are the low cost recovery rates. A considerable size of the urban population lives below the poorness line, hence coach menus have been kept low for their convenience. But this has resulted in limited grosss for the authorities to fund care, fixs and replacing of coachs ( Pucher, Korattyswaroopam and Ittyerah 2004 ) . However, the coach system in Bangalore has been able to cover its cost a 100 % and besides do a 5 % net income ( Pucher, Korattyswaroopam and Ittyerah 2004 ) . Other metropoliss like Hyderabad, Delhi and Mumbai have been able to cover 92 % , 80 % and 72 % of their costs severally. Kolkata, has been least profitable with a meager 42 % cost recovery rate ( Ibid ) . These issues with the public conveyance system emphasis on the pressing demand for a sustainable conveyance system, one which focuses on a safe and environment friendly manner of conveyance that provides citizens handiness and mobility within metropoliss ( Krishnan, Sharma and Jaiswal 2012 ) . The Bus Rapid Transit System ( BRTS ) are progressively being recognized as amongst most effectual solution for supplying a cost effectual and high quality public conveyance service in urban countries for both the developed and the underdeveloped universe. It aims at supplying ecologically sustainable and cost effectual coach services with better installations, comfort and velocity than that of an ordinary coach line. It involves co-ordinated betterments in a theodolite system ‘s substructure, equipment, operations, and engineering that give discriminatory intervention to coachs on urban roadways ( Krishnan, Sharma and Jaiswal 2012 ) .
What is Bus Rapid Transit System ( BRTS ) ?
A BRTS is designed to give precedence to coachs through dedicated coach lanes and, at the same clip, provide dedicated lanes for walkers and non-motorised vehicles. It provides an unimpeded right of manner to coachs, increasing their efficiency and cut downing the clip taken for travel. It combines the velocity, dependability and comfortss of rail-based rapid theodolite systems with the flexibleness of coachs. It is a high-capacity conveyance system which is implemented by utilizing coachs through substructure planning and scheduling betterments that would assist in supplying better services to the population. It involves expensive investings along with modern engineerings that include newer ways of ticketing, coach programming and traffic signal precedence. Hence, to encapsulate BRTS is a system of incorporating modern engineering with an applicable service design along with a client interface.
Features of BRTS
Physically isolated coach ways: A separate lane which is entirely unbroken side for the coachs providing by BRTS. This allows for a greater velocity and lesser congestion of coachs and perfectly no traffic.
It has been said that BRTS is a comparatively inexpensive manner of transit and can be implemented more widely than other transport systems. The cost per centums are lesser, about 10aˆ?20 per cent of that of light rail and 1aˆ?10 per cent of the Metro ( Jaiswal 2012 ) . This is because it can be tailored to the demands of the populace by increasing the frequence of coachs and the figure of bus Michigans.
The gestation clip for BRTS is comparatively short. The continuance of building for 18 kilometer of the BRTS path is expected to take one to three old ages and in the instance of metropolitan metropoliss it is expected to take three to five old ages, which is shorter than that of developing tubes in urban metropoliss ( Jaiswal 2012 ) .
BRTS is on ‘at grade degree ‘ as it involves the building of comfy and efficient high station platforms and shelter that caters to the demands of the handicapped.
Advanced Traveller Information System ( ATIS ) and Automatic trailing of coachs.
In BRTS commuters can merely traverse at the zebra crossings, therefore this will assist convey down human death rates drastically.
It can be modified as per local penchants and civilization, population denseness, distribution of trips, clime, geographics, topography, available fiscal resources, local proficient capacity and cognition, bing concern and institutional constructions.
Figure 3: Features of BRTS
Beginning: “ Developing Bus Rapid Transit System in India ” by Madhuri Jain, Arti Saxena, Preetvanti Singh, and P.K Saxena, p.9
The History of BRTS
BRTS is chiefly a Latin American invention. The TransMilenio system in Bogota ( Colombia ) started its operations in 2001 and led the manner for more than 30 metropoliss in both development and developed states to implement efficient public conveyance systems. Mayor Penasola, a strong leader and a taking town contriver, was chiefly responsible for the success of BRTS in Bogota . While Bogota has provided an illustration worthy of emulation across the universe, today BRTS is run along different concern theoretical accounts ( India 2012 ) .
The construct of BRTS is being promoted by the New York-based Institute for Transportation and Development Policy ( ITDP ) . BRTS has been progressively adopted in the Asiatic states since 2004. BRTS is presently under building in 18 metropoliss and under consideration in 5 metropoliss in Asia ( Kumara 2009 ) . In India, under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission ( JNNURM ) that aims to hike and reform development in the field of urban public conveyance, the BRTS was launched in Delhi, Ahmedabad, Vishakhapatnam, Pune, Indore, Jaipur and Bhopal. Furthermore, late in 2012, BRTS has been proposed in 14 more metropoliss ( Asia BRTS meet ends 2012 ) .
The Ahmedabad BRTS Experience- Case I
Started in October 2009, the Ahmedabad BRTS – known as Janmarg- is among the most successful solutions to the job of inefficient urban public transit in India. For this successful execution, the metropolis received legion awards:
National Award for “ Best Mass Transit Rapid System Project – 2009 ” from Government of India.
International Award for “ Sustainable Transport Award – 2010 ” at Washington DC, USA.
International Award for “ Outstanding Innovations in Public Transportation – 2010 ” from UITP, Germany.
National Award for “ Best Innovation Project Towards Improvement in Urban Mobility in the City of Ahmedabad through New Technological Innovations in Janmarg BRTS – 2010 ” from Government of India.
International Award for Design – “ Make bolding Ambition Award and Knowledge and Research Award – 2011 ” at 59th UITP World Congress, Dubai.
National Award for “ Award for Excellence in the class of Best ITS Project – 2011 ” from Government of India.
Recently it was besides highlighted as a ‘lighthouse undertaking ‘ as portion of the United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon ‘s Momentum for Change Initiative at the Doha unit of ammunition of dialogues held in November this twelvemonth.
Ahmedabad is the largest metropolis in Gujarat, and the 7th largest metropolitan country in India ( Census 2011 ) . Historically, it has been a metropolis known for its thriving concern communities. Given the new economic chances station liberalisation, and rapid industrial growing of India, and in peculiar Gujarat, the metropolis has been spread outing quickly in recent old ages in population.
Population of Ahmedabad Metropolitan Area.
Geographically, it is a compact metropolis characterised by a great mixture of residential and concern countries which seem to intermix into each other. It is characterized by a few countries holding high denseness of population, a few good developed countries. It besides consists of a balanced street web system with well-developed 5 ring roads and 17 radial roads. Entire route length is about 2400 kilometer. There are 7 Bridgess that span across the brilliant Sabarmati river to link the eastern portion of the metropolis with West. The metropolis besides has two outstanding railroad Stationss – Ahmedabad City Station and Maninagar station.
History of City ‘s Transport System
From the early 1940 ‘s, there have been local coachs providing through the metropolis. The Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation ( AMC ) had a company under it, called Ahmedabad Municipal Transport Service ( AMTS ) that ran and operated coachs. It was moderately expeditiously managed. However, due to a assortment of grounds, the coach fleet could non be expanded and run into the demands of the turning population. For illustration, from 1995 to 2005, the figure of vehicles in the metropolis jumped from 0.51 million to 1.2 million. The per capita statistics would do this supply gap even starker. In 1990, Ahmedabad had 110 vehicles per 1000 people, in 2002, it became 280 vehicles per 1000 people. Vehicles here would include bikes. Therefore, it was copiously clear that there was a monolithic supply spread in public conveyance.
In 2005, taking awareness of this supply spread and taking the fiscal restraints of the Ahmedabad Corporation into consideration, it was decided to let private participants to go portion of the public conveyance system, along with the bing AMTC coachs.
Entire Bus Fleet
As can be seen clearly from the tabular array, the determination to let privatize did increase the entire strength of the public conveyance system. However, the critical jobs remained unresolved.
Most of the traffic is dominated by two Wheelers, and three Wheelers. Harmonizing to the family study conducted by the Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology in 2006 ( NIUA, 2011 ) , 8 hundred thousand bikes ply on the metropolis streets accounting for up to 19 % of the entire trips and the metropolis has 22 hundred thousand registered vehicles of which two Wheelers are about 73 % . There are relatively fewer 4 Wheelers, accounting for approximately 12.5 % ( Kumara, 2009 ) . There are more than 35,000 three Wheelers. Several of them use debased fuels, taking to air pollution. It was the most contaminated metropolis in the state in 2003, harmonizing to a list prepared by the Central Pollution Control Board ( NIUA, 2011 ) . A displacement to CNG fuels in 2005 improved the state of affairs to an extent.
What this means in existent footings is comparatively simple. More figure of vehicles on the same sum of roads implies more congestion on the streets. Under such congestions, a policy to better public conveyance by simply increasing coach fleet will non work out any jobs.
Keeping this in head, the Gujarat province authorities, as portion of its programs to develop Ahmedabad as a Mega City, approached Center for Environmental Planning and Technology University ( CEPT ) to be after a BRTS theoretical account for the metropolis in 2005. It had besides declared 2005 as the ‘Sheheri Vikas Varsh ‘ , the twelvemonth of urban development. The cardinal authorities excessively came up with JNNURM in 2005. The Ahmedabad BRTS program was approved in 2006, and work began at earnest. Harmonizing to Prof. H.M. Shivanand Swamy, Professor and Associate Director of CEPT, Janmarg is modelled on Bogota, the capital of Colombia and BRTS of Curitiba of Brazil, and they have learnt from the errors committed by Delhi and Pune in implementing dedicated coach corridors.
The program consisted of the followers:
BRT Trunk Routes.
Complementary Routes ( AMTS ) .
BRT Feeder Routes.
Ahmedabad Janmarg Limited ( AJL ) the nodal company that governs the BRTS operations in the metropolis, was constituted as a Particular Purpose Vehicle ( SPV ) by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation ( AMC ) , Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority ( AUDA ) and Government of Gujarat. The undertaking is portion of the urban mobility program devised by the Gujarat Infrastructure Development Board ( GIDB ) . The program was to build BRTS coach lanes on specific, high strength paths, and better connectivity to and from the BRTS coach Stationss on these paths. The of import facet was to do the regular AMTS coach services complement the BRTS, to maximise the effectivity and cut down redundancy. Well-functioning characteristics of the undertaking like average corridors, customized coachs enabled with dual-side entree, state-of-the-art BRT Stationss and Intelligent Transportation System combined to do Janmarg a successful solution to increasing congestion in the metropolis. The Ahmedabad BRTS undertaking is funded under the JNNURM of the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. The Government of India, Government of Gujarat and Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation severally shoulder 35, 15 and 50 per cent of the undertaking costs.
Figure 4: Ahmedabad BRTS
Fleet Strength of 250 coachs envisaged to be provided during phase-1 and phase-2 of operations covering 90 kilometers through 3- 4 operators. Phase 1 consisted of the constructing BRTS lanes on the chief ring roads and inside of the metropolis. Phase 2 consisted of associating some of the cardinal out-lying countries to this web.
Degree centigrades: UsersStudentDesktoppicmap.png
The pilot corridor of Ahmedabad BRTS was started on 14 October, 2009, with a 12.5 kilometer long corridor and 20 Stationss. Presently, a entire length of 84 kilometers of route has been built and being used for the BRTS. The building started with widening the arterial and pealing roads to 40m and 60m breadth, with the in-between 10m being demarcated for the BRTS coachs. Under the public-private partnership ( PPP ) theoretical account, the ownership, operations and care of BRT coachs is the duty of private service suppliers. The coachs are run by 4 private operators, and the system and web being managed by the AJL. Presently, there are over 90 coachs providing under this system. As can be easy seen, this BRTS system was non limited to public traveling to industrial countries entirely. The web was broad spread across the metropolis, including some poorer, dumbly populated residential countries.
Impact on Transport Infrastructure and Citizens
There has been a enormous addition in travel velocity for other vehicles on the roads, due to a separate lane for the coachs. Therefore, BRTS has reduced congestion. In fact, on the assorted corridors the BRTS operates in, the mean velocity has increased by an norm of 6 kmph, which is significant.
The high frequence of coachs, with coachs every 2 proceedingss in extremum hours has made this a really reliable system.
There has been a dip in the figure of route human deaths and route accidents.
A significant addition of 6 % in the figure of coach users, with a corresponding decrease in figure of 2 Wheelers and share-autos.
A policy of ‘Connect busy topographic points but avoid busy roads ‘ ensured least fusss during the building stage.
As per study conducted by AJL in 2009, people claim to be salvaging about 70 per cent in clip and 50 per cent in travel cost by taking the BRTS.
About 15 % of Ahmedabad ‘s two-wheeled users now make usage of BRTS services, which is a great measure towards cut downing GHG emanations.
Therefore Ahmedabad BRTS has brought a scope of societal, economic and environmental benefits to the occupants of the metropolis by lending extensively in cut downing travel clip, the cost of travel, and the demand to utilize private vehicles for mundane commutation. It has resulted in enhanced gross coevals, quality of life, and improved economic chances for the people who can now easy travel to widespread parts of the metropolis.
Presently Janmarg is operational over 45 kilometers corridor web in the metropolis, with 90 coachs and carries about 1,35,000 lakh riders every twenty-four hours. Its day-to-day income is about Rs 7,70,000 hundred thousand. Harmonizing to Prof Swamy, Janmarg earns a gross of Rs 10,000 per coach per twenty-four hours and pay Rs 8500 to bus operators at a rate of Rs 36 per kilometer. Including others operation costs like fining, care, etc. there is a deficit of 10 % -15 % of gross as compared to be. But one time the capacity will be to the full realised, the system is expected to accomplish higher rider rate and thereby, Janmarg can retrieve the deficit. With an mean runing velocity of 27 kilometers per hr, it presents one of the fastest public conveyance systems in India. It has well contributed in commanding pollution, which was one of the major aims. Five old ages of operation and its touchable positive impact have provided ample grounds to propose the suitableness of Ahmedabad BRTS as a best pattern in urban conveyance direction.
Analyzing Success Story
The inquiry that arises is how did they make it? Harmonizing to I.P.Gautam, Commissioner of AMC, besides affordability, audience before execution and flexible design suited for local conditions were besides responsible for its success.
They tried a feedback system from the most of import interest holders, the citizens. For the first three months, AMC ran BRTS free ; it picked up particular sentiment makers-students, professors and instructors, journalists, top industrialists of Gujarat-and gave them free drives to seek suggestions. Most were used. As said by Ahmedabad Municipal Commissioner I.P. Gautam, ” We gave the people a sense of ownership. ”
Janmarg has efficaciously used modern engineering like Global Positioning System ( GPS ) -enabled installation, a rider information system ( PIS ) and closed coach shelters with electronic fining at the bus-stops. It has deployed province of art IntelligentA Transit Management System ( ITMS ) . ITMS automatesA maps like electronic menu aggregation, A automated vehicle location system, passengerA information system, vehicle scheduling andA dispatch, incident direction system andA depot direction system. The most advanced electronic moorage system utilizing RFID technique has besides been installed.
The basic layout of the lanes and the design of coach bases have been really user friendly.
The wide roads of Ahmedabad have besides helped.
As ticket pricing is really of import, BRTS menu is designed on the footing of the travel form so that most of the commuters can make their finish paying less than Rs 5.
Most significantly, its political will and stableness in the authorities that has been a make up one’s minding factor, as no sum of financess and planning can convey success, if execution is non hindrance free.
The Pune BRTS Experience-Case II
The metropolis of Pune was the first in India to experiment with a BRTS. Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited ( PMPML ) started providing pilot paths in December 2006. The undertaking consisted of 16.5 kilometers of coach lanes along the Katraj-Swargate route utilizing air-conditioned, low-floor Volvo B7RLE coachs. The urban development section had approved Rs. 476 crore financess for 10 stage I paths and cardinal authorities had sanctioned Rs. 98 crore for initial stage under JNNURM. In entire Rs 1000 crore was approved ‘in rule ‘ for the full undertaking, including stage II. The full BRTS was to cover the distance of 117 kilometers. 52 km stretch was planned in first stage and remainder in 2nd. It was decided that dedicated coach lanes will be provided merely on those roads where the breadth was more than 30 m and coachs would travel with assorted traffic on all other paths. Therefore, merely 45 per cent of the entire BRTS paths proposed was to hold dedicated lanes. Commands from building companies were invited for completion of BRTS to cover 12 PMPML paths. Political parties begun opposing BRTS paths stating it would ensue in pandemonium. Few were of an sentiment that Pune Municipal Corporation ( PMC ) should foremost finish the pilot corridor and do it successful and ulterior experiment on other roads. The BRTS pilot undertaking was launched on December 3, 2006 and 5 air-conditioned Volvo coachs were flagged away on the 6.5 km Katraj-Swargate stretch. But merely few yearss after the startup, because of series of accidents on the path the undertaking was criticized badly. The headlong execution became an election issue and the opinion Congress lost power in the PMC.
Pulling lessons from the hapless consequences of the pilot BRTS undertakings on Satara Road and Solapur Road under JNNURM, the PMC is taking attention to avoid any oversight this clip. In May this twelvemonth, the civic organic structure announced four new BRTS corridors in the metropolis to link four corners of the metropolis. These four paths are Warje- Kharadi via Jungli Maharaj Road, Paud Phata-Vishrantwadi, Dhayari-Hadapsar and Katraj-Kalewadi. In the first stage, the PMC and the PMPML have identified new coach Michigans on the dedicated paths and the work of building the coach Michigans and rider platforms has started on Vishrantwadi Road. The corridor cost has now risen to Rs. 123 crore. Very few jobs have been corrected since operations have begun. Segregation substructure is complete in merely for 3 kilometer of the pilot corridor. Due to miss of uninterrupted segregation, enforcement and user instruction, general traffic does non esteem the separate BRTS lane. Bus stop circulation for riders is hard due to the presence of obstructions ( seats, columns ) and narrow subdivisions. Passengers are required to step down the platforms to make the prosaic paseos at the intersection. Level embarkation has non been achieved as coachs do non dock at close distance to the platforms. As a consequence there is high incommodiousness to the riders that need to walk down the platforms to walk up the coach entrywaies.
Now PMC is sing Ahmedabad theoretical account for the execution of the BRTS on 27 roads and organize a separate entity for the undertaking executing maintaining PMPML out of the image. For the same an official visit to Ahmedabad was arranged by the opinion, Nationalist Congress Party ( NCP ) to analyze the success of Ahmedabad BRTS. This visit included the Mayor, deputy Mayor, all party leaders in PMC, Standing and City Improvement Committee president, the Municipal Commissioner, metropolis applied scientist and extra metropolis applied scientists. PMC is besides confer withing Institute for Transportation and Development Policy ( ITDP ) , the US-based non-governmental non-profit organisation supplying proficient aid to metropoliss and local protagonism groups on sustainable transit development
The Pune metropolitan part is comprised of two municipal corporations-Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad. Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation ( PCMC ) had besides announced BRTS undertaking in December 2008, eight paths covering 112 kilometers were proposed. 90 % of building work on an 11km pilot path betweenA NigdiA andA DapodiA had been completed, but in September 2009 it was announced that, although most work had been completed, troubles securing the 650 coachs required to run on the system had led to the undertaking being indefinitely postponed. The cost of the undertaking had overrun by 230 crore, which about 50 % of the entire undertaking cost. Therefore, both the municipal corporations ( PMC and PCMC ) had started with separate BRTS in their metropolis, but be aftering without any coordination between the two municipal corporations have finally lead to jobs and confusion for commuters. For illustration, different tallness of platforms of the coach, difference in the design of bus-shelters, that is to state, If PCMC BRTS provide for get oning installations from either sides ( for coachs holding doors on both sides ) and If the same coach travels to Pune, and if there is no proviso for get oning installations on both sides of the bus-shelter in Pune, so this may take to confusion for the commuters. Shreya Gadepalli, senior programme manager of TheA Institute for Transportation and Development PolicyA ( ITDP ) ( theA US-basedA non-governmentalA non-profit organisation supplying proficient aid to metropoliss and local protagonism groups onA sustainable transportationA development ) said, the PMC and PCMC have to jointly take a determination on the BRTS. However, there has to be a separate unit of capable staff to pull off the BRTS efficaciously. A entire BRTS web has to be planned for the metropolis, alternatively of holding one or two corridors in isolation.
The ground to include BRTS by PCMC as portion of survey is to give comprehensive thought about the grounds for failure and suggest manner forward. Besides, as the aim of BRTS is to simplify urban conveyance and increase the convenience for the citizens, it is of import that civic governments and politicians realize that for people of Pune or Pimpri-Chinchwad, they are no longer two separate metropoliss. So, any conveyance enterprise, which does non link them good, is certain to be a failure.
Reasons for Failure of Pune BRTS
The PMC took enterprise in implementing BRTS, but its execution has created a hapless first feeling. The services were rolled out without proper planning or watchfulness to the jobs of implementation.A The PMC has allegedly non adhered to the guidelines laid out by the IIT Delhi, which in its consultative capacity had made several recommendations. PMC had non engaged a undertaking adviser to liaison with IIT Delhi. It is really clearly apparent that work on the BRTS had begun without micro-planning or a Detailed Project Report ; devoid of traffic and conveyance experience, the metropolis had merely rolled out the thought and hotfoot headfirst into predictable failure. This was topped with many operational jobs. The figure of vehicles allotted to the BRT pilot has besides been unequal. The traffic constabulary could non adequately implement the dedicated lanes for the coachs, and invasion on to the waies by other vehicles. A dedicated cell or organic structure of experts is recommended for the successful execution of the undertaking, but in instance of Pune, such a cell came into being merely after 4 old ages from the launch of the undertaking and its failure. The cell was to be established and be functional from 2007, but got delayed due to dissensions between PMC and PMPML. Military officers clashed over responsibilities and functions of the individual who would manage the cell. Even the civic disposal governments have admitted that the undertaking started without a elaborate undertaking study that should hold covered elements like reserved lanes, off-board ticketing, an intelligent conveyance study, integrating with other manners of conveyance, paths and menus, terminals, coachs and fiscal, managerial and operational construction to run the system.
Harmonizing to Prashant Inamdar, a civic militant who obtained several inside informations of the BRTS under the Right to Information Act, “ no holiness or earnestness had been put to work. The choice of the corridor was incorrect – being portion of province main roads, there ‘s already congestion of heavy vehicles from other metropoliss. No elaborate traffic study had been carried out, which is a pre-requisite for success. No comprehensive idea was given to the inter-connecting feeder service either, in the absence of which a commuter would believe twice earlier utilizing the BRTs coachs. ” Similar reaction besides came from Sujit Patwardhan, whose well-respected NGO, Pune ‘s Traffic and Transportation Forum ( PTTF ) has been runing for heightening a mass populace conveyance system to deter the use of private vehicles. He insisted that speedy frequence of fine-looking coachs would entice the citizens to accept this manner of conveyance, but the PMC alternatively bought merely five coachs, so the impact quotient was really less. Since citizen perceptual experience is the cardinal component to the success of this narrative, the deficiency of willingness to do it work by the PMC may ensue in this good alternate weakness. ” Lack of willingness is really apparent in the instance of Pune. P G Patankar, a senior traffic transit expert, rejected the whole thought of a BRT for Pune. He had said, “ How can Bus Rapid Transit use to a engorged metropolis like Pune? If it has worked in South America it is because the denseness of population is lower compared to our metropoliss, and roads at that place are every bit broad as our freewaies so you can hold dedicated coach lanes without interrupting other traffic. It would be better to increase the efficiency and frequence of the present PMT fleet. That would non necessitate a dedicated lane – a luxury for our engorged metropoliss. What we require is point-to-point coachs at higher frequences. The BRTS experiment is certain to neglect. ”
Therefore to reason, failure of Pune BRTS can be majorly attributed to:
Lack of elaborate planning and execution.
One ground that we feel is the choice of pilot undertaking corridor could hold been an issue, as Katraj-Swargate path is really busy and it once more coincides with state main road.
No degree embarkation, due to mismatch in coach halt highs and coach design, deficiency of drivers ‘ preparation.
No enforcement of the corridors and corridors being discontinuous at many topographic points.
Lack of installations for walkers.
Most significantly deficiency of political will.
Figure 6: Pune BRTS
Degree centigrades: UsersStudentDesktoppicpune.jpg
Picture: A coach providing on the BRT path on the Hadapsar-Swargate-Katraj corridor has walkers and non-BRT traffic infringing on its path.
Having studied both, success of Ahmedabad BRTS and grounds for failure of Pune BRTS, it is really apparent that hapless planning and execution, along with deficiency of strong political will are the chief grounds for the failure of the later. Below given tabular array explains the chief difference between both the undertakings.
Comparative Summary of Pune and Ahmedabad
Type of System
Open corridor, side median
Exclusive corridor cardinal average coach Michigans
About non analyze
System Run By
Ahmedabad Janmarg Ltd.
BRTS Lane Maintenance
Ahmedabad Janmarg Ltd.
Work Commenced in twelvemonth
Entire Cost ( Rs. Lakhs )
Kilometers ( Planned )
Kilometers ( working )
Available, to the full functional
2 min. in extremum hours
10 min in off extremum hours
On coach Michigans
Available at full length
Available at some part of
Use of Technology
Engagement of Citizens
Attitude of civic authorities- absolute buy-in for the construct from administrative and political system within province and AMC has chiefly contributed to the success, as against this in Pune, we could see deficiency of political willingness for the undertaking and involuntariness of the assorted establishments and governments involved for co-operation. To sum up with what Prof. Swamy believes, good leading, good ownership and partnership are the key to a successful BRTS.
Sustainability in Transport System
In today ‘s clip, non merely rapid agencies of conveyance, but sustainable agencies of conveyance are needed. Sustainability in conveyance can be brought about by cut downing the figure of private vehicles and therefore keeping motorisation, reduced GHG emanations, proper structuring of the paths for fast and efficient commute, reduced dust pollution, traffic congestion, by developing more efficient travel manner, strong and optimized public conveyance, societal benefit of increasing the mobility, heightening walking and cycling, improved care of vehicles on route, and better traffic direction and path pick. Lot many conditions for sustainable conveyance are satisfied by a well-planned and enforced BRTS.
The large challenge for developing states like India is to maintain a balanced conveyance mix that provides equal handiness for people and goods. Ahmedabad ‘s experience shows that BRTS can turn to the urban stationariness and emanation job if the system reduces entire travel clip and provides dependable and comfy services at low costs. Failure of Pune BRTS is a clear indicant of demand for better urban planning by taking into assurance all the stakeholders.