Imagine coming place from school and sitting at the computing machine to acquire off from the emphasis of the twenty-four hours. Within a few proceedingss you ‘re bombarded with messages like “ You ‘re uglyaˆ¦We hatred youaˆ¦Why do n’t you do us all happy and stop your suffering life ” . Welcome to a universe excessively many adolescents are confronting. A universe where strong-arming no longer takes topographic point in the hallways at school or on the manner place. Bullying is now more likely to takes topographic point in the murky, frequently anon. universe of the Internet. About a 3rd ( 31 % ) of all pupils ages 12-14 have been bullied on-line harmonizing to a survey by Opinion Research Corporation ( 2006 ) . This research paper will analyze some of the grounds for “ cyberbullying, ” and what may be done about it.
What is Cyberbullying?
Bill Belsey, President of Bullying.orgCanada says, “ Cyberbullying involves the usage of information and communicating engineerings such as electronic mail, cell phone and beeper text messages, instant messaging, calumniatory personal Web sites, and calumniatory on-line personal polling Web sites, to back up deliberate, repeated, and hostile behaviour by an person or group that is intended to harm others ” . Nancy Willard, writer of “ An Educators Guide to Cyberbullying and Cyberthreats ” breaks down cyberbullying into the undermentioned classs:
Flaming.Online battles utilizing electronic messages with angry or coarse linguistic communication.
Harassment.Repeatedly directing awful, average, an contemptuous messages.
Denigration. “ Dissing ” person online. Sending or posting chitchat or rumours about a individual to damage his or her repute or friendly relationships.
Impersonation.Pretending to be person else and directing or posting stuff to acquire that individual in problem or damage their repute.
Outing.Sharing person ‘s secrets or abashing information or images online.
Trickery.Tricking person into uncovering secrets or abashing information and so sharing it on-line.
Exclusion.Intentionally and cruelly excepting person.
Cyberstalking.Repeated, intense torment and belittling that includes menaces or creates important fright ( Willard, 2006 ) .
Many grownups, based on their ain perceptual experiences of traditional, face-to-face intimidation, may non acknowledge cyberbullying as a existent menace. They frequently think of the bigger, stronger pull the leg of physically aching or endangering the smaller, weaker child, whereas, with cyberbullying, the toughs come in all sizes, still scaring and harming others, but without the physical contact. Often times, cyberbullies hide behind fabricated usernames and anon. web sites, doing them difficult to follow. As a consequence, the bully frequently feels unbeatable. Cyberbullies besides feel empowered by the instant entree to both the victim and the audience that the cyberspace provides. Because the bully does non hold face to confront contact with the victim during the onslaughts, he may non be cognizant of the degree of injury he is bring downing. Therefore, he may be less likely to experience regret or sympathy toward the victim, doing the onslaughts all the more barbarous ( Schneier, 2003 ) . These factors can take to a bully who feels more audacious and powerful than the traditional bully. While the bully feels unbeatable, the victim frequently feels entirely and incapacitated.
Examples of Cyberbullying
Within the last five old ages many intelligence narratives have covered the eruption of cyberbullying. Earlier this twelvemonth in Vermont, sophomore Kylie Kinney came frontward with her narrative of torment. While Kylie was in 8th class, menaces and homophobic comments were made about her on a Web site titled “ Kill Kylie Incorporated ” . Then, another schoolmate allegedly created an instant message screen name similar to Kylie ‘s, and began composing sexual insinuation and offers of day of the months to her field hockey squad. Consequently, Kylie quit traveling to school, was home-schooled for a period, and so transferred to a new high school. In response, Kylie said “ I had no flight, everything followed me to school ” ( Broache, 2006 ) .
In Canada, teenage Ghyslain was bullied when a group of his equals got a clasp of a picture he created. The picture showed Ghyslain reinacting a scene from “ Star Wars ” , flinging and swirling himself around his room. His equals so edited his picture, adding particular effects and sounds while splicing Ghyslain into films such as “ Chicago ” , “ The Matrix ” and “ The Terminator ” . Then in bend, they uploaded it to the cyberspace for everyone to see. Within two hebdomads, over 15 million had seen the two minute picture. Now known as “ the Star Wars Kid ” , Ghyslain dropped out of school and has had to seek psychiatric aid ( Paulson, 2003 ) .
Sixteen twelvemonth old Denise, from Los Angeles, experienced cyberstalking and belittling as a signifier of revenge from her ex-boyfriend. Shortly after she broke up with her fellow, he posted personal information, including her cell phone figure, e-mail reference and street reference on sex-oriented web sites. For months, Denise was invariably being harassed by buffoonery calls, instant messages and thrust by ‘s. While her ex-boyfriend was rapidly apprehended, it did non extinguish the continued injury and weakness Denise experienced ( Strom and Strom, 2005 ) .
Another illustration of fire and torment by electronic agencies is the instance of Ryan Patrick Halligan. Thirteen twelvemonth old Ryan was bullied for months by his schoolmates who started rumours that he was gay. He was invariably having hassling instant messages. One exchange even encouraged Ryan to stop his life, which he did, a few yearss subsequently. Ryan ‘s parents ne’er knew of this battle until a few yearss after his self-destruction. “ He merely went into a deep spiral in 8th class. He could n’t agitate this rumour ” , said John Halligan, Ryan ‘s male parent and cyberbullying militant ( Ascione, L. , 2005 ) .
Cyberbullying seems to be on the rise. A study conducted in New Hampshire in 2000 found that merely 6 per centum of adolescents had been cyberbullied ( Finkelhor, D. , Mitchell, K.J. , & A ; Wolak, J. ( 2000 ) . Six twelvemonth subsequently, harmonizing to a national survey by Opinion Research Corporation ( 2006 ) about a 3rd of the state ‘s K-12 pupils have experienced cyberbullying.
Effectss of Cyberbullying
Because cyberbullying lacks the physical injury, sceptics of cyberbullying feel it is non every bit harmful as traditional intimidation. These sceptics must look at the psychological harm caused by cyberbullying. Allison, a 9th grader from Washington, D.C. repeatedly received hate mail on her instant messages, “ It seemed like it was from misss who I thought were my friends. When I confronted them, they denied it and blamed it on person else. I ne’er knew who was truly behind it. I got truly paranoid and could n’t concentrate in school ” ( Wiseman, 2007 ) . Allison is non entirely, many victims feel trapped, frustrated and distracted. Victims may besides see depression, unhappiness, low self-pride, choler, ideas of self-destruction and emphasis. Sociologist Robert Agnew maintains that those who experience this emphasis or strain are more likely to take part in “ aberrant or delinquent ” behaviours in order to get by ( Hinduja and Patchin, 2006 ) . This is particularly of import to observe because of the potency for delinquent behaviours impacting equals, school work, household and the community.
So, there is small inquiry that cyberbulling exist, but what are the concerns pupils have sing cyberbullying, why do they make it, and how comfy are they in speaking to others about cyberbullying.
Capable and instrumentA sum of 59 8th class pupils from a Midwest urban charter school including 24 males and 35 females completed a 25 inquiry anon. study. Students were given a brief account to the intent of the 25 inquiry study and encouraged to take their clip and candidly reply the inquiries and non place themselves in taking the multi-choice study.
The survey found about 29 per centum had been victims of cyberbullying and 24 per centum had bullied person online. Of those who had admitted to being cyberbullied, 59 per centum admitted to strong-arming person every bit good. In add-on, about 80 per centum of all of the pupils surveyed reported that they aware of cases of cyberbullying.
When male and female experiences were considered individually, it was found that over 20 per centum of males and over 34 per centum of females had experienced cyberbullying. In add-on, 29 per centum of males and merely 20 per centum of females reported to hold cyberbullied.
Table 1Percentages of pupils sing cyberbullying
Engaged in Cyberbulling
Aware of Cyberbullying
A Expression at Cyberbully
Of those that reported that they had been cyberbullied, over 50 per centum reported the cyberbullying lasted on mean 2-4 yearss, while about 30 per centum lasted a hebdomad or longer. Over 41 per centum of the clip cyberbullying took topographic point with instant messaging, chat suites and web logs ( MySpace, Xanga, Facebook, Bebo, etc ) . In add-on, 35 per centum reported that electronic mail was used to cyberbullied them.
Of those pupils that reported being bullied, 59 per centum of the clip they were teased or called names, 47 per centum were lied about, 35 per centum were threatened and 30 per centum had were sexually harassed. Almost half of those who were cyberbullied said extra intimidation followed the initial episode. A entire 35 per centum of the victims kept the intimidation to themselves while 30 per centum told a friend, one individual told a parent and no 1 told a instructor. However, angry, down and hurt were the top three emotions experienced ( averaging over 3 points on a 5 point graduated table ) .
In the interim, cyberbullying pupils admitted to being experiencing reasonably insecure, invaded, scared and stray ( averaging 2.4 points on a 5 point graduated table ) .
The most reported grounds those that admitted to cyberbullying ( 14/59 ) gave were out of retaliation ( 57 per centum ) and choler ( 43 per centum ) while 21 per centum admit to cyberbullying because they did non like the other individual. When asked how the cyberbullying take topographic point, the consequences are similar to the 1s reported by victims of cyberbullying: 43 per centum by instant messaging or confab suites and 36 per centum by electronic mails or web logs. A entire 86 per centum of the cyberbullies admit to cyberbullying from place. Over 78 per centum reported they were non confronted while merely 2 people out of 14 study they were confronted by their parent ( s ) .
All Students Chemical reactions to Cyberbullying
About 80 per centum of the 59 pupils surveyed are cognizant of cyberbullying with about 100 % of the misss and 65 % of the male childs acknowledging consciousness. The study consequences besides showed that pupils feel highly comfy speaking to their friends ( 4.4 points on a 5 point graduated table ) . Students feel reasonably comfy speaking with parents and instructors ( 2.7 and 2.6 points severally ) and least comfy speaking to Principals ( 1.9 points ) . So when asked, “ overall, how much of a job is cyberbullying, ” 21 per centum the pupils reported cyberbullying is non a job, 17.5 per centum experience it ‘s a minor job, 35 per centum experience it ‘s a common job and 26.5 per centum say cyberbullying is a major job.
This survey confirms other surveies ( Opinion Research, ( 2006 ) on the prevalence of cyberbullying in that about a 3rd ( 29 % ) admitted to being bullied with half of them describing that extra intimidation accompanied the initial cyberbullying. Research finds a connexion between toughs, cyberbullies and their victims. Bullies, compared to non-bullies, were more likely to be cyberbullies ; while victims of physical intimidation were more likely to be victims of cyberbullying ( Li, 2006 ) . By non turn toing the tease, name naming and chitchat at school, they can go more prevailing and unsafe in internet. The research worker found 59 per centum of victims were teased or called names, 47 per centum were lied about and 30 per centum were sexually harassed.
Schools need to educate pupils in how to manage intimidation. It was found that 57 per centum of the cyberbullying was out of retaliation, while 41 per centum of the clip it was out of choler. In the same study, some pupils suggested to “ merely disregard it ” and trust it goes off. Before schools can anticipate adolescents to hold “ netiquette ” , utilizing the cyberspace decently, and dainty others good, they need to be taught appropriate non-harassment behaviour. Within the past twosome of old ages, plans and resources have been made available on how schools can cover with cyberbullying ( see p.16 for resources links ) . Further information about these resources demands to acquire into the custodies of parents and pedagogues.
A 3rd of import issue is the failure of victims informing a parent, instructor or other grownup of the cyberbullying. Even thought old research indicated the figure of adolescents who tell a parent or grownup is already low ( Wiseman, 2007 ; MSN UK, 2006 ) but it was still unexpected to happen that 16 out of the 17 of those acknowledging to being cyberbullied did non state an grownup. Those who were non bullied reported that they feel slightly comfy speaking to their parent ( s ) about cyberbullying, while highly comfy speaking to their friends. These findings, along with narratives like Ryan Halligan ( the 13-yr old who took his life ) , suggest the demand to increase the consciousness of parents and other interested grownups such as instructors and school decision makers.
What Can Rear Make?
A study conducted by MSN United Kingdomfound that 74 % of teens as compared to 80 % in this survey did non travel to anyone for advice when they were cyberbullied ( www.msn.co.uk/cyberbullying, 2006 ) . One ground some adolescents are loath to state parents or grownups is the fright of revenge. Online revenge can frequently be barbarous. These teens besides do n’t see any immediate solution to the job, so they keep it to themselves and trust it goes off. Another ground adolescents are besides less likely to state their parents is the fright of losing their usage of the computing machine and internet entree ( Cottle, 2001 ) . “ Many adolescents are unwilling to put on the line holding parents take such utmost signifiers of protection because, without engineering tools, they would experience socially stray and less able to remain in immediate contact with their friends ” ( Strom and Strom, 2005 ) .
When teens refuse to acquire their parents involved, it is easy for parents to believe that everything is all right. In a study conducted by Wired Safety.org, merely 15 per centum of parents polled knew what cyberbullying was ( Wiseman, 2007 ) . Many times parents do n’t acquire involved because they are afraid of occupying their adolescent ‘s privateness. Others may experience that every bit long as they have filtrating package their adolescent is protected from negative stuff. Not merely can many teens override these obstructors and still entree negative stuff, filtrating package can non forestall cyberbullying ( Willard, 2006 ) . Parents need to be educated about cyberbullying- what it looks like, what the effects are and how to manage it. Rosalind Wiseman, pedagogue and writer of the best marketer “ Queen Bees & A ; Wannabes ” , suggest parents see the followers:
Use engineering as an chance to reenforce your household values.Attach regulations and effects if inappropriate behaviour occurs.
Move the computing machine out of your kid ‘s bedroomand into the household room.
Teach your kid non to portion watchwords.
Install monitoring and filtering package.
Monitor your kid ‘s screen name ( s ) and Web sitesfor inappropriate content.
If cyberbullying occurs, save and print out any evidenceand decide whom you should reach for aid.
Wiseman goes on to remind parents that engineering is a positive tool and that there are many adolescents who use it responsibly. “ We do n’t necessitate to gross out out. We do need to cognize what our childs can make with engineering and keep them accountable when they use it unethically ” ( Wiseman, 2007, p. 7 ) .
What Can School Do?
There are few Torahs that address how to manage cyberbullying. In 2000, CIPA ( Children ‘s Internet Protection Act ) was passed. It requires public libraries and publically funded schools to barricade entree to sexually explicit stuff. Along those lines, DOPA ( Deleting Online Predators Act ) was introduced last May by U.S. Rep. Michael Fitzpatrick, R-Pa. DOPA would necessitate libraries and schools to barricade entree to “ commercial websites that Lashkar-e-Taiba users create public Web pages or profiles and offer treatment boards, chat suites or e-mail services ” ( Rivero 2006 ) . This statute law would forestall pupils from utilizing popular web sites such as Facebook, MySpace and Bebo unchaperoned. Individual provinces such as Arkansas, Florida, Hawaii, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah and Washington are making their ain statute law sing intimidation. For illustration, Florida ‘s pending statute law would add: “ Bullying or torment of any pupil or school employee is prohibited: ( degree Celsius )
Through the usage of informations or computing machine package that is accessed through a computing machine, computing machine system, or computing machine web of a public K-12 educational establishment ” ( Hinduja and Patchin, 2007 ) . Some of these provinces are besides encouraging schools to turn to cyberbullying in their internet-use policies and school-wide intimidation policies. That manner, subject for each misdemeanor would be determined by the single school ( Ascione, 2005 ) . While it is a positive measure, this statute law entirely will non forestall cyberbullying wholly. One of the chief concerns is how to pass something that chiefly takes topographic point at place without conflicting on the rights of free address. “ The fact that two adolescents say awful things about each other is a portion of turning up, ” says Steven Brown, executive manager of the Rhode Island subdivision of the ACLU, “ How much authorization does a school have to supervise, modulate, and punish activities happening inside a pupil ‘s place? ” ( Ascione, 2005 )
The tribunals have given some way for schools covering with cyberbullying. “ School territories are good within their legal rights to step in in cyberbullying incidents – even if these incidents were initiated off-campus – if it can be demonstrated that the incident resulted in a significant break of the educational environment ” ( Hinduja and Patchin, 2007 ) ( accent added ) . While free address is protected by the First Amendment, a pupil ‘s right to liberate address is more limited than the “ public at big ” . In Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 393 U.S. 503 ( 1969 ) . The tribunal ruled that a pupil ‘s right to liberate address can be limited when the address “ materially disrupts category work or involves significant upset or invasion of the rights of others. ” The criterion of “ material break ” set by Tinker is frequently referred to by the tribunals ( Bloggin and the Law ) .
In J.S. v. Bethlehem Area School District No. 415 ( 2002 ) , the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania ruled that schools do hold the authorization to train pupils when behaviour or address happen off-campus every bit long as school functionaries can turn out it was a clear break of the schoolroom environment. J.S. was expelled for making a web page entitled “ Teacher Sux ” that included derogatory comments and solicited financess to engage a hit adult male to kill his math instructor. Bethlehem Area School District was able to clearly show a important break to the school environment. The tribunal besides concluded that in this twenty-four hours and age of school force certain classs of unprotected address include “ active words, address that incites others to imminent anarchic action, lewdness, certain types of defamatory address, and true menaces ” ( Wheeler, 2007 ) .
However, in Emmett v. Kent School District No. 415 ( 2000 ) , the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington overturned an ejection of Nick Emmett and reduced it to a five twenty-four hours suspension. On his place computing machine he created a web site called “ Unofficial Kentlake High Home Page ” where it included mock necrologies and encouraged visitants to vote on who should “ decease ” following. The ground the territory doomed is because it did non show that the web site caused a significant break to the school environment. The territory failed to turn out that anyone listed on the site was really threatened ( Hinduja and Patchin, 2007 ) .
And more late, in Layshock v. Hermitage School District ( 2006 ) , a pupil created a web site from his grandma ‘s place computing machine making a lampoon of the school principal on his myspace.com. While the site was non-threatening and created off-campus, school functionaries were able to turn out a major break to the school twenty-four hours. Officials pointed out that staff devoted a batch of excess clip spreading and deciding the state of affairs. Second, the computing machine system had to be shut down, ensuing in off categories and interrupting the educational environment ( Hinduja and Patchin, 2007 ) .
Meanwhile, other schools across the state are get downing to turn to cyberbullying at the topographic point where it normally begins, at place. Schools are educating parents to assist halt cyberbullying and other online dangers. By giving parents tools and doing them cognizant of what is traveling on, school functionaries believe they can swerve the growing of cyberbullying. Besides, the societal networking site MySpace prohibits cyberbullying and will take down those sites when contacted by school decision makers, parents or its users. MySpace besides provides safety tips for parents and its users on its web site.
While information sing cyberbullying has grown within the last two old ages, many parents, instructors and decision makers are still non to the full cognizant of what is go oning. In the same survey from Fight Crime: Invest in Kids, merely 37 % of those ( ages 12-14 ) who were bullied told their parents about it, while merely 11 % told a instructor. In a similar survey conducted by i-Safe America, consequences show 58 % of childs of have non told their parents or an grownup of something mean or hurtful done to them while online ( cite web site ) .
Meanwhile, merely 6 % of the pupils who had admitted to being cyberbullied in this survey confided in an grownup. “ Every school has a duty to find the extent to which pupils are exposed to cyberbullying ” , states strong-arming experts Paris S Strom and Robert D Strom ( Strom and Strom 2005 ) . In their 2005 essay, Strom and Strom give several deductions for farther research to be done on cyberbullying. They go on to province that pedagogues frequently overlook the demand to study their pupils, to happen out what is traveling on and what can be done to better the current state of affairs. They so suggest that the consequences of the study should be shared with pupils, parents and staff that treatment on bettering cyberspace safety will get down ( Strom and Strom 2005 ) .
What Schools Should Make
Schools should get down turn toing pupils, parents and staff about the issues of cyberbullying. Students need to be reminded that what they do in internet is non truly anon. . They need to cognize their behaviours and words are downloadable, printable and sometimes punishable by jurisprudence. Mark Franek, Dean of Students and English instructor at William Penn Charter School, suggests “ your school ‘s engineering instructors should show to pupils how each clip they entree the Internet they generate an electronic fingerprint called an IP, or Internet Protocol reference, which governments can utilize to follow all electronic communicating from computing machines or nomadic phones ” ( Franek, 2006 ) . Students besides need to be reminded non to portion personal informational such as watchwords, contact information and fiscal information with anyone. Franek adds that this communicating can be done during regular computing machine categories or by keeping particular assemblies affecting local governments or experts in the field.
Schools should besides hold policies on cyberbullying explained clearly in the school ‘s enchiridion and in the acceptable user policy ( AUP ) . The AUP is a legal papers signed by both pupil and parent, where the parent and pupil agree to follow the regulations established by the school. By specifically turn toing cyberbullying, “ the school now has authorization to take appropriate action to cover with the unsafe or opprobrious behavior ” ( stopcyberbullying.org ) . Experts Hinduja and Patchin suggest schools besides include the undermentioned elements in their policy:
Graduated effects and remedial actions
Procedures for describing
Procedures for look intoing
Specific linguistic communication that if a pupil ‘s off-school address or behavior consequences in “ significant break of the acquisition environment, ” the pupil can be disciplined ( Hinduja and Patchin, 2007 )
Mark Franek offers a sample school policy from William Penn Charter School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Neither the school ‘s web nor the broader Internet ( whether accessed on campus or off campus, either during or after school hours ) may be used for the intent of torment. All signifiers of torment in internet, frequently called cyberbullying, are unacceptable. Cyberbullying includes but is non limited to, the undermentioned abuses of engineering: harassing, badgering, intimidating, endangering, or terrorising another individual by directing or posting inappropriate and hurtful e-mail messages, instant messages, text messages, digital images or images, or Web site posters ( including web logs ) . Often the writer ( transmitter or posting ) of the inappropriate stuff is disguised ( logged on ) as person else.
Community members who feel that they have been the victims of such abuses of engineering should non wipe out the piquing stuff from the system. They should publish a transcript of the stuff and instantly describe the incident to a school functionary ( the manager of engineering, the dean of pupils, or the manager of the upper school ) . All studies of torment in internet will be investigated to the full. Sanctions may include, but are non limited to, the loss of computing machine privileges, detainment, suspension, separation, or ejection from school ( Franek, 2006, p. 42 ) .
A good policy and pupil consciousness is non plenty, schools besides need to acquire parents and staff involved and informed. As stated earlier, research shows, grownups have a deficiency of cognition when it comes to cyberbullying. Schools should supply meaningful preparation to both parents, staff and even pupils. Workshops can be designed to advance consciousness, processs for bully bar and schemes to manage cyberbullying. The undermentioned resources can be used to assist pupils, parents and pedagogues learn more about cyberbullying.
Wired Safety, “ the universe ‘s largest cyberspace safety and aid group ” . Parry Aftab, Wired Safety Executive and cyberbullying expert, provides parents, pedagogues and pupils many merriment and up-to-date resources with on-line safety. Wired Safety besides manages other cyberbullying sites such as Teenangels, WiredKids, CyberLawEnforcement, StopCyberbullying, and Internet Super Heroes.
Surf Swell Island, “ escapades in cyberspace safety ” . This site, created by Disney, provides merriment, synergistic games with Mickey and friends. Surf Swell Islandteaches childs about on-line privateness and positive cyberspace behaviours.
i-Safe, the “ leader in cyberspace safety instruction ” . This site provides merriment, synergistic resources ( including course of study ) for pupils, parents, pedagogues and the community. i-Safealso provides chances for pupils to go “ i-Mentors ” , where pupils are able to assist learn their equals about on-line safety.
Cyberbullying.us, “ identifies the causes and effects of on-line torment ” . This site includes intelligence narratives, research, activities and helpful resources sing cyberbullying.
Cyberbullying.org Canada, “ ever on, ever cognizant ” , created by Bill Belsey, President. This site offers resources to assist parents and pedagogues understand cyberbullying and how to battle it.
Safe Families, “ maintaining kids safe online ” . Safe Familiesoffers free cyberspace filtering package and parental controls to assist protect kids online. Safe Families besides provides parents an on-line safety workshop and guidelines for safe cyberspace usage.
With merely 59 pupils from one Midwest eight class, it is hard to do important generalisations. But, this survey does look to back up the consequences of larger surveies ; including Cole, J. I. , et Al. ( 2001 ) , Bullen, P. , & A ; Harre, N. ( 2000 ) , ( Finkelhor, D. , Mitchell, K.J. , & A ; Wolak, J. ( 2000 ) , ( Li, Q, 2006 ) and Opinion Research Corporation ( 2006 ) on the subject and does get down to look at the impact, grounds and about entire deficiency of communicating on the subject that pupil have with both their parents and their pedagogues. Therefore, it highlights the demand for schools to develop awareness plans and supply informational resources for parent, instructors, decision makers and pupils involved. Possibly, extra research will analyze the possible effectivity of such educational plans to control this turning concern which can bring forth life long emotional cicatrixs and even deathly consequences for our state ‘s kids.
Dr. Robert Leneway is the plan coordinator for the Educational Technology Program at Western Michigan University. He is an Assistant Professor and former Director of a Preparing Tomorrow ‘s Teachers to Use Technology ( PT3 ) Implementation Grant and a former educational adviser with the Michigan Department of Education.
Ryan Winter is in-between school instructor at Excel Charter Academy in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and a recent alumnus of the on-line Masters plan in Educational Technology at Western Michigan University.