|Are offspring that are the result of sexual reproduction ever identical to their parents?
|No, because they receive half of their DNA from each parent, not all of it from one.
|When a male sperm cell converges with a female egg cell
|What organisms reproduce sexually?
|Humans and Plants
|What is the difference between identical twins and fraternal twins?
|Identical twins have the same DNA and come from the same fertilized cell, fraternal twins do not
|Who is Gregor Mendell and why was his work so important
|He was the father of genetics-He discovered patterns in heredity and recognized dominance and recessive.
|How are diseases inherited?
|Your parent passes a disease-causing gene
|Give an example of asexual reproduction.
|Cloning, Cells splitting, strawberry plants, etc.
|Is cloning asexual or sexual reproduction? Does it happen naturally?
|Asexual reproduction; No
|What is the difference between identical twins and cloning?
|Identical Twins: Naturally occurs, two parents
Cloning: Does not occur naturally, only one 'parent'
|Where is genetic information found?
|In the nucleus of the cell
|An error in genetic coding that causes a gene to be reproduced slightly different from the original gene; happens randomly
|Explain the following statement; Mutations can create variety.
|Mutations happen randomly, and can introduce new traits (such as the color of your hair), making there be a variety in traits
|What is a trade-off of being genetically tested?
|Cost, Takes time, people could treat you differently, etc.
|An organism that has only one kind of allele for a characteristic is called what?
|An organism that has two kinds of alleles for a characteristic is called;
|Two parents are both carriers for a recessive genetic trait. Can their offspring ever have the genetic trait? (Think of a Punnet Square)
|Yes, there would be a 25% chance of the child having the condition (In a Punnet Square, both the parents would be heterozygous)
|How do you find the genotype of an individual?
|Studying a pedigree
|When studying a pedigree, how do scientists determine if a trait is recessive or dominant?
|If it is recessive, it will usually skip a generation.
|What are the sex chromosomes?
|Why does a male determine the sex of an offspring?
|They have both X and Y chromosomes (Females only have X chromosomes)
|What is the genotype of an organism?
|The combination of alleles they have.
|What is a genetic disease?
|A disease that can be passed on genetically
|What are genes?
|Inherited bits of information that determine your traits.
|What is the chance a couple will have a baby boy?
|What is a carrier?
|Someone who carriers a disease-causing gene but does not show symptoms; is still capable of passing gene to offspring
|What is the phenotype of an organism?
|A trait that is physically shown
|Bonus- Why did Medell use pea plants in his studies?
|They produced a lot of offspring, they had simple dominant-recessive traits he could study…
|Vocab- Inherited bits of information that are passed directly from parent cells to child cells
|Vocab- A trait passed on from parents to children
|Vocab-Describes a specific characteristic- example: round face, blue eyes
|Vocab- Used when referring to non-human organisms-example-seeds
|Vocab- Offspring produced by asexual reproduction. Inherits all of its traits from one parent.
|Vocab- Female reproductive cells
|Vocab- Science of heredity
|Vocab- The fusion of sperm and egg cells
|Vocab- A gene can be reproduced slightly differently from the original gene- can cause the offspring to have a different trait from the parent
|Vocab- The sperm cell produced by male unites with egg cell produced by female
|Vocab- Type of reproduction involving only one parent or cell in which organisms make exact copies of themselves
|Vocab- Male reproductive cell
|Vocab- One observable or measurable feature of an organism
|Vocab- Version of a gene
|Vocab- A gene that is physically expressed (appears) over a recessive gene.
|Vocab-A gene that is not physically expressed (hidden) in the presence of a dominant gene.
|Vocab- By chance- Example: Selection of a lottery ticket is a random process
|Vocab- A person heterozygous for a recessive genetic condition. Such a person does not have the condition, but can pass on allele for it to his/her children. The recessive allele is hidden or masked.
|Vocab- Physical appearance or visible traits- Example: Tall or short
|Vocab- An organism that has only one kind of allele for a characteristic- Example: TT, tt
|Vocab- The condition of two alleles of the same gene, neither of which totally masks the other (Equal dominance)
|Vocab- Diagram you can use to show how likely each outcome of a breeding experiment is
|Vocab- Genetic makeup or allele combinations- Example: TT, Tt, tt
|Vocab- DNA in a coiled, rod shape form that occurs during cell division
|Vocab- The formation of cells from a parent cell
|Vocab- Molecule that contains the information carried by the genes
|Vocab- An organism that has alleles for two different traits- Example: Tt
|Vocab- The likelihood that a given event will occur by chance- Example: The probability of picking an ace of hearts out of a deck of cards is 1 out of 52
|Vocab- Complete difference, unlikeness
|Vocab- The result when neither gene from a trait is dominant over the other gene; results in a blending of the two different traits- Example: red and white flowers produce pink flowers
|Vocab- A record of marriages and births through several generations