Test Review

Question Answer
Are offspring that are the result of sexual reproduction ever identical to their parents? No, because they receive half of their DNA from each parent, not all of it from one.
Define Fertilization When a male sperm cell converges with a female egg cell
What organisms reproduce sexually? Humans and Plants
What is the difference between identical twins and fraternal twins? Identical twins have the same DNA and come from the same fertilized cell, fraternal twins do not
Who is Gregor Mendell and why was his work so important He was the father of genetics-He discovered patterns in heredity and recognized dominance and recessive.
How are diseases inherited? Your parent passes a disease-causing gene
Give an example of asexual reproduction. Cloning, Cells splitting, strawberry plants, etc.
Is cloning asexual or sexual reproduction? Does it happen naturally? Asexual reproduction; No
What is the difference between identical twins and cloning? Identical Twins: Naturally occurs, two parents
Cloning: Does not occur naturally, only one 'parent'
Where is genetic information found? In the nucleus of the cell
Define mutation An error in genetic coding that causes a gene to be reproduced slightly different from the original gene; happens randomly
Explain the following statement; Mutations can create variety. Mutations happen randomly, and can introduce new traits (such as the color of your hair), making there be a variety in traits
What is a trade-off of being genetically tested? Cost, Takes time, people could treat you differently, etc.
An organism that has only one kind of allele for a characteristic is called what? Homozygous
An organism that has two kinds of alleles for a characteristic is called; Heterozygous
Two parents are both carriers for a recessive genetic trait. Can their offspring ever have the genetic trait? (Think of a Punnet Square) Yes, there would be a 25% chance of the child having the condition (In a Punnet Square, both the parents would be heterozygous)
How do you find the genotype of an individual? Studying a pedigree
When studying a pedigree, how do scientists determine if a trait is recessive or dominant? If it is recessive, it will usually skip a generation.
What are the sex chromosomes? XX=Girl
Why does a male determine the sex of an offspring? They have both X and Y chromosomes (Females only have X chromosomes)
What is the genotype of an organism? The combination of alleles they have.
What is a genetic disease? A disease that can be passed on genetically
What are genes? Inherited bits of information that determine your traits.
What is the chance a couple will have a baby boy? 50% chance
What is a carrier? Someone who carriers a disease-causing gene but does not show symptoms; is still capable of passing gene to offspring
What is the phenotype of an organism? A trait that is physically shown
Bonus- Why did Medell use pea plants in his studies? They produced a lot of offspring, they had simple dominant-recessive traits he could study…
Vocab- Inherited bits of information that are passed directly from parent cells to child cells Genes
Vocab- A trait passed on from parents to children Inherited
Vocab-Describes a specific characteristic- example: round face, blue eyes Trait
Vocab- Used when referring to non-human organisms-example-seeds Offspring
Vocab- Offspring produced by asexual reproduction. Inherits all of its traits from one parent. Clone
Vocab- Female reproductive cells Egg cell
Vocab- Science of heredity Genetics
Vocab- The fusion of sperm and egg cells Fertilizaton
Vocab- A gene can be reproduced slightly differently from the original gene- can cause the offspring to have a different trait from the parent Mutation
Vocab- The sperm cell produced by male unites with egg cell produced by female Sexual Reproduction
Vocab- Type of reproduction involving only one parent or cell in which organisms make exact copies of themselves Asexual Reproduction
Vocab- Male reproductive cell Sperm
Vocab- One observable or measurable feature of an organism Characteristic
Vocab- Version of a gene Allele
Vocab- A gene that is physically expressed (appears) over a recessive gene. Dominant
Vocab-A gene that is not physically expressed (hidden) in the presence of a dominant gene. Recessive
Vocab- By chance- Example: Selection of a lottery ticket is a random process Random
Vocab- A person heterozygous for a recessive genetic condition. Such a person does not have the condition, but can pass on allele for it to his/her children. The recessive allele is hidden or masked. Carrier
Vocab- Physical appearance or visible traits- Example: Tall or short Phenotype
Vocab- An organism that has only one kind of allele for a characteristic- Example: TT, tt Homozygous
Vocab- The condition of two alleles of the same gene, neither of which totally masks the other (Equal dominance) Co-dominance
Vocab- Diagram you can use to show how likely each outcome of a breeding experiment is Punnet Square
Vocab- Genetic makeup or allele combinations- Example: TT, Tt, tt Genotypes
Vocab- DNA in a coiled, rod shape form that occurs during cell division Chromosome
Vocab- The formation of cells from a parent cell Cell Division
Vocab- Molecule that contains the information carried by the genes DNA
Vocab- An organism that has alleles for two different traits- Example: Tt Heterozygous
Vocab- The likelihood that a given event will occur by chance- Example: The probability of picking an ace of hearts out of a deck of cards is 1 out of 52 Probablity
Vocab- Complete difference, unlikeness Diversity
Vocab- The result when neither gene from a trait is dominant over the other gene; results in a blending of the two different traits- Example: red and white flowers produce pink flowers Incomplete Dominance
Vocab- A record of marriages and births through several generations Pedigree

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