In this chapter, the writer reviewed plants done by others through diaries, articles, newspaper film editing, and quotation marks from writers and on-line articles collected. IBS system is a procedure to rush up the building work and to minimise the dependence of labor on site.
The aim of this survey is further discussed about the barriers of contractor in implementing IBS. Besides that, this chapter besides will concentrate on the basic reappraisal of IBS such as definitions, background, types and features in IBS and have a basic debut about the item of IBS.
‘Industrialised edifice ‘ is the term given to constructing engineering where modern systematized methods of design, production planning and control every bit good as mechanized and automated industry are applied ( Ingemar Lofgren and Kent Gylltoft, 2000 )
While ‘Building system ‘ intend a edifice system includes design regulations and a merchandise system whose parts have compatible interfaces, therefore allowing the usage of several alternate constituents and assemblies is assured by agencies of a dimensional and tolerance system every bit good as connexion and articulation ( Ingemar Lofgren and Kent Gylltoft, 2000 )
2.2 Definition of IBS
There was no normally accepted or agreed definition of IBS. Several writers have defined IBS as procedure or a technique. Blimas et. Al. ( 2006 ) and Pan et. Al. ( 2008 ) defined that IBS is frequently referred by literatures as off -site building, off-site production, industrialised and automated building.
Warszawski ( 1999 ) explain in item that an industrialised procedure is and investing in equipment, installations, and engineering with the aim of maximising production end product, understating labour resource, and bettering quality while a edifice system is defined as a set of interrelated component articulation together to enable the designated public presentation of a edifice.
Another definition by Trikha ( 1999 ) claimed that IBS besides may be defined in which all edifice constituents such as wall, floor slab, column and stairway are mass produced either n mill or at site under rigorous quality control and minimal on site activities
Another definition that clarified by Junid ( 1986 ) where IBS as procedure by which constituents of edifice are conceived, planned and fabricated, transported and erected at site. The system includes balance combination between package and hardware constituent. The package elements include system design, which is complex procedure of analyzing the demand of the terminal user, market analysis and the development of standardise constituent, constitution of fabrication and assembly layout and procedure, allotment of resources and stuffs and definition of a edifice interior decorator conceptual framework.The package elements provide a requirement to make the contributing environment for industrialised to spread out.
Harmonizing to Junid ( 1986 ) , the hardware elements are categorised into three major groups. These include frame or station and beam system, panel system, and box system. The framed constructions are defined as those construction that carry the tonss through their beams and girders to columns and to the land whilst in panel system burden are distributed through big floor and wall panels. The box systems include those system that employ 3-dimensional faculties ( or boxes ) for fiction of habitable units are capable of withstand burden from assorted waies due to their internal stableness.
CIDB defined IBS as building system whereby the constituents are manfactured in a mill, on-site or off-site, so positioned and assembled into constructions with minimum addtional site work.
2.3 Categorizations of IBS
This subdivision will concentrate on the categorization of the edifice system that are published internationally and in Malaysia
There are four types of edifice system under IBS in Malaysia and there are namely conventional column-beam-slab frame systems with lumber and plyboard as formwork, cast unmoved system with steel or aluminum as formwork, prefabricated system and the composite edifice system is shown in figure 2.1. Each edifice system is represented by its building engineering, functional and geometrical constellation ( Badir et al, 1998 ) . ( cited at Thanoon et. al. , 2003 )
Figure 2.1 Type of Building System in Malaysia
Beginning: Adopted from Thanoon et Al, 2003
Harmonizing to Majzub ( 1977 ) has different construct in sorting edifice system that is the comparative weight of the constituents should be used as a footing for constructing categorization shown in figure 2.2. The factor of weight has the important impact on the transportability of the constituents and besides has influences on the production method of the constituents and their hard-on method on site. This categorization method is found to be unequal to integrate other constructing system flourish late.
Figure 2.2 Building System Classification harmonizing to the Relative Weight of Components
Beginning: Adopted from Majzub, 1977 ( cited by Thanoon et. al. , 2003 )
There are five types of IBS had being used in Malaya:
( IBS Road Maps 2003-2010 )
Type 1: Pre-Cast Concrete Framing, Panel and Box System
The most common group of IBS merchandises is pre-cast concrete of elements in building industry. For illustration, there are including columns, beams, slabs, Three-Dimension ( 3D ) constituents ( balconies, stairway, lavatory, lift Chamberss ) , lasting concrete formwork, and so on. ( CIDB, 2005 ) . Pre-cast concrete framing, panel and box system is under classs of prefabricated system. The advantage utilizing this is because it cans minimal waste due to work environment in mill is easier to command. Panel system is use for the building of interior walls and exterior walls offer velocity of building in many ways. For box system will accomplish ultimate aim of industrialisation that is a maximal economy of human labor on site.
Figure 2.3: Pre-cast Concrete Elementss
Type 2: Steel Formwork Systems
This system considered as least prefabricated IBS, as they by and large involve site casting and capable to offer high quality coatings and fast building with less site labor can come in tunnel formwork, beams, columns, and slab molding signifiers lasting steel formworks ( metal decks ) and so on. ( CIDB, 2005 ) The steel formwork is prefabricated in the mill and so installed on site.
Figure 2.4: Steel Formwork Systems
Type 3: Steel Framing System
This system ever be the popular pick and used intensively in the fast-track building of skyscrapers. Recent development in this types system included the increased use of light steel trusses. Steel is non combustible stuff and improves fire safety and reduces sum of structural amendss in the event of a fire happen. Example: Steel beam, columns, portal frames, roof trusses. ( CIDB, 2005 ) . Steel bordering besides see as prefabricated system and it to be erected whereby welding at articulations are conducted. This system cans faster the advancement building.
Figure 2.5: Steel Frame Systems
Type 4: Prefabricate Timber Framing System
While the latter are more popular, timber edifice frame offering interesting designs from brooding units to edifices necessitating high aesthetical values such as chalets for resorts
Example: Timber frame, timber roof trusses ( CIDB, 2005 ) . The advantage of the system is chiefly in the interior flexibleness, as big infinite can be used for different maps and can be easy changed or modified harmonizing to the usage.
Figure 2.6: Prefabricated Timber framing System
Type 5: Block Work System
This system has revolutionizes by the development and use of meshing concrete masonry units ( CMU ) and lightweight concrete blocks. The boring and time-consuming traditional brick-laying undertakings are greatly simplified by the use of there effectual alternate solutions. Block work system besides see under prefabricated system. The benefits of block work system are faster building and increase bricklayer length of service. Furthermore, it ‘s besides increased energy nest eggs like lightweight concrete ‘s opposition to heat flow is twice of medium and heavy weight concrete, it ‘s average that less heating/cooling energy is needed.
Figure 2.7 Block work
2.4 Features of IBS
It is of import to hold the following features merely see to be accepted as portion of the IBS and guarantee the accomplishment of proved benefits of IBS. Each of them will be discuss briefly at below ( CIDB 2008 ) :
Industrial production of constituents though pre-fabrication ; or extremely mechanised unmoved procedures. For illustration, lasting steel formwork
Reduced labour during pre-fabrication of the constituents and site plants.
Modern design and fabrication methods affecting information Technology such as the use of Computer Aided design ( CAD ) and Computer Aided Manufacturing ( CAM )
Systematic Quality control such as ISO 9000 rules
Open Building Concept i.e allowing the loanblend applications, and adaptable to standardisation and Modular Coordination ( MC )
Figure 2.8: The Characteristics of Building System
Beginnings: Adopted from Abdullah M.R. , 2009
2.5 Implementation Level of IBS in Malaysia
The usage of IBS have assorted advantages such as the decrease dependence of foreign labor, cut down wastage, utilizing less volume of edifice stuffs, better environmental and building site become more cleaner and supply better quality control compare to conventional edifice system method.
These advantages besides want to advance a safer, tidy and organized building site, and besides can faster the building completion period.. Many world-class developers in Malaysia have chosen IBS alternatively of the conventional edifice system methods for those of import undertakings such as the Putrajaya, Petronas Twin Towers, KLIA airdrome and KL Sentral. ( IBS Roadmap, 2003 -2010 )
Even so, the usage degree of IBS in edifice is still low. From a study conducted by CIDB Malaysia, the usage degree of IBS in the local building industry stands at merely 15 % ( IBS Survey 2003 ) . The early attempts of the Government to promote the usage of IBS in the building sector has yet to earn a good response, and this sector is still practicing conventional building methods that have proven clip and once more to be uneconomical, unsafe and mussy. Relatively, the low labor cost in this state is the root cause of the industry neglecting to reform and being complacent with the current degree of productiveness, quality and safety. ( IBS Roadmap, 2003 -2010 )
Furthermore, harmonizing to the newspaper the star 2009 stated that Jamilus explained that IBS sort of technique that can be usage in building industry by utilizing prefabricated compenents or merchandises whether is off site or on site with minimum add-on site work. Beside that, out of 1,400 contractors in Johor, there merely 4 % of it are utilizing this systems. Furthermore, he said that since twelvemonth 2008, there merely 51 contractors in the province have been reported to utilize the IBS system in their edifice undertakings and the figure were expected better in clip. ( The star, 2009 )
2.6 Malaysia ‘s Experiences in IBS
The use of IBS is non new in the Malaysia building industry. The thought utilizing IBS in Malaysia was first intent during the early 60 ‘s when the Minister lodging and Local Government visited few European states and evaluated their edifice system public presentation. At the clip, the authorities makes a large determination to give a attempt on a two pilot undertakings by utilizing the IBS construct. The first IBS undertaking is the Pekeliling Flat was constructed along Jalan Pekeliling with building that consists of seven blocks of 17 floor flats and four blocks of four floor flats consisting about 40 floor store batch and 3,000 units of low cost flats and this undertaking utilizing big panel industrialized prefabricated systems. On the other manus, the 2nd undertaking was built in Penang with the building of six blocks of 17 floor flats and three blocks of 18 floor flats consisting 3,699 units and 66 store tonss along the Jalan Rifle Range and this undertaking was utilizing the Gallic Estiot System ( Din, 1984 ) .
Even though the first execution IBS was non successful due to the failure to maintain within cost appraisal but there are some successful acceptance excessively. Among the important undertakings that implement IBS are including KL Sentral. KL Convention Centre, KLIA, etc
There are few successful undertakings by enforced IBS throughout Malaysia ( CIDB Malaysia, 2003 ) .
1 ) Year 1981 – Low cost houses and high terminal cottages throughout Selangor
2 ) Year 1984 – Daybumi Complex, Kuala Lumpur
3 ) Year 1997 – Bukit Jalil, Bukit Jalil, Salangor
– Petronas Twin Tower, Kuala Lumpur
4 ) Year 1998 – Kuala Lumpur International Airport ( KLIA ) , Sepang, Selangor
– Malawati Indoor Satdium, Bukit Jalil, Selangor
5 ) Year 2001 – Likas Stadium, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
– Kuala Lumpur Sentral ( KL Sentral ) , Kuala Lumpur
6 ) Year 2005 – Serdang Hospital, Serdang at Selangor
– The Curve, Mutiara Damansara at Selangor
7 ) Year 2006 – Persada Johor International Convention Centre at Johor Bahru
– Kuching International Airport, Kuching, Sarawak
8 ) Year 2007 – The Spring Shopping Mall, Kuching, Sarawak
– Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel ( SMART Tunnel ) at Kuala Lumpur
2.7 The Advantages for IBS acceptance in Construction Industry
There are some several advantages utilizing IBS ( MCRJ, 2009 )
1. Reduce Remittances by foreign worker:
The Government aimed to accomplish 100 percent use of IBS and to cut down to 15 per centum or about 50,000 of foreign workers in the building industry by 2010. With the current foreign workers numbering 227,000, the remittals of the foreign workers amounted to about 7.5 billion. It is expected that the Government would be able to cut down the remittals with the full execution of IBS. ( Bernama.com, 2006 )
2. Enhance Efficiency of Construction Process and Higher Productiveness:
IBS is a methodological analysis whereby a local building industry is driven towards the acceptance of an integrated and encouraging key participants in the building industry to bring forth and use pre-fabricated and aggregate production of the edifice at their work sites. This will assist to heighten the efficiency of building procedure, leting a higher productiveness, quality, clip and cost economy. ( CIDB, 2004 )
3. Produce Better Merchandise:
IBS promises elevated degrees of expertness throughout the industry, from makers, installers, applied scientists, contrivers, interior decorators, and developers. The benefits of IBS will finally bring forth better merchandises for the population ( CIDB, 2003 )
4. Reduce Wastage, Less Site Materials, Costs, Cleaner and Neater Environment:
The IBS, which enables on-site prefabricated or pre-cast edifice constituents manufactured at mills offers minimum wastage, less site stuffs, cleaner and neater environment, controlled quality, and lower entire building cost ( CIDB, 2003 ) . For illustration, the insistent usage of system formwork made up of steel, aluminum, etc and scaffolding provides considerable cost nest eggs ( Bing et al. 2001 ) .
5. Higher Quality of Component:
An industrialized edifice system constituent produces higher quality of constituents come-at-able through careful choice of stuffs, usage of advanced engineering and rigorous quality confidence control ( Din,1984 )
6. Reduce Labour at Site:
Prefabrication takes topographic point at a centralized mill, therefore cut downing labour demand at site. This is true particularly when high grade of mechanization is involved ( Warszawski, 1999 )
7. Faster Completion:
An industrialized edifice system allows for faster building clip because casting of precast component at mill and foundation work at site can happen at the same time. This provides earlier business of the edifice, therefore cut downing involvement payment or capital spendings ( Waleed et al. , 2003 )
8. Not Affected by Adverse Weather Condition:
Construction operation is non affected by inauspicious conditions status because prefabricated constituent is done in a mill controlled environment ( Waleed et al. , 2003 )
9. Flexible Design:
An industrialized edifice system allows fexibility in architectural design in order to understate the humdrum of insistent frontages ( Warszawski, 1999 ) . An industrialized edifice system provides flexibleness in the design of precast component every bit good as in building so that different systems may bring forth their ain alone prefabrication building methods ( Zaini, 2000 )
2.8 Barriers of Adoption in Malaysia Construction Industry
IBS is can replace the conventional method which is labour oriented. Since the IBS first undertaking is non good accepted by building parties because of fail to cover with the hazards such failure of support within the cost estimation. For illustration, the first undertaking happens that the cost has higher around 8.1 % than a same edifice that utilizing conventional building method, while the 2nd undertaking was 2.6 % lower than the cost. Both undertakings besides completed in 27 months in term of comparison to the building velocity but are inclusive the clip of set up the rewording mills excessively. When semen to the quality, the conventional method seems have better quality than IBS. In decision, there is a competitory with conventional building method.
Even though IBS is good to implement due to its advantages but the execution of usage degree is still really low. Harmonizing to Waleed et. Al. ( 2003 ) , the common consensus of all the stakeholders of building in Malaysia is that, the IBS execution in Malayan edifice building industry is still really low compared to the conventional methods. This is due to several grounds ( MCRJ, 2009 ) :
1. Costss and Return Investment:
Wide swings in houses demand, high involvement rate and cheap labor cost, make it hard to warrant big capital investing. At present there is an copiousness of inexpensive foreign workers in Malaysia and contractors prefer to utilize labour intensive conventional edifice system because it is far easier to put off workers during loose period. The economic benefits of IBS are non good documented in Malaysia and the past experiences indicated IBS is more expensive due to fierce competition from conventional edifice system.
2. Lack of skilled and knowing work force:
Fully prefabricated building system requires high building preciseness. Malayan labor force still deficiency of skilled workers in IBS execution.
3. The Practices:
The building industry is really disconnected, diverse and involves many parties. Consensus is required in the usage of IBS during be aftering phase.
4. Knowledge based:
Lack of Research & A ; Development ( R & A ; D ) in the country of novel edifice system that uses local stuffs. Majorities of IBS in Malaysia are imported from developed states, therefore driving up the building cost. Engineering grades in local universities rarely teach about the design and building of IBS.
5. Low Quality:
The usage of IBS in Japan and Sweden are so successful due to high quality
and high productiveness but it sis the antonym in Malaysia. Previous undertakings constructed
with IBS construct were of low quality and high building cost.
6. Lack of Incentive and Awareness:
Due to the deficiency of inducement and publicity from authorities in the usage of IBS, many many designers and applied scientists are still incognizant of the basic elements of IBS such as modular co-ordination.
7. Lack of Scientific Information:
An IBS system can merely be acceptable to practicians if its major advantages are valuable compared to the conventional system. However, up to day of the month, there is unequal collateral grounds to confirm the benefits of IBS system. It is hence, arguable that the execution of IBS is peculiarly hindered by deficiency of scientific information ( Badir et al. , 2002 )
8. Wastage of Material:
Standardization of edifice elements faces opposition from the building industry due to aesthetic reserve and economic ground. One good illustration of this is when a 300mm midst modular standardised floor slab has to be used although a 260mm thick floor slab can accomplish the similar structural public presentation. This consequences wastage of stuff ( Waleed et al. , 2003 )
2.9 Summary of the Chapter
Presents in Malaysia, IBS still being developed and applied in new edifice. Mean while, the execution degree is still really low what has anticipate by the authorities. The intent of IBS is really clear as an option for conventional method and besides reduces the dependence of labor, and increase the public presentation in clip, cost, and quality. The Government of Malaysia promote IBS constituent to the building industrials.
In the literature reappraisal have proved that there are many benefits of IBS but still is low use among contractors and the execution of utilizing IBS degree is still really low.