The basic construct of stuffs direction or MM is that the system can assist to cut down cost and holds on site where the work is performed due to the hapless public presentation done by the direction squads on how to manage different stuffs at the right measure, beginning and clip. Materials direction besides can be defined as a procedure where it shows how the edifice was designed and stuffs are estimated. From the initial stage of be aftering until the completion stage that is godforsaken direction, the stuffs direction will necessitate to be efficient in order to avoid any hold and excess cost. ‘Materials ‘ can be in the signifiers of natural stuffs, constituents, consumables, capital goods, spares, furniture and etc. In the direction squad has to hold a Undertaking Manager to take and responsible for the squads. Then come in a Planning Engineer and Material Engineer to fix a stuff agenda, list out stuffs that need to be order, monitoring and control of stuffs ingestion used at undertakings and etc. Choosing of right beginnings particularly nature stuffs like sums and rocks will be the occupation of Quality Control Engineer. He besides needs to be in charge of trying and proving stuffs that are received on site conformity to the given specification. Lastly, will be the Store Manager responsibility to follow up with the sellers, having and publishing the right stuffs and etc. The illustration instance survey of MM can be seen on the undermentioned scenario. AlmatabSdn.Bhd. is transporting out a lodging undertaking which is semi-detached houses and dual storey patio in Johor. The building site layout has been prepared as shown in Figure 1 which illustrates the layout equipment, edifice stuffs and entree roads for the hard-on of the edifice. As a new site director, you are requested to analyze the site direction to be applied for the undertaking and give some remarks and advices on the layout.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 What is Materials Management?
There are different definitions that are provided by different researcher/author for stuffs direction throughout the old ages. Ballot ( 1971 ) defines stuffs direction as the procedure of planning, geting, hive awaying, traveling, and commanding stuffs to efficaciously utilize installations, forces, resources and capital. Tersine and Campbell ( 1977 ) stated that stuffs direction as a procedure that provide the right stuffs at the right topographic point at the right clip in order to keep a coveted degree of production at minimal cost. Beekman-Love ( 1978 ) indicates that a stuffs direction construction should be organized in such a manner that it allows for built-in planning and coordination of the flow of stuffs, in order to utilize the resources in an optimum manner and to minimise costs.
Chandler ( 1978 ) explain that stuffs direction systems should be implemented to be after, order, and look into bringings, warehousing, commanding the usage of stuffs, and paying for stuffs. Ammer ( 1980 ) defines stuffs direction as the procedure in which a company acquires the stuffs that it needs to accomplish their aims. Bailey and Farmer ( 1982 ) define stuffs direction as a construct concerned with the direction of stuffs until the stuffs have been used and converted into concluding merchandise. Gossom ( 1983 ) indicates that a stuffs direction system should hold criterion processs for planning, hastening, transit, reception and storage to guarantee an efficient system for stuffs control.Cavinato ( 1984 ) stated that stuffs direction involves in the control of the flow of goods in a house. It is the combination of buying with production, distribution, selling and finance. Arnold ( 1991 ) defines that stuffs direction is a map responsible for planning and controlling of stuffs flow.
2.2 Scope of Materials Management
1. Material Planning and Controling
This map is based on the gross revenues prognosis and the production programs of a company. The activities of the map are:
Appraisal of stuffs demands.
Preparation of stuffs budget of the company.
Estimating the degrees of stock lists required in the company.
Scheduling the orders placed with the providers to guarantee handiness of stuff.
Controling by monitoring of production gross revenues.
The buying is one of the major maps for stuffs direction. This map contains the undermentioned activities:
Designation and choice of possible providers.
Finalizing the footings and mentions of purchases that are to be made.
Puting the purchase orders this activity may be staggered as per the stock list control map.
Pull offing the purchase orders till bringing of stuffs.
Giving clearance to payment of received good
Analyzing the public presentation of the providers and evaluation them.
3. Shops and Inventory Control
This map helps in physical control of stuffs. It has the undermentioned list of activities:
Minimization of stuff losingss due to obsolescence and managing. This activity controls the timely disposal and efficient handling of stuffs.
Care of shops records along with proper location and stocking of stuffs.
Physical confirmation of stocks and accommodating.
2.3 Phases of Materials Management Process
The contractor identifies the stuffs needed every bit good as any particular demands or particular stuffs to be used in the undertaking. Measures needed are estimated and a command bundle is put together and submitted.
This stage affect inselection of thereputable providers and industries. The choice of providers is critical and the public presentation of a provider can make up one’s mind between a successful undertaking and a undertaking full of holds. Therefore, the contractor needs to verify that the provider is capable of presenting the right stuff.
The coevals of a material requisition agenda. Once a stuff requisition agenda is in topographic point, single requisitions are generated from the building site by either the chief or the undertaking director. When a release signifier is generated, providers are contacted for securing the stuff needed. The type of stuff needed, measures, clip when the stuff is needed and bringing location are specified to the provider.
This stage involves in having, hive awaying and administering the stuff on site. The having procedure involves review of the stuff when it is received to verify that the type of stuff delivered is the 1 ordered, qualities received against measures ordered and quality of the delivered stuff.
Post- Construction Phase
After the installing of the stuffs in topographic point, the EC has to pull off any excess stuff. The excess is handled otherwise depending on the type of stuff and besides whether or non the contractor has a warehouse. If the company has a warehouse, the excess stuff is stored in the warehouse for usage in the future undertakings.
2.4 Categorization of Materials
Natural stuffs: Example ; fictile granules.
Work- in- advancement
Consumables: Examples ; Coal, pigments, mineral oil, etc.
Machinery and equipment: Examples ; lathe machines, electric motors, etc.
Inflammables: Examples ; gasoline, kerosine, etc.
Chemicals: Examples ; carbides acids and azotic gases.
Furniture: Examples ; chairs, tabular arraies, etc.
Scrap stuffs: Examples ; waste stuffs.
Boxing stuffs: Examples ; boxes, bottles, wax and lubricating oil, etc.
Fuel stock: Example ; coal, etc.
General shops: Examples ; soap, brooms, stationary, etc.
2.5 Participants in Materials Management
1. Pre – building Phase
Need to plan for best usage of standard sizes, for multiple applications and for their recyclability.
Ensures appropriate structural constituent dimensions, quality and spacing for usage of standard fasteners and stuffs for multiple applications and recyclability.
Use the latest stuffs takeoff engineerings and exercisings accuracy in estimations.
Has to programs purchases and bringings in order to cut down excess and to equilibrate stuffs care during on-site storage versus transit energy ingestion.
Construction Site Phase
Site Construction Management
Applies the stuffs direction program to the site and oversees its execution.
Site Materials Manager
Keeps path of new stuffs, cuts and used stuffs, organizes and shops them for handiness in conformity.
Need to pass on with site direction and Materials Manager sing the types of stuffs that able to utilize for assorted intents.
Use stuffs decently, store new stuffs decently, grip and cut them carefully for maximal usage or minimal waste.
3 Off-site Phase
Use reclaimable packaging and returnable containers and palettes, and accept the returned containers and palettes or informs the site of others who will accept them.
Recyclers & A ; Haulers
Provide containers for convenient stuffs storage and retrieval if appropriate. Teach the site forces in separation and quality demands.
2.6 Advantages of Materials Management
An effectual stuff direction system can convey many benefits for a company.
Better answerability on portion of stuffs every bit good as other sections as no 1 can switch fault to others.
By and large stuffs direction is handled by individual authorization, it can ensue a better coordination, as it becomes the cardinal point for any stuffs related jobs.
Materials direction section do certain that better quality stuff is supplied on clip to the bespeaking sections. This can ensue in better public presentation of the company.
A stuffs direction system is typically controlled through an information system, therefore can assist in taking determination related to stuff in the company.
One indirect advantage of material direction is that good quality stuff develops the ethical and moral criterion in the company.
2.7 Challenge of Handling Material ( supplier relationship )
It is about impossible to keep a good relationship with the providers during building as there will ever be a barrier between the purchaser and providers. A good relationship with providers is of import for the stuffs direction procedure as it will do certain that agenda is on clip. This is how the direction squads can make to better the relationship with the providers.
Courtesy and promptitude should be shown to the provider ‘s representatives whenever they visit the purchaser ‘s office. Even if they visit without anterior notices, they should be treated nicely and possibly could likely bespeak to name once more at other clip.
When directing out questions, full inside informations of the needed stuffs, bringing clip, and etc. , should be given to avoid unneeded correspondence and elucidation.
Rigorous nonpartisanship should be observed in harmonizing orders and all unjust patterns should be avoided.
Adequate clip should be given to the providers to impact bringings and first-come-first-serve orders should be kept to the lower limit. Reports in hold in bringing and unsatisfactory quality should be courteously convey on no history rude letters should be sent or discourteous words spoken from the purchaser ‘s side.
It besides an advantages to be cognizant of provider ‘s fabrication jobs and natural stuffs troubles and to widen aid to decide them if possible.
The purchaser should guarantee that payment of provider ‘s measures is non unduly delayed.
Occasional visit to the provider ‘s works frequently contribute to better understanding between the purchaser and provider. Good relationship frequently brings benefits for both parties.
2.8 Problems of Materials Management on Site
Materials direction can be divided into five classs:
The measuring and specification ;
The procurance and buying procedure where the order is transmitted to thesupplier ;
Delivery to site and logistics of look intoing the order, away lading, and hive awaying onsite ;
The administrative and fiscal procedure of payment ;
Using the stuffs in production on the occupation site and taking the waste.
Some common jobs on building site are more obvious which are viz. :
Failure to order on clip which delays the undertakings ;
Delivery at the incorrect clip which interrupts the work agenda ;
Over ordination ;
Incorrect stuffs or mistake in way of stuffs necessitating re-work ;
Larceny of stuffs from bringing into production ;
Double handling of stuffs because of unequal stuff.
2.9 Importance of Materials Management
Materials constitute the biggest individual component of cost. By and large more half the cost of any production system is due to stuffs entirely. Therefore decreased stuffs cost is critical for improved productiveness. Non-availability of stuffs are resource input leads to production close down, undertaking holds etc. hence timely handiness of stuff is critical for production efficiency. Below is the list of the importance of stuffs direction.
Lower monetary values for stuff and equipment.
Faster stock list turnover.
Continuity of supply
Reduced lead clip
Reduced transit cost.
Less duplicate of attempts.
Elimination of bulk- passing.
Reduced stuffs obsolescence.
Improved provider relationship and better records and information.
Better inter-department cooperation.
3.0 COMPARISON OF INFORMATION ( CASE STUDY )
Figure 1: Existing Site Layout
Double Storey Terrace
Concrete batching works
3.1 Evaluation of Existing Site Layout
Site entryway and issue
If the site entryway and issue is non place decently so it will causes confuses to the contractor, visitants, workers and supplier that deliver stuffs as they will merely utilize an unfastened route to come in or issue and possibly can do the site more battalion with vehicles.
The security hut is of import to set in the site layout as it can assist to maintain the site safe from interloper that want to steal the stuffs or equipment and besides to maintain foreigner from trespass the building site.
The stuffs name is non specified.The stuffs are being cramp in one topographic point. This will take to a hold in the agenda as the stuffs are non placed decently and label harmonizing to their categorization.
Water and power supply
A building site can non be operate if there is no H2O and power supply as those supplies are so for healthful intent and lighting in the jobsite.
It truly unreasonable for the canteen to be left out or non included in the site layout as it provides a topographic point to eat and rest for the workers and contractor.
The location of the site office must be free from those storage of stuffs as it can take to resound pollution or risky to the worker that work inside an office for all twenty-four hours long.
A topographic point for auto park is of import as it needed for the contractor or visitants to park their auto in a safe topographic point comparison than merely merely park beside a unsafe jobsite.
Water Drainage / Sewer line
Water drainage or sewer line must be included in the site layout as it will be a large aid for healthful intent and for clean up the waste after the plant is completed.
Problems of Poor Planning Site Layout
1. Wrongly located the stuffs.
Materials can non be placed excessively far from work country or stocked over a drainage line. Their bringing was wrongly phased and non needed until much subsequently.
2. Wrongly located the workss and equipment.
Storage for sums such as lime rocks, rocks and all right littorals are non sufficient on site. Plants such as fixed Cranes are unable to make all parts of the plants if wrongly placed on the jobsite.
3. Insufficient infinite in the site.
Materials may be stacked on roadways that can do jeopardies during building period. Working countries become excessively cramped with the hapless planning of site layout.
4. Wrongly located the site office.
Site office that located near noisy activities such as sociable or excessively near the roads and it can do perturbation to the people that working inside the office.
5. Poor communicating
Communication is one of the key for a successful stuffs direction on site as it can assist to give right information about stuffs. Relationships between providers besides need to be fixed as it can give benefit to the direction squads.
6. Poor security
Security in building site is of import as to protect the stuffs and works on the site from larceny and malicious harm. It besides can guarantee that the populace are stop from intruding to the site and therefore jeopardizing their safety.
7. Temporary conditions protection
Site OfficeProtections are including the workers, stuffs, edifice work and equipment during building work. Materials that are delivered to site must be placed in a right place for conditions protection. Example: brickwork demands protection from rain.
Concrete batching works
Double Storey Terrace
Figure 2: Improved Site Layout
3.3 Suggested improved Site Layout
There are two security huts in the layout. Security is need to be enforce on the site as it will assist to forestall any interloper that come to steal stuffs and foreigner that enter site without permission.
Site entryway and issue
Site entryway and issue is located easy as it near the security hut.They are placed in topographic point where it will be easier for the vehicles to travel in or out without giving any perturbation to others.
Site office and auto park
The site office has been located near the site entryway. The ground was simple as the location is far from any risky that can harm the wellness of the contractor ‘s staff or visitors.Car park besides is placed near office for collusion intent.
Materials labels and storage
All the stuffs have been specified and located consequently as it make the determination procedure of the stuffs easier and can forestall any hold in the agenda of stuffs direction.
A topographic point that is needed for the workers to eat and rest as this besides can assist them to derive more energy and execute better after a difficult work in the jobsite.
Water and power supply
This is because the site must hold clean H2O for healthful intent while the power supply is to give electric power for lighting and equipment intent.
Concrete Batching Plant and Waste Materials
Concrete batching works has been moved near the site issue as it will be easier for the sums and cement storage to put beside it. While the location of waste stuffs must be sing the safety of the workers and can be avoided by puting at the dorsum of the layout.
The line cloaca is one of the of import points in a layout and is added for drainage and waste intent.
4.1 Elementss of Materials Management on site
Fire bar: Fire is a major cause of harm on building site.
Medical services: On building undertaking a first assistance kit is a must.
Construction safety vesture: Basic safety supplies like safety places, difficult chapeaus, baseball mitts and goggles must be used by workers.
The entree demand to be available from clip to clip as any peculiar stuffs may be need to utilize for the work that on procedure.
The location and sizes of infinite for any peculiar stuff demand to be consider by ciphering the country required and relevant factors before choosing a suited country as the storage.
Although there is no construction was constructed as impermanent route, an entree must be provided on site.
Material handling and lifting equipment
The usage of proper equipment for stuff handling can ensue a direct cost and clip nest eggs.
Personnel motion on the work country
There must be a sufficient infinite allow in the work country so that the occupation site wo n’t be excessively cramp for any motion.
Temporary installations related to undertaking demands
After choosing the impermanent installations that are needed on site, the size required for them must be estimated.
Based on the instance survey, wecan conclude that it is of import to use a proper stuff direction system to the building site as it can decently form the stuffs, equipment and program on site.TheProject Manager has to take lead by implementing his/her power to supervise stuffs agenda on all undertakings. The direction squads have to maintain seeking to utilize assorted stuffs direction technique on building undertakings as it advancement. Relationships with the provider besides need to be fixed as it can impact the overall procedure of stuffs direction. The site must hold a good security in twenty-four hours and dark to guarantee that the stuffs are protected from larceny or pilfering. The excess stuffs besides need to be taken in consideration as all undertakings can anticipate a certain sum of excess and it has to be good conceived and executed. Any wastes stuffs that are produced during the building besides need to be disposing decently avoid any jeopardy that can causes wellness job to the environment. This is because a good planning of stuffs direction can assist to avoid any holds of plants on site and cut down any excess cost for a undertaking.
Although the stuffs direction range stated everything that is needed to be achieved for a undertaking but in world jobs still occur till today as deficiency of undertaking information given to the direction during the building period. Most of the direction squad of undertakings tried hard to fulfill with the demands of building and yet still achieved hapless consequences in return. Even if the stuffs direction procedure is practiced for every building undertaking, it still has many defects that have to be improved.Importance regulation that must be kept in head is that: your consequences are straight shown due to how much attempt that you pour for it.Therefore, every participants or squad members of undertaking demand to play their function consequently as it takes more than a individual individual duty to do it perchance successful in the hereafter.