The Behaviorist School of Thought Concepts Essay

Different persons come together in an organisation to work towards accomplishing the organisational ends. Peoples in an organisation work towards the same end but perform in assorted ways. Therefore, direction is taking charge of different activities in an organisation and steering their attempts towards the same end. Directors in an organisation would execute maps such as planning, forming, staffing, directing and commanding. But all the directors focus on gaining a excess. Directors would pull off the workers in such a manner that they would increase productiveness expeditiously and efficaciously.

The organisation besides needs to larn to act upon the behaviour of the employees. A house can non merely rely on supplying their employees with fiscal inducements such as Wages, Fringe benefits, Wages etc but besides have to supply them with non fiscal inducements such as Promotions, Job Enrichment, Employee Empowerment etc. Hence many great directors have come up with different theories sing this subject. Two popular 1s are Scientific School of Thought by Frederick Winslow Taylor [ 1856-1915 ] and Human Relation School of Thought by Elton Mayo [ 1880-1949 ].

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Management is said to hold a assortment of definitions and few definitions quoted by people are as follows:

“ Art of acquiring things done through people ”

Mary Parker Follet

“ Management is the procedure of planing and keeping an environment in which persons, working together in groups, expeditiously accomplish selected purposes. ”

Harold Koontz and Heinz Weihrich

“ Management is defined as the procedure of planning, organizing, triping and commanding an administration ‘s operations in order to accomplish coordination of the human and material resources indispensable in the effectual and efficient attainment of aims. ”

Robert L. Trewelly and M. Gene Newport

“ Management is the procedure of working with and through others to efficaciously accomplish organizational aims by expeditiously utilizing limited resources in the changing environment. ”

Kreitner

There are different types of schools of direction

The Classical Approach

The Neo-Classical Approach

The Modern Approach

The Classical attack includes Scientific Management, Administrative Management and Bureaucratic Management. The Neo-Classical attack includes Human relation attack, Behavioral attack and Operational research attack. The Modern attack includes System Theory and Contingency Theory.

This portion of the essay would concentrate on scientific school of idea besides known as “ Taylorism ” which comes from the Classical Approach. The name Taylorism arises from Fredrick Winslow Taylor, the laminitis of scientific direction. “ Scientific direction means cognizing precisely what you want me to make and seeing that they do it in the best and the cheapest manner. ” This attack focused on accomplishing the undertaking in the most efficient and effectual manner possible.

Maximal prosperity was to be the principle purpose of any organisation. Harmonizing to Taylor, each employee should specialise in a peculiar occupation and should be given farther preparation so that they can bring forth more and gain more. This would assist thrive both the company and the worker. He believed that pecuniary wages is the lone motivation factor for the workers in an organisation. Taylor did non believe the direction and workers should be separated, he ever thought that they should work together and should be treated every bit same. F.W. Taylor is besides known as the “ Father of Scientific Management ” . His chief focal point was on gesture survey and clip survey. The work methods designed by Taylor were to merely increase the productiveness from the workers.

Scientific direction is based on some of the undermentioned rules:

First, Rule of Thumb method should be replaced with scientific discipline attack. Each method should be evaluated and the best method therefore should be selected.

Second, Workers and directors should be able to work together and organize their work. There should be no difference between them and each undertaking should run swimmingly in an organisation.

Third, Each worker in an organisation should necessitate the other. There should be cooperation among the top degree and lower degree of the organisation.

Last, Development of Each and Every Person to His or Her Greatest Efficiency and Prosperity

F.W.Taylor conducted many experiments during his calling, and some of the techniques of direction specified by him are:

Functional Foremanship

Standardization and Simplification of Work

Method Study

Gesture Study

Time Study

Fatigue Study

Differential Piece Wage System

This portion of the essay would speak about the Behavioral School of Thought which comes under the Neo-Classical Approach. This attack did non merely concentrate on maximal prosperity of the organisation but fulfilled the employee ‘s demands besides. Harmonizing to Elton Mayo, the employee ‘s needed something over and above fiscal inducements and that was the non – fiscal inducements. The behavioural scientific discipline attack studied the attitude, behaviour and public presentation of the persons and groups in an organisation.

The Human Relation Movement focused on cooperation and coordination among the employees non merely to accomplish the organisational ends but besides to increase communicating among the employees and carry through their demands. The attending provided to the human resource was the outstanding facet of the Human Relation Movement. Informal groups formed within an organisation is proved to be most effectual when determinations are to be made, as it unites all the members in the organisation. The direction should do certain to carry through their safety/security demands, the basic physiological demands, association demands etc.

Two of import co-researchers of this school are F. J. Roethlisberger and William. J. Dickson who performed the celebrated Hawthorne Experiments. The chief decision from the Hawthorne Experiments was that there are a figure of factors on which the public presentation of the employee depends. Workers who receive particular attending towards their demands increase productiveness in the most efficient and effectual manner because of the attending given to them.

Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor are two personalities who contributed towards the Behavioral Science Approach. Abraham Maslow was known for his Hierarchy Needs Theory of Motivation and Douglas McGregor was known for Theory X and Theory Y.

Abraham Maslow is a good – known psychologist whose theory was based on human demands which are the undermentioned:

First Basic Physiological Needs which meant that the organisation should supply good plenty salary to carry through demands such as hungriness, thirst, shelter, apparels etc.

Second Safety and Security needs which provides protection from societal and emotional injury. The organisation should supply stable income, occupation security etc to the employees.

Third Affiliation and Belonging demands which means that they should experience the demand of their presence.

Fourthly Esteem needs which assist them acquire some sum of regard, position and acknowledgment.

Last in the Hierarchy Self Actualization needs which is the most of import demand. It leads people in an organisation to accomplish what they want to go.

Douglas McGregor proposed the two different sets of worker premises.

Theory X assumes the mean worker is lazy, dislikes work and will make every bit small as possible. Directors must closely oversee and command through wages and penalty.

Theory Y assumes workers are non lazy, want to make a good occupation and the occupation itself will find if the worker likes the work. Directors should let the worker great latitude, and make an organisation to excite the worker.

Scientific School of Thought and Behaviorist School of Thought have their ain rules and attacks towards accomplishing the organisational ends.

While Scientific direction focused on increasing end product through fiscal inducements, Behavioral Science fulfilled societal and economical demands to accomplish the needed end product.

Taylor ‘s policies focused on net income maximization but on short term, while Mayo ‘s policies helped in accomplishing net incomes for long term footing.

There were a few unfavorable judgments to Mayo ‘s rules, which proved that Taylor ‘s rules were more effectual. Mayo believed in fulfilling each person ‘s personal demands which would go hard for a company to accomplish if the market standing is non good.

As against this, Taylor ‘s rules were more stiff which would assist to keep subject among the employees. Mayo believed that informal groups would assist to do alterations in an organisation, but if informal groups would take to rumours, so using alterations would be hard. That is why Taylor believed that there should merely be formal treatment among employees.

The rules formed by Taylor led to stereo typed workers which would do work environment drilling, as against Mayo ‘s technique which allowed workers to convey about new and interesting suggestions in method of working.

Mayo ‘s theories allowed treatment on evidences of doing determination, but under scientific direction, an organisation should let merely the top degree direction to do all the determinations. The former allowed groups to be formed in an organisation so that there can be group treatments and better determinations can be made, but the latter merely allowed orders to be passed on to the lower degree direction.

Both the rules believed that there should be peace and unity between the workers so that work can be done in the most effectual manner and so production can be increased.

Taylor and Mayo ‘s theories believed that a company should be financially strong so that they can carry through the fiscal demands of the workers so as to accomplish the organisation ends through maximal prosperity.

Taylor ‘s rules ignored the concerns of the human resource while Mayo took that into consideration.

Harmonizing to Taylor, the exclusive incentive for a worker was ‘monetary inducement ‘. Therefore, the worker under scientific direction was an ‘economic adult male ‘ . Harmonizing to Mayo, satisfaction of societal wants of the workers like communicating and the sense of credence was the impulsive force of the organisation. Therefore, the worker under the human dealingss motion was a ‘social adult male ‘. Scientific direction treated the worker as a ‘human machine ‘ and used the ‘differential system ‘ for motive. While, the human dealingss motion held that the satisfaction of the worker was its chief aim. Harmonizing to the human dealingss motion, “ satisfied workers are motivated workers and hence effectual workers.

Both the theories have their ain advantages and disadvantages. Both these schools of idea hold the same importance when it comes to their application. So, it can be concluded that even though both purpose towards one common end, their ways of attack can be different. The scientific direction theory and the human dealingss motion theory both aim at organisational excellence through increased efficiency. This excellence can be achieved if either of the two theories is applied or both. In visible radiation of the modern direction scenario, a good director is one who applies a blend of well-proportioned direction theories into pattern. Therefore, Scientific Management and Human Relation can be seen as two wheels of the same cart and none is superior to the other.

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