# The Calculation Of Ratios Accounting Essay

### A ) Calculation of ratios

The undermentioned computations show the analysis of the fiscal public presentation of BRITVIC PLC as at the 28 September 2008 and 27September 2009.

### 1 ) Liquidity ratios:

They measure the ability of a company to pay its current debts and unexpected disbursals utilizing current assets. Some illustrations of liquidness ratios are current and speedy ratio. Low liquidness ratios may bespeak danger of liquidness. However, some types of concerns operate on hapless liquidness ratios, for illustration, super markets. ( Wood 2005 ) Harmonizing to Kramer & A ; Johnson 2009, liquidness ratios seek to reply the inquiry: how long will a company survive if it can non pay its debts. And hence they measure the short term success of a company. Some current ratios are treated below: –

a ) Current ratio

current ratio=current liabilitiescurrent assets

For 2008

Entire current liabilities= ?266.50m

Entire current assets= ?222.20m

current ratio=222.20266.50

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Current plus = 0.83

For 2009

Entire current liabilities= ?303.30m

Entire current assets= ?277.40m

current ratio=303.30277.40

Current ratio = 0.91:1

It is observed that the current ratio changed from 0.83 to 0.91 which is an addition by 8 % . The current ratio measures the ability of the company to pay off its current debts and unexpected disbursals utilizing its current assets. For 2009, the current ratio shows that for every ?1 debt to be paid within the following 12 months, Britvic has ?0.91 available in the signifier of current assets. And for 2008, it had ?0.83. The addition in the this ratio could be as a consequence of an addition in maintained net incomes from ?60.0m in 2008 to ?94.1m in 2009, the addition in maintained net incomes of one of the factors that led to an addition in the hard currency at bank signifier from ?13.9m in 2008 to ?39.7m un 2009. It is observed that there is an overall greater addition in the current assets of Britvic, that is by 24.8 % than the there is an addition in its current liabilities, therefore doing an addition in its current ratio. ( Atrill & A ; McLaney 2002 )

B ) Acid-test ratio ( speedy ratio ) :

Quick ratio=current assets-stockcurrent liabilities

For 2008

Entire current liabilities= ?266.50m

Entire current assets= ?222.20m

Stock= ?49.50m

Quick ratio=222.20-49.50266.50

Quick ratio = 0.65:1

For 2009

Entire current liabilities= ?303.30m

Entire current assets= ?277.40m

Stock= ?52.90m

Quick ratio=277.40-52.90303.30

Quick ratio= 0.74:1

The speedy ratio measures the ability of a company to pay its current debts and unexpected disbursals utilizing its current assets, excepting its stock list. Inventory is excluded because it is normally hard to change over it into hard currency rapidly in instance of pressing demand of money. Within 2009, Britvic ‘s speedy ratio moved from 0.65times to 0.74times which is an addition by 5 % . It can besides be observed that it has more stock in 2009 than in 2008. This addition could be because in 2009, Britvic had more speedy assets, that is, hard currency, short term investings and receivables ( see values in balance sheet ) than it had in 2008. ( Wood 2005 )

### 2 ) investing ratios:

These ratios are designed to help investor who ain portions of a company to mensurate their returns from investing. They besides provide information which prospective investors use as a footing to make up one’s mind whether or non it is worthy to put in a company. ( Atrill & A ; McLaney 2002 ) Some of these ratios are treated in below:

a ) Net incomes per portion ( EPS ) :

It can be calculated utilizing the undermentioned expression:

EPS=net net income after taxtotal figure of ordinary portions

For 2008,

Number of ordinary shares= 214.0m

Net net income after tax= ?31.8m

EPS=31.8m214.0m

Basic EPS for 2008= 14.9p

For 2009,

Number of ordinary shares= 214.9m

Net net income after tax= ?46.8m

EPS=46.80m214.90m

Basic EPS for 2009= 21.8p

We notice an addition of 6.9p in the EPS as it moves from 14.9p in 2008 to 21.8p in 2009.

It represents the sum that will be allocated to each portion ; it is the lone ratio that is required to be put in a public company ‘s fiscal statement harmonizing to the GAAP. Since it is a sensitive index of profitableness, it is closely monitored by direction, investors and creditors. EPS is besides a determiner of stock monetary value. The addition in the basic EPS is as a consequence of a small addition in the figure of ordinary portion and a high in the figure net income after revenue enhancement. ( Kramer & A ; Johnson 2009 ) Therefore Britvic ‘s stock monetary value had a higher value as it is seen on hypertext transfer protocol: //ir.britvic.com/share-information/share-chart.aspx

B ) Gaining output:

Gaining yield=earning per sharemarket monetary value per shareA-100

For 2008

Net incomes per shares= 14.9p= ?0.149

Market monetary value per portion as at 27/09/08= 226p= ?2.26

Gaining yield=14.9226A-100

Gaining yield= 6.59 %

For 2009

Gaining per shares= ?0.218= 21.8p

Monetary value per portion as at shutting of 27/09/09= ?3.59= 359p

gaining yield=21.8359A-100

Gaining yield= 6.07 %

From 2008 to 2009, this ratio decreased from 6.59 % in 2008 to 6.07 in 2009. This ratio determines the per centum earned from each lb invested by portion holder. It is the opposite of the monetary value net incomes ratio which will be treated below. From the above ratio, it is observed that for every 100p invested, 6.59p and 6.07p were earned in 2008 and 2009 severally. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.investopedia.com/terms/e/earningsyield.asp )

degree Celsiuss ) Price net incomes ratio

monetary value net incomes ratio=market monetary value pershareEPS

For 2008

Net incomes per shares= 14.9p= ?0.149

Market monetary value per portion as at 27/09/08= 226p= ?2.26

monetary value gaining ratio=22914.9

Price net incomes ratio= 15.4:1

For 2009

Gaining per shares= ?0.218= 21.8p

Monetary value per portion as at shutting of 27/09/09= ?3.59= 359p

gaining yield=35921.8

Price net incomes ratio= 16.5:1

The earning output increased from 15.4 in 2008 to 16.5 in 2009. This ratio tells how much gaining an investor gets as EPS with regard to that sum he spent in buying it. The value of the ratio in 2008 and 2009 show that the monetary value of a portion is 15.4 and 16.5 times severally higher than the net incomes received from it. Since the value gives a step of the company ‘s market assurance, this implies that he in 2009, the market assurance of Britvic ‘s portion was higher in 2009 than in 2008. And hence more investors may be willing to acquire portions in 2009 than in 2008. ( Atrill & A ; McLaney 2002 )

### 3 ) Operating ratios:

This ratios step the extent to which the company succeeded or failed to do net incomes. Profitability ratios step the long term success or failure of a company as it answers the inquiry: how long will a concern survive if its disbursals are continuously greater than its grosss. The difference between liquidness ratios and profitableness ratios is that a company can be really profitable but besides really liquid but is seldom insolvent and non profitable. ( Kramer & A ; Johnson 2009 ) Some investing ratios are treated below:

a ) Net net income border:

net net income margin=profits before revenue enhancement and interetsalesA-100

For 2008

Sales= ?926.5m

Operating net incomes before revenue enhancement and interest= ?78.4m

net net income margin=78.4926.5A-100

Therefore net net income margin= 8.46 %

For 2009

Sales= ?978.8m

Operating net incomes before revenue enhancement and interest= ?89.8m

net net income margin=89.8978.8A-100

Therefore net net income margin=9.17 %

Britvic ‘s net net income border hence increased from 8.46 % in 2008 to 9.17 % in 2009. This ratio provides the relationship between the net net income before revenue enhancement and involvement of a company and its gross revenues. Net net income before revenue enhancement and involvement is used in this ratio because it is net income raised from trading. From the above ratios, for every ?100 made by Britvic as gross revenues in 2008, it made ?8.46 net income. While in 2009, it made ?9.17 from every ?100 of gross revenues. Some factors that affect the profitableness border of a company are: degree of competition, clime, industry characteristic and type of consumers. Sing the degree of competition from companies like Barr PLC, Brook Bond, Cadbury Schweppes, Coca Cola and many more, the possible ground for Britvic ‘s low net net income border is that he had to cut down its monetary values, and hence do less net income, but increase volume of gross revenues so as to be competitory. ( Atrill & A ; McLaney 2002 )

B ) Tax return on entire plus:

return on entire asset=trading incometotal assetsA-100

For 2008,

Entire assets= ?741.9m

Tax return on entire assets=926.5741.9A-100

Tax return on entire asset= 125.0 %

For 2009,

Entire assets= ?853.5m

Tax return on entire assets=978.8853.5A-100

Tax return on entire asset= 114.7 %

This ratio step how efficient assets are in bring forthing income. From 2008 to 2009, the ratios decreased from 125 % to 114 % . This shows that for every lb invested into the concern as plus, there was ?1.25 and ?1.14 gross. Therefore, in 2008, Britvic ‘s assets were more efficient at bring forthing net incomes than they were in 2009. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bizwiz.ca/return_on_assets_ratio.html )

degree Celsius ) Entire plus turnover:

Entire assets turnover=salestotal plus

For 2008,

Entire asset= ?741.3m
sales= ?926.5m

entire plus turnover=926.5741.3
Entire plus turnover= 1.25times

For 2009,

Entire asset= ?853.5m
sales= ?978.8m

entire plus turnover=978.8853.5
Entire plus turnover= 1.15times

This ratio measures the ability of a company to bring forth gross revenues from its assets. From the above ratio, Britvic generates ?1.15 and ?1.25 as gross revenues from every ?1 deserving plus in 2009 and 2008 severally. Therefore, with regard to gross revenues, Britvic was more active in 2008 than it was in 2009. The value of this ratio besides depends on the company ‘s policy, because for a company that sells less but at high monetary values can hold a low plus turnover ratio but a higher net net income after revenue enhancement and involvement border, while one like Britvic can sell more but at low monetary values so as to do a high plus turnover ( Britvic ‘s ratio ) but a lower cyberspace net income after involvement and revenue enhancement border. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.investopedia.com/terms/a/assetturnover.asp ) ( Investopedia, 2010 )

vitamin D ) Debt turnover:

Debtor turnover=salesaverage debitor

For 2008

Trade and other receivables ( current + non-current ) for 2007= ?129.8m Trade and other receivables ( current + non-current ) for 2008= ?155.1m Average trade and other recirvables=129.8+155.12

Therefore mean debtors= ?142.45m

Sales= ?926.5m

Debtor turnover=926.5142.45

Debtor turnover= 6.50times

For 2009

Trade and other receivables ( current + non-current ) for 2009= ?180.3m Trade and other receivables ( current + non-current ) for 2008= ?155.1m Average trade and other recirvables=180.3+155.12

Therefore mean debtors= ?167.7m

Sales= ?978.8m

Debtor turnover=978.8167.7

Debtor turnover= 5.83times

Britvic ‘s debitor turnover changed from 6.50times in 2008 to 5.83times in 2009. This means that in 2008 Britvic was able to roll up its receivables 6.50 times in 2008 while it did 5.83times in 2009. These ratios may be misdirecting since the gross revenues figure used consists largely of hard currency gross revenues. Normally a gross revenues figure for recognition gross revenues is more appropriate for this computation. ( Atrill & A ; McLaney 2002 )

vitamin E ) The stock turnover could non be calculated because the company ‘s fiscal statement does non supply a figure for cost of goods sold

### 4 ) Efficiency ratios:

These ratios analyse effectivity of the usage of the company ‘s resource. Therefore they tell how efficient the company is at utilizing its assets to bring forth net incomes. ( Atrill & A ; McLaney 2002 ) Some of these ratios are treated below:

a ) Equity ratio:

equity ratio=share capitaltatal assets

For 2008,

Share capital= ?52.50m ( this is equity stockholder ‘s fund + portion capital )

Entire assets= ?741.30m

equity ratio=52.50741.30

Equity ratio= 0.07times

For 2009,

Share capital= ?40.90m ( this is equity stockholder ‘s fund + portion capital )

Entire assets= ?853.50m

equity ratio=40.90853.50

Equity ratio= 0.05times

From 2008 to 2009, Britvic ‘s equity ratio decreased from 0.70times to 0.50times. The ratio provides information about the proportion of the entire plus that was acquired utilizing portion capital. In this instance it is observed that for every ?1 worth plus, 5p is provided by the stockholder in 2009 and 7p in 2008. ( Atrill & A ; McLaney 2002 ) The lessening in its value in 2009 may be because in the balance sheet, a lessening in the lessening in the equity stockholders fund was observed.

B ) Debt/equity ratio:

debt to equity ratio=tatal debtshareholders fund

For 2008,

Trade and other receivables ( current + non-current ) for 2008= ?155.1m Share capital= ?52.50m ( this is equity stockholder ‘s fund + portion capital )

debt to equity ratio=155.152.50

Debt to equity ratio= 2.95times

For 2009,

Trade and other receivables ( current + non-current ) for 2008= ?180.30m Share capital= ?40.90m ( this is equity stockholder ‘s fund + portion capital )

debt to equity ratio=180.3040.90

Debt to equity ratio= 4.40times

This ratio Calculates how much debt the company has with regard to its stockholders fund. From 2008, the ratio increased from 2.95times to4.40 times. Therefore, in 2008, the company had 2.95tomes more debt than it had financess from stockholders, and in 2009, this figure increased and the company had 4.40times more debt than portion capital. When this ratio is low, it is comparatively easy for the company to obtain loans, since it gives an thought about how much the company already owes. ( Atrill & A ; McLaney 2002 )

degree Celsius ) Debt ratio

Debt ratio=total liabilitiestotal assets

For 2008,

Entire liabilities=?741.30m

Entire asset= ?741.30m

debt ratio=741.30741.30

Debt ratio=1time

For 2009,

Entire liabilities=?853.50m

Entire asset= ?853.50m

debt ratio=853.50853.50

Debt ratio= 1time

This ratio provides information how much a company owes with regard to its entire assets. The above calculated ratios show that in 2008 and 2009, all of Britvic ‘s assets were finance by creditors. ( Wood 2008 )

The tabular array below summarises the ratios calculated

 Ratio 2008 ( times ) 2009 ( times ) Observation Current ratio 0.83 0.91 Addition Quick ratio 0.65 0.74 Addition EPS 14.9p 21.8p Addition Net incomes output 6.59 % 6.07 % Decrease Price net incomes ratio 15.2 % 18.1 % Addition Net net income border 8.46 % 9.17 % Addition Tax return on assets 125 % 114 % Decrease Entire plus turnover 1.25 1.15 Decrease Debtor turnover 6.50 5.83 Decrease Equity ratio 0.07 0.05 Decrease Debt to equity ratio 2.95 4.40 Decrease Debt ratio 1 1 Changeless

### B ) Overall analysis of Britvic ‘s public presentation ;

Out of the big figure of soft drinks and carbonated drinks manufacturer in the universe, Britvic stand with winging colorss. It is the 2nd prima company that supplies in the UK and Republic of Ireland. It has renowned trade names such as Robert robinsons, Tango, J2O, Fruit Shoot and many others which are distributed in the UK. It besides has the exclusive permission to bring forth and administer other trade names such as Pepsi and 7up. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //ir.britvic.com/~/media/Files/B/Britvic/pdfs/Britivic_AR09_finalLR.pdf )

From the above computations, one say Britvic has had an overall good public presentation through the old ages 2008 and 2009. We observe a lessening some of the of import ratios such as the equity ratio or entire plus turnover ratio and some others, nevertheless the economic recession and the recognition crunch could function as accounts to these lessenings. Besides there was an addition in the current and speedy ratios from 0.83 times to 0.91 times and 0.65 times to 0.74 times in 2008 and 2009 severally. These can raise the point that they have fewer current assets to cover their current debt, but can besides be seen as being positive if the lessening in current ratio was due to long term investings made. Some other important public presentation indexs for a company like Britvic include the followers: –

In 2008, Britvic achieved a volume production of 479.6m liters, this figure increased by 3.6 % as it increased to 498.8m liters in 2009.

Besides, this addition in production led to growing in gross as a 5.6 % addition was observed as it increased from ?926.5m in 2008 to ?978.8m in 2009

Furthermore, the addition in gross led to an addition in net income before exceeding by 13.9 % from ?89.8m to ?110.1m in 2008 and 2009 severally.

This led to an addition in net income allocated to ordinary stockholders, and therefore an addition in EPS as seen on the tabular array above

( hypertext transfer protocol: //ir.britvic.com/~/media/Files/B/Britvic/pdfs/Britivic_AR09_finalLR.pdf )

On the 28 of January 2010, Harry Bank reported on the City A.M. that Britvic achieved an 11 % growing on gross revenues in their first one-fourth, and that it expected this value to drop in the 2nd because of bad conditions. From the points discussed supra and from Britvic ‘s public presentation at the beginning of its first one-fourth in 2010 we can reason that Britvic has a good public presentation.

Ratio analysis is a good method for public presentation finding, but it has some disadvantages, some of which are the undermentioned:

First, the trustiness of the ratios depends on the quality of the fiscal statement. Any errors made in the fiscal statement shall finally take to a error in the ratios calculated. ( Atrill & A ; McLaney 2002 )

Furthermore, some fiscal statements are manipulated utilizing some accounting policies in such a manner that ratios will show the company as being healthy. Therefore entities like investors and the authorities that make usage of these ratios for determination devising may be lured into doing the incorrect determination. This is normally known as originative accounting. ( Atrill & A ; McLaney 2002 )

Besides, ratio analysis does non assist when comparing needed between certain types of companies. For illustration there is no point comparing say a company that deals with soft drinks and one that does with building. ( Wood 2005 )

### Mentions:

– Internet:

Investopedia ( 2010 ) Uniform resource locator: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.investopedia.com/terms/a/assetturnover.asp, accessed on 23/01/2010

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