The Change Management Theories Essay

Coca-Cola is one of the taking makers of carbonated drinks all over the universe. Over the past decennaries, Coca-Cola remained on top of the industry. The company was able to defy the World War II, and even took it as a concern chance instead than a liability. It was able to excel the Asiatic Financial Crisis and even gained better entree in markets that it was non able to to the full come in. Coca-Cola exhibited the efficient alteration direction as portion of the strategic direction procedure. Change direction is the procedure in which it manages the alteration in the side of people. There single alteration direction and organisational alteration direction are the theories of alteration direction. Aside form the theories there are besides four schemes of alteration direction which are the Empirical-rational, normative-reductive, power-coercive and environmental-adaptive, which the company has successfully adopted but it is now confronting major jars in its concern operations and its rivals are deriving advantage out of the same.

Based on the above case-let, analyse the place of the company with regard to:

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I ) Coca-Cola Corporation Management Strategies with regard to its technological promotion in 21st centaury.

two ) Change in Information System due to alterations in the universe -wide market constructions.

Coca-Cola Corporation Management Strategies with regard to its technological promotion in twenty-first century.
Coca-Cola is one of the taking makers of carbonated drinks all over the universe. Over the past decennaries, Coca-Cola remained on top of the industry. The company was able to defy the World War II, and even took it as a concern chance instead than a liability. It was able to excel the Asiatic Financial Crisis and even gained better entree in markets that it was non able to to the full come in. Coca-Cola exhibited the efficient alteration direction as portion of the strategic direction procedure. Change direction is the procedure in which it manages the alteration in the side of people. There single alteration direction and organizational alteration direction are the theories of alteration direction. Aside form the theories there are besides four schemes of alteration direction which are the Empirical-rational, normative-reductive, power-coercive and environmental-adaptive.

Introduction
Over the past old ages people, systems and the environment have evolved. Change is the lone thing that is changeless in this of all time altering universe. From the physical properties of persons, up to the environment, alteration is really apparent. Just like the environment and people, concerns besides undergoes alterations, it can be either monolithic or minimum. Often times, alterations occur in the direction of the corporation, in order to maintain up with the competition. Harmonizing to MacCalman and Paton ( 2000 ) the people who went place victors and on top have the common features of efficaciously managing the alterations in the state of affairs. Changes in direction is a procedure that any administration must undergo, a concern will non be complete if it ne’er experienced alteration.

Prior to discoursing alteration direction, the word alteration must be foremost defined. Harmonizing to Davidson ( 2001 ) “ alteration is the important difference in what was earlier. ” In concern it means carry throughing undertakings in a new format, following new waies, geting new engineerings, new direction processs, acquisitions and meeting and other of import events in corporations. Furthermore, Davidson described the features of alteration. Harmonizing to him alteration is important, drawn-out and riotous and alteration is a uninterrupted procedure of alliance. Davidson ( 2001 ) argued that alteration is important, drawn-out and riotous. In this property, alteration in an administration includes embarking into new countries of concern, such as come ining new merchandises in the new market, confronting an unexpected event such as economic crisis and redirection of the company.

Harmonizing to Kudray and Kleiner ( as cited by Davidson ) , an aligned administration must hold a uninterrupted synchronism of the of import direction levers such as scheme, operation, civilization and wages. Kudray and Kleiner discussed that in these direction levers, the directors, main executive officers and supervisors are responsible for pull stringsing and rearranging both the human and non-human elements.

In add-on, MaCalman and Paton discussed that alteration is an of import facet in the concern universe particularly in engineering and invention, from simple engineerings and procedures up to more complex operating environments, nowadays engineerings and merchandises are coming together to accomplish a common decision or aim.

Administrations that resist alterations will necessarily confront wider exposure to hazards and losingss. There are a figure of state of affairss in which alteration is necessary within the administration such as technological promotion that is being utilised by different companies in order to get by up with the competition. Aside from what was mentioned before, there are still many issues and concerns that are necessary for alteration in the administration, nevertheless the most significant thing is that administrations acknowledge that alterations happen invariably for different grounds and the direction must turn to these alterations every bit shortly as possible to forestall great losingss. In relation to the treatment of direction issues, this paper will be discoursing the concern schemes of Coca-Cola Company in conformity to alter procedure.

Change Management Theories
Nickols ( 2006 ) has four basic definitions of alteration direction, harmonizing to him it is a undertaking of pull offing alterations, a field of professional pattern, a organic structure of cognition and information and a control mechanism.

Undertaking of Pull offing Change- Nickols ( 2006 ) defined pull offing alterations as

“ the fashioning of transmutation in a planned and systematic manner. ”

He stated that the chief aim of pull offing alteration is to expeditiously implement new techniques and methods within the administration, furthermore the alterations to be handled depends upon the control of the administration.

Area of Professional Practice

Old ages ago, pull offing alterations in a corporation is done by the direction, supervisors, and CEO of the company, but nowadays with the changeless alteration in the constructs of concern and development of new theories a figure of people have developed houses that peculiarly addresses the issues sing managing alterations. Harmonizing to Nickols ( 2006 ) , there are a figure of persons and confer withing houses that declare they engaged in activities that involves planned alteration and that the house exercises change direction patterns.

A Body of Knowledge

The organic structure of cognition in alteration direction harmonizing to Nickols ( 2006 ) includes the followers, theoretical accounts, methods and techniques, tools and assorted signifiers of cognition that constructs the alteration direction pattern. Furthermore, Nickols discussed that the content of alteration direction is influence by sociology, psychological science, concern disposal, industrial technology, economic sciences, systems technology and human and organizational behavior.

Control Mechanism

Over the past old ages groups and persons managing the information systems of administration have tried to command and direct alterations to the applications and systems of the company, nevertheless, in recent old ages people working in this peculiar country have referred this mechanism of control as “ Change direction. ”

Percept sing alteration direction has evolved over the past old ages. Change direction is utilised in new process, constructions, and engineerings in order to overmaster the opposition to alter, nevertheless as surveies and thoughts sing alteration direction evolved over the past old ages, the position on alteration direction switched from a tool in get the better ofing opposition to developing strength and engagement in transmutation. Due to this alteration direction is now regarded as leading ability than a antiphonal instrument in managing opposition.

Coca-Cola Corporation Management Strategies
Coca-Cola was established on May 8, 1886 by Dr. John Stith Pemberton, a local druggist in Atlanta, Georgia. It was foremost sold in Jacob ‘s pharmaceutics for five cents per glass. Initially Coca-cola was sold as a drug, Pemberton during that clip considers Coca-cola as a remedy for diseases such as indigestion, morphine dependence, concern and powerlessness ( North America Operating System, 2008 ) .

In the twelvemonth 1985, due to the aggressive run of its rival Pepsi, the Coca-Cola Company reformulated the popular carbonated drinks to accommodate the penchant of the consumers which is sweeter sodium carbonate. However, the New Coke became a commercial failure which leads to the inauspicious reaction of the populace. Protests from different sectors of the society emerged. Due to these events the company return the original expression and named it Coca-Cola Classic. Despite returning the original expression, the company still received accusals from different groups. In the twelvemonth 2005 the company launched and announced their upcoming merchandises which are the Diet Coke and Coca-Cola Zero ( The Coca-Cola company instance n.d. ) .

Coca-cola Company is clearly one of the most popular companies in the universe. Aside from the fact that it is besides one of the oldest corporations that was able to defy World War II and other alterations in the economic system over the past old ages. The fact still remains that it is one of the most celebrated trade names of Cola in the universe ( The Coca-Cola company instance n.d. ) .

The Coca-Cola Company was able to defy the hinderances that occurred ; the company was able to utilized alteration direction every bit expeditiously as possible to defy the obstructions.

As mentioned earlier, alterations in direction is caused by three different factors which are the external environment, internal alterations and the proactive reaction to possible menaces and troubles.

External Environment Evaluation- over the past decennaries, the Coca-Cola Company has faced a figure of alterations in the external environment that have transformed the direction of the company. One of the best illustrations is during the World War II. The company was able to keep the position of the company, at the same clip, was able to come in new markets despite the environment. Alternatively of lying-low because of the war, the company became more aggressive through supplying free drinks for the GIs during the World War II. Through this the corporation was able to hit two birds at one rock. First, because the carbonated drinks sent by the company, it became a loyal symbol by the United States soldiers in which led to consumer trueness. Second, the company was able to take advantage of the state of affairs and established the merchandise in newly-occupied states by the Ally forces and because of that the company established workss in assorted locations worldwide paving the manner for its post-war enlargement.

Another facet in the external environment is the alteration of gustatory sensation and outlooks of the consumers. During the mid-1980s wherein the Americans favoured the sweet gustatory sensation of the rival merchandise, the company created its opposite number but became a commercial failure ; nevertheless alternatively of endorsing down, Coca-Cola changed its direction scheme and returned the old expression, and merely renamed it as Coca-Cola Classic. And with the rise of fleshiness in the United States and consumers became wellness witting the company released new versions of Coke in order to turn to the demands of these type of consumers, such merchandises include Diet Coke and Coca-Cola Zero.

In add-on, harmonizing to Bool ( 2008 ) companies such as Coca-Cola are mandatory to transform due to tendencies that have a immense impact on their concern, and one of these tendencies is the wellness and fittingness. A figure of people are noe puting more in their wellness, and in order to maintain up with the tendency, Coca-Cola introduced their new merchandise which is a calorie combustion soft drink, the Enviga. Furthermore, Coca-Cola is join forcesing with the Swiss company Nestle. Coca-Cola is covering with invention and alteration. During the Asiatic Financial Crisis, Coca- Cola was besides triggered to alter its class of direction in that peculiar part. The responses and reactions of Coca-Cola with the external environment are its internal alterations.

Internal Changes- as mentioned earlier, Asia experienced its fiscal crisis in 1997. Harmonizing to Barton, Newell and Wilson ( 2002 ) as the fiscal crisis swept the Asiatic part, the main executive officer, Douglas Daft responded to this by call uping his executives to workshops about how Coca-Cola would prehend new growing chances. Barton et Al, stated that Coca-Cola gave accent on acquisition chances, Coca-Cola bought acquired bottling concern in South Korea which gave more entree in retail shops in South Korea, every bit good as, better entry in China, Japan and Malaysia. Coca-Cola disregarded its country-defined market position and focused on regional strategic position and acquired local trade names of tea and java.

In the instance of wellness tendencies and altering gustatory sensation of the consumers, Coca-Cola responded to this through invention and alteration. Invention is accomplished through development of new merchandises such as the Enviga, Diet Coke, Coca-Cola Zero, and other discrepancies of Coke. The alteration is incited by the tendency in wellness and fittingness and consumer gustatory sensations which had an impact on the concern of Coca-Cola. During World War II, the response of Coca-Cola to the state of affairs is to supply free drinks to the GIs in order to entree new markets in which the company was able to make.

Risk Management- Companies whether it is little or big are already moving in progress in order to battle the possible hazards that may originate in the hereafter. Harmonizing to Neville ( 2005 ) in the aftermath of 911, the insurance market have changed, large companies reconsider the possible hazards and how are they traveling to utilize insurance, in Coca-Cola after the monetary values increased the company expression past the typical way of purchasing insurance straight but alternatively Coca-Cola considered sweeping insurance through prisoners.

In the twelvemonth 2000, The Business Wire, reported that Coca-Cola changed its senior direction squad and organizational construction for the intent of confronting the chances, menaces and challenges as the company enters the new stage of direction. Furthermore, Coca-Cola North America is decentralizing its administration, every bit good as, forcing answerability and authorization into the field of the administration.

The alteration in the senior direction is one alteration direction measure that Coca-Cola have undergone in order to increase the efficiency of the company. The appointive persons are seasoned drink bottling executives ; hence Coca-Cola sees consistent addition in the grosss of the company. The alteration in the senior direction has been effectual because the gross revenues of Coca-Cola in North America have been consistent.

In add-on, harmonizing to North America Operating System. ( 2008 ) , the company undertook a important alteration in which an organizational construction was developed to react to the demands of consumers through integrating the North American bottle and can, fountain and juices in a individual unit of operation. Through this alteration it enhanced the manner drink picks are created, and it unifies the system of the supply concatenation, procurance and distribution in which it increased the efficiency of services to consumers.

Individual Change Management- Harmonizing to Hiatt and Creasey ( 2002 ) single alteration direction is the procedure in which the company provides tools and preparation to its employees to be able to manage their personal passage through alteration. The ADKAR Model, harmonizing to Hiatt and Creasey is a theoretical account that can be use as an single alteration direction. The ADKAR theoretical account shows five phases an person undergoes during the procedure of alteration ( Hiatt and Creasey 2002 ) :

Awareness of the demand to change- in Coca-Cola employees, stakeholders and even consumers are informed in the alterations, particularly in the direction, merely like in the instance of naming Shaun B. Higgins as the new president of the Coca-Cola Company in 2005.

Desire to take part and back up the change- the employees in Coca-Cola particularly the 1s in the direction places take part in the alterations that the company must undergo, like in the instance of altering the packaging of Coca-Cola.

Knowledge about how to change- the senior directors of Coca- Cola have equal cognition sing the alterations that must take topographic point within the company, an illustration is in the instance of Daft in which he had knowledge on alterations that must be done in order to counter the Asiatic Financial Crisis in 1997.

Ability to implement new skills- Coca-Cola has a long history of alterations, some are failures, but most of the clip it is effectual, hence the company has the ability to set into action the alterations that the company have developed, take the instance of Daft, together with his squad, they were able to implement the alterations, non merely in one state but a whole part successfully.

Support to maintain the alteration in place- Coca-Cola is an established company and has already made a grade non merely in the lives of Americans but most people in this universe. The successful executions of the alterations in the company are due to the rigorous support of alterations in the company.

Organizational Change Management- this theory presents a general process for pull offing the alteration in the side of the people at an organizational degree ( Kotter, 1996 ) . Harmonizing to Hiatt and Creasey, the organizational alteration direction is consists of three stages, which are, fixing for alteration, pull offing alteration and reenforcing alteration.

The theory of organizational alteration direction was efficaciously utilised by Coca-Cola. Different directors in assorted parts of the universe have used organizational alteration direction in order to turn to the issues that the Coca-Cola faced. From the instance survey ( The Coca-Cola company instance n.d. ) these people are:

One of the most noteworthy CEOs of Coca-Cola Company is Mr. Gouzueta, he was the main executive officer of Coca-Cola for 17 old ages. He was able to find the job against other maker of carbonated drinks. Mr. Gouizetta played a immense function in mensurating the operation of Coca-Cola and developed schemes that aided the Coca-Cola to get the better of competition. In add-on, Mr. Gouizetta played of import functions in planning and taking the undertakings in accomplishing the ends and aims. In add-on, Mr. Gouizetta besides appointed Mr. Ivester whom transformed the failing of Coca-Cola into chances and strengths ( The Coca-Cola company instance. n.d. ) .

Furthermore, the paper of Pigseye, the undermentioned organizational direction alterations that occurred in Coca-Cola over the past old ages. Coca- Cola has distinguished assorted signifiers of its advertizements in order to aim different signifiers of consumers alternatively of concentrating on one group. The company changed the packaging of Coke. Coca- Cola besides developed new merchandises such as Gatorade and it extended globally which is composed of the African group, Middle and Far East group, the Latin America group and the European Group ( The Coca-Cola company instance. n.d. ) .

Decision
Change direction is a procedure in which all companies undergo. This is an of import process because it enables the administration to do determinations that will be advantageous and good to the company. In add-on, administrations that are unfastened to alter are by and large more successful comparison to companies that resist it. In a globalise market, new engineerings and process are emerging quickly, in order to maintain up with this advancement a company must be willing to accommodate to direction alterations. The international, every bit good as, the local market has a really stiff competition, hence in order to be on top alteration direction must be utilised by companies. Coca-Cola is one of the best illustrations of companies that utilised alteration direction expeditiously and have yielded positive consequences. The grounds is the laterality of Coca-Cola in the soft drink industry non merely in the United States but all over the universe.

Change in Information System due to alterations in the universe broad market constructions
The Coca-Cola Company is the universe ‘s largest drink company, and markets four of the universe ‘s top five prima soft drinks: Coke, Diet Coke, Fanta, and Sprite. It besides sells other trade names including Powerade, Minute Maid, and Dansani bottled H2O. The company operates the largest distribution system in the universe, which enables it to function clients and concerns in more than two 100 states. Coca-Cola estimates that more than 1 billion helpings of its merchandises are consumed every twenty-four hours. For much of its early history, Coca-Cola focused on cultivating markets within the United States.

Coca-Cola and its archrival, PepsiCo, have long fought the “ Cola wars ” in the United States, but Coca-Cola, acknowledging extra market potency, pursued international chances in an attempt to rule the planetary soft-drink industry. By the 1993 Coca-Cola controlled 45 per centum of the planetary soft-drink market, while PepsiCo received merely 15 per centum of its net incomes from international gross revenues. By the late 1990s, Coca-Cola had gained more than 50 per centum of the planetary market in the soft-drink industry. Pepsi continued to aim choice international markets to derive a greater bridgehead in international markets. Since 1996 Coca-Cola has focused on traditional soft drinks, and PepsiCo has gained a strong bridgehead on new-age drinks, has signed a partnership with Starbucks, and has expanded quickly into the snack-food concern. PepsiCo ‘s Frito-Lay division has 60 per centum of the U.S. snack-food market. Coca-Cola, on the other manus, does much of its concern outside of the United States, and 85 per centum of its gross revenues now come from outside the United States. As the late Roberto Goizueta one time said, “ Coca-Cola used to be an American company with a big international concern. Now we are a big international company with a ample American concern. ”

Coca-Cola has been a successful company since its origin in the late 1800s. PepsiCo, although founded about the same clip as Coca-Cola, did non go a strong rival until after World War II when it began to derive market portion. The competition intensified in tl1e mid-1960s, and tl1e “ cola wars ” began in earnest. Today, the duopoly rewards war chiefly on several international foreparts. The companies are engaged in an highly competitory and sometimes personal-rivalry, with occasional accusals of false market-share studies, anti competitory behavior, and otl1er questionable concern behavior, but without this ferocious competition, neither would be every bit good a company as it is today.

By January 2006, PepsiCo had a market value greater than Coca-Cola for the first clip of all time. Its scheme of concentrating on bite nutrients and advanced schemes in the nonAA¬-cola drink market helped the company addition market portion and surpass Coca-Cola ailment overall public presentation.

Information system

In current scenario market constructions are altering as demand additions due to increase in population, so there is a demand for alteration in information system and coca Cola came with the new information system to efficaciously provide the demand of the multitudes.

when they started the SAP plan back in 2000, our primary purpose was to cut down and replace the big figure of concern applications ( more than 170 ) they had inherited, each necessitating specializer IT skills, alone substructure and conformity to progressively more demanding controls such as Sarbanes- Oxley, the of all time increasing menaces of virus and invasions and more late the demand to supply more secure concern critical systems catastrophe and recovery in the aftermath of external menaces and environ- mental catastrophes. Over the last five old ages, they have built up huge experience and acquisition, ensuing in the bringing of Wave 1, which is the templet covering our Back- office and Supply Chain activities every bit good as some planning procedures.

First and foremost, they have realized at that place needs to be an equal balance between Technology, People and Processes, therefore necessitating strong concern representation and leading to convey about the Change Management that is inexplicit in presenting “ Best Practice ” Business Process and information criterions. Second, it is critical there are strong steps for success, and with this in head we introduced FAM ( Functional Assessment Model ) as a methodological analysis to pre-measure states ‘ preparedness prior to presenting the SAP Wave 1 templet, every bit good as post-measurement to formalize that success standards doing up the concern instance have been achieved.

Third, we identified that the lone method for prolonging criterions every bit good as back uping inter-country concern activities was to centrally host the states on a individual Hardware Platform and supply the necessary support resources leveraging accomplishment and graduated table out of a cardinal “ Shared Services ” installation in Bulgaria. Then they started following stage of development for the SAP plan called Wave 2, which will turn to the Customer Facing concern procedures and capablenesss required to run into the demands of our concern today and in the hereafter. This plan is closely linked and aligned with our Coca-Cola HBC strategic jussive mood, Excellence Across the Board, to guarantee that Wave 2 delivers the necessary capableness to prolong the alterations introduced by the EATB state and group

squads every bit good as reference the operational sweetenings that have been constrained due to our nucleus bequest system BASIS.

Coca-Cola HBC ‘s success with Wave 1 and the recognized ability they have demonstrated in presenting big and complex SAP plans has led to our Wave 1 and Wave 2 criterions being identified as the nucleus base for the remainder of the Coca-Cola sys- tem in a planetary enterprise called Project SCALE. There are obvious benefits for Coca-Cola HBC in Wave 2 being the base for TCCS criterions, in that we will acquire input of best patterns from across the system for Wave 2 design, every bit good as bound the associated alteration impact of following with these criterions. As they strive towards transitioning Coca-Cola HBC to Beckon 2 over the following five old ages, they believe that they will hold a topographic point in the foundations of a world-class IT environment built upon an engagement theoretical account consisting BPL ‘s and BSL ‘s ( Business Process and Business Systems Leaders ) at a group and state degree, Governance through the IT Steering Committee made up of Region Directors, Function Heads, BPL ‘s and cardinal Enterprise IT representatives, Shared Services that will supply measured services in footings of response and quality and of class SAP, a solution that has the capacity to turn in line with future demands and chances.

SAP Wave2
The roll-out of SAP ‘Wave 2 ‘ in our markets is already heightening the velocity, truth and public presentation of our operations and bettering service degrees.

For illustration, a Direct Store Delivery application equips drivers with handheld electronic devices to rapidly entree bringing and stock list information, cut down mistakes, save clip and cut down out- of-stocks. A Finance application enables our drivers to direct information straight from their handheld electronic device to the Finance Department. A Gross saless Force application helps our gross revenues force people keep client records thereby bettering service. A Warehouse application has immensely improved stock list control.

Our experience in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, where these new concern procedures were introduced in 2008, has clearly demonstrated the value of the programme. Learning from these ‘pilot ‘ states influenced our readyings for SAP ‘Wave 2 ‘ to ‘go unrecorded ‘ in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece and Italy on January 1, 2010.

Through SAP ‘Wave 2 ‘ , we are presenting best patterns across our full administration to increase the efficiency of our operations, while optimizing our supply concatenation and heightening client service.

SAP Wave 2 is a to the full incorporate concern tool which will enable us to standardize all of our systems and procedures by utilizing a common engineering across all maps. We have continued our investing in SAP Wave 2, presenting new and more efficient methods to better productiveness and public presentation throughout the administration. SAP Wave 2 besides enables us to supply superior degrees of client service by bettering customer-centric procedures such as stock list direction and bill truth.

They are in the procedure of turn overing out SAP Wave 2 across all of our markets. Till day of the month, it has been launched in 12 markets: Czech Republic and Slovakia ( January 2008 ) ; Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece and Italy ( January 2010 ) ; and Austria, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Slovenia ( January 2011 ) . In 2012, SAP Wave 2 will ‘go unrecorded ‘ in an extra eight markets ( Belarus, Bosnia, Croatia, Montenegro, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland, Switzerland, Ukraine ) , conveying the sum to 20. By 2014, SAP Wave 2 will be runing in all 28 of our markets.

Coca-Cola HBC started out on its SAP journey back in 2000, following a amalgamation that enabled the freshly formed company to leverage its accomplishment and graduated table across 26 states. The SAP enterprise was aimed at enabling the company to go more competitory, as this plan brought a structured attack to placing best patterns and doing them sustainable through systems used in daily activities.

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