When seeking to garner information on the beginnings of the measure appraising profession it is non simple, several different writers have different theories on where the business arose from. Some feel that it is a nineteenth century creative activity, were others seem to believe that the birth of measure appraising stretches all the manner back to antediluvian Egypt. However to try to obtain cognition about measure surveying ‘s past I must measure all the theories to separate which seems the most feasible. The Kenyan subdivision of the RICS opens the website speech production of measure appraising being used in ancient Egypt, and besides references a quotation mark from the bible which was mentioned in Chapter 1 ; “ Suppose one of you wants to construct a tower, will he non foremost sit down and gauge the cost to see if he has adequate money to finish it. ” ( Luke 14:28 ) . Sing this as the start of the measure appraising profession I feel is inaccurate but it can be seen as a footing from which it could hold rose from. The act of be aftering out all you need has ever been used in building every bit good as other lines of work, for illustration a baker would non get down baking until he has all the ingredients he needs. Nevertheless it may hold been in such a instance as the pyramids that some one individual may hold been assigned to guarantee all stuffs where present and that every that was needed to build them was at that place. If this were the instance so it may really good hold been the first usage of measure surveyors ( QSs ) .
The writers who have written about the topic of measure appraising give small reference of this as their professions origin and choose to concentrate on more recent history to happen their calling roots instead than to early imperiums expansive building undertakings. Allan Ashworth and Keith Hogg are two good well-thought-of writers on the topic of measure surveying and value in building, so much so that they have taken over the mantle of composing the new versions of ‘Willis ‘s Practice and Procedure for the Quantity Surveyor ‘ , a book seen as one of the best in measure surveying circles. In the 2000 book ‘Added Value in Design and Construction ‘ Ashworth and Hogg speak of the possible beginnings of measure surveying:
“ Harmonizing to Thompson ( 1968 ) , the roots of measure appraising travel back to the 17th century and to the Great Fire of London. There is grounds to propose that houses of QSs were in being at the terminal of the 18th century. Harmonizing to Seeley ( 1988 ) , the earliest records of a measure appraising house were in Reading, Berkshire, in 1785. There is small uncertainty that other houses were besides in being at the same clip. In 1802, a figure of Scots measure appraising houses gathered to bring forth the first method of measuring of edifices. In St Luke ‘s Gospel ( 14:28 ) a narrative is recorded of the importance of numbering the cost before you build connoting that some signifier of these patterns existed even in scriptural times! ” ( P 12-13 )
These writers seem to hold no direct sentiment on the affair but they do offer up the sentiment of others every bit good as the aforesaid scriptural quotation mark. Thompson ‘s belief was that that after the Great Fire of London in 1666, there was such a huge sum of work needed done and that the usual manner of paying shopkeepers by day-to-day rates was impracticable due to the sum of labor used. So it was deemed that a ‘measure and value ‘ system would be best to apportion payment. This occupation was entrusted to designers but since they were so busy planing all the new edifices they employed other work forces to make the occupation ; these work forces became known as ‘measurers ‘ . Seeley and Winfield ( 1999 ) province that this method of step and value surveying was common pattern up to the in-between nineteenth century but mistily depict the wake that resulted in the creative activity of measures of measures and competitory tendering. The beginnings of measure surveying and so all surveying are detailed to a great extent in F.M.L Thompsons 1968 book, ‘Chartered Surveyors, the growing of a profession. ‘
The sentiment shared by Thompson ( 1968 ) and Seeley and Winfield ( 1999 ) is a popular 1 among writers nevertheless this sentiment is non shared by Colin Dent in his book ‘Quantity Surveying a Fully Metricated Text ‘ . In his eyes the birth of measure appraising came in happenstance with that of the measure of measures. Dent puts it that the measure of measures arose from dearly-won nature that was involved in pricing occupations in the nineteenth century. General contractors in this epoch where going aggravated with disbursement money measurement, pricing and fixing a stamp for a occupation merely non to acquire and hold to incur the costs of an unsuccessful command. It so left the contractor holding to monetary value in the cost of unsuccessful commands into his successful 1s ; this did non sit good with clients who were disgruntled that they had to pay for a contractor ‘s old losing command. It was to a great extent thought at this clip that the lowest command was the best, but it was frequently the instance that the lowest command came from an skip in the contractors ain measure of measures. This would go forth the contractor the undertaking of trying to do the money up from someplace else in the undertaking. Again clients were displeased with this so it was decided around 1850 that a cosmopolitan measure of measures would be made from the client and sent to the contractors to monetary value.
Ferry, Brandon & A ; Ferry, 2006, see it otherwise ; they believe that it was contractors who foremost used surveyors to pull up measures of measures for them to monetary value. A group of contractors would possibly use one surveyor with the winning command so paying his fee. Architects suspected disgusting drama in these commands with inordinate wastage allowed and the possibility that contractors would repair so that one command would win before all would acquire a wage out from the contract amount. The designer so took over employing surveyors to pull up one measure of measures for all to monetary value.
Either manner the measure of measures system was seen as just competition between contractors and gained acknowledgment by 1880, and after it was used in the edifice of the Houses of Parliament and was successful it was so accepted as the most efficient and economical manner of edifice. It is likely most likely from this point of the development of the measure of measures that surveyors shook off the term off measurers and gained the term QSs as their occupation rubric.
Another contrasting position is that of Duncan Cartlidge the writer of ‘New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice 2nd edition ‘ . The footing of his sentiment besides comes from the nineteenth century and the formation of the Royal Institute of British Architects ( RIBA ) in 1834. This move was made by designers to foster them surveyors/contractors and their “ objectionable commercial involvement in building ” . In his position the greater duty for the concern side building now given to surveyors/contractors created the demand to hold person in charge of the managing of capital and measures, therefore the QS was born ( Cartlidge, 2006 ) .
There are several positions sing the beginning of the measure appraising profession as I mentioned above. However when all positions are looked at ; an about direct line events can be seen to happen where every phase seems to be a measure in the development of measure surveying. In this readers sentiment the act of measuring stuff sums for edifice and besides the cost goes back to early civilization. But it was non until after the Great Fire in 1666 that a full clip occupation was created for person to step and value work done. Client and contractor dissatisfaction with payment of the concluding history and a just method of tendering led to the birth of measures of measures and it is the footing of mensurating and value and the pulling up of measures of measures that produced the traditional QS, which still exists today.
This signifier of measure surveying worked good in the late nineteenth century and early old ages of the twentieth century, so much so that in 1909 the RIBA incorporated the measures of measures into its criterion edifice contract, therefore doing it a lawfully binding papers ( Dent, 1970 ) ( Ashworth & A ; Hogg, 2000 ) . In 1922 the first edition of the British Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works ( or SMM ) was adopted into the contract as a agency for which plants were measured. Its debut was to relieve confusion about which measures were mensurable ( Ashworth, 1981 ) .
The pattern of measure appraising remained really much unchanged for many old ages ; in fact it was non until after that Second World War that the traditional techniques came into inquiry. The authorities began its undertaking of reconstructing the state after the war and gave heavy public disbursement during the 1950 ‘s and 1960 ‘s for rebuilding of houses, schools, infirmaries, roads, etc. ( Ashworth 2004 ) . This in bend proverb work for QSs rise as the authorities had spend immense amounts of money on the war and had incurred big international debt, so maintaining edifices cost depression was a top precedence ( Thompson 1968 ) . In order to be after this disbursement decently and accomplish value for money in the assorted undertakings, something extra needed to be done other than merely to step and value the plants as was the traditional method. The so Ministry of Public Buildings and Works and the RICS began to develop systems of fiscal control and rating for new edifices. This laid the foundation for farther geographic expedition into cost control techniques ( Ashworth 2004 ) . In 1957 the Ministry of Education issued a bulletin that was a milepost in the pattern as it introduced new methods of working and new rules of cost analysis and cost planning ( Building Bulletin No.4 – Cost Study ) . The bulletin initiated the thought of cost planning which set about to compare the cost of different design solutions and besides planing within an overall cost model. This meant that QSs would for the first clip have to pull off costs all the manner through a building undertaking, whereas a antecedently they merely a Drew up measures from architect drawings at the start and helped settle histories at the terminal. QSs would now hold to compare different designs and different elements of edifices in an effort to obtain cost efficiency, and so pull off the outgo throughout to guarantee that the undertaking was non over budget. This was the first usage of elemental cost planning or ‘designing to a cost ‘ and officially introduced the QS into the design squad ( Ashworth & A ; Hogg, 2000 ) .
The 1970 ‘s saw a immense addition in the sum of universities offering measure appraising as an undergraduate class, in 1970 entirely 30 engineering schools formed ( Willis, 1987 ) . Not merely were at that place more measure surveying pupils but there were more measure surveying talks, this meant that more research was being done on the profession, happening more and more ways to break itself ( Ashworth & A ; Hogg, 2000 ) . It was in this research that the holes began to be exposed in the traditional procurance method. Surveies showed that clients wee non ever obtaining value for money in the procurance of their edifices ( Ashworth, 2004 ) . In 1970 -1974 the UK seen a belongings roar so developers were dying to acquire edifice, this forced fast track methods of procurance to develop as the traditional method was seen as excessively slow. Management catching and signifiers of design and physique were introduced. These methods did non necessitate a measure of measures so QS engagement was left to be program and seek and maintain the budget. These were unchartered H2O for QSs and there was a deficiency of cost certainty but it was tolerated as belongings values were lifting so rapidly ( Cartlidge, 2009 ) . The 70 ‘s besides seen the debut of computing machines something which many believed over clip would stop QSs. Sir John Egan, writer of the broad making study Rethinking Construction, one time told a group of alumnuss in 1999 that “ the building industry will no longer be necessitating them to number the cost of a undertaking – computing machine engineering would be making it alternatively ” ( Carvill, 1999 ) . Adrian.J Smith, writer of Computers and the QS, puts it that:
“ The QS and the computing machine have been spouses in an intense love – hatred relationship for over 30 old ages ; so, it would be hard to happen any other profession in which the relationship between adult male and machine has generated, by bends, so much treatment ; hope and optimism ; letdown and disenchantment, ” ( Smith, 1989 )
Of class they were non really good advanced in this epoch nevertheless they did give penetration into how undertakings may be calculated and determined and began to dispute the sensed wisdom of the traditional methods ( Ashworth, 2004 )
During the 1980 ‘s the measure appraising profession started to witness extremist alterations to their traditional ways of working, and much of the alteration stemming from new procurance methods which seemed to spell the terminal for the measures of measures. “ Procurement, a term non used until the 1980 ‘s, became an of import country of activity, mostly because of the increasing array of options available ” ( Ashworth & A ; Hogg, 2006 ) . These options came approximately as clients became disgruntled with sum of clip taken to secure through traditional tendering methods ( i.e. measures of measures ) . So new signifiers of procurance arose to seek and run into client demands, the chief signifiers that were on the addition were Design and Build ( D & A ; B ) , Management Procurement. Clients seen these methods as more good for clip and besides because it handed more hazard to the contractor in D & A ; B and to a direction contractor in direction procurance ( Cartlidge, 2009 ) . ( The benefits of these types of procurances are discussed for subsequently in this chapter ) . Some measure appraising companies were really answering to the alteration that direction procurance brought approximately and began to accommodate their patterns, as D & A ; B had n’t much usage for professional QS ‘s. However it did make an gap on the contractor ‘s side for more cost control as they needed to pull off their ain building costs. The pattern of cost modeling which was introduced in the old decennary had been studied further. While the profession was looking for new ways of gauging off from the measure of measures, the cost modeling method was, and still is, seen as excessively extremist and necessitating excessively much pattern from the security of a reasonably dependable yet imperfect system of the measure of measures ( Ashworth & A ; Hogg, 2000 ) . The accent of edifice costs was high on the docket and it was besides during this clip that attending shifted from initial building costs entirely to a more comprehensive overall position of the costs over the full life rhythm of the undertaking. Whole life bing takes into consideration the initial procurance, design and building costs every bit good as fees and charges. It besides takes into history the operational costs such as care, fixs and energy disbursals, and the cost of disposal and recycling of the edifice is besides included ( Cartlidge 2009 ) . Finally all of these facets would be considered within the emerging pattern of installations direction. These considerations provided yet another displacement towards adding value to the industry and its clients. This recognised that to analyze the initial costs of building within the context of whole costs that it might give an overall better fiscal state of affairs for the client ( Ashworth & A ; Hogg, 2000 ) . Two other new facets of bing that came about in the 1980 ‘s were value direction and installations direction. Value direction or value technology arrived in the UK in the 1980 ‘s but in some sense it already existed, as mentioned earlier the authorities wanted cheaper edifices after the war, so cost planning in this epoch focused on acceptable merchandises for the least cost which in kernel is what value can be defined as ( Kelly, Morledge, Wilkinson, 2002 ) . Facilities direction was besides introduced as from of undertaking direction that went much further than merely pull offing the building. Aspects of the edifice such as its substructure, its environmental impact, its care and its communicating links all came under the function of a installations director ( Ashworth 2004 ) . Basically it was non merely pull offing the edifices building but pull offing the edifice as a whole. Value direction was a natural patterned advance for QS ‘s as they were the experts on edifices merchandise costs so they were able to inform the client on all options and assist supply the choice which bore the most value. The RICS recognised this alteration when it published its study of a survey of Value Engineering and Quantity Surveying Practice in 1987. Facilities direction was farther off from the traditional QS ‘s manner of working and closer to a profession which specialised in undertaking direction, nevertheless with many believing at this clip that QS ‘s were heading down that path this line of work was seen as a future possibility for QS ‘s.
During the 1990 ‘s several cardinal studies were produced that assisted in the new waies of the QS profession, they helped to explicate a future way and scheme, underscoring the altering nature of society in general and the building industry and the profession within it ( Ashworth & A ; Hogg, 2000 ) . The first in 1991 was made by Davis, Langdon & A ; Everest, one of the largest QS houses in the universe at present, wrote the study “ QS2000: The Future Role of the Quantity Surveyor ” which focused on the alterations in the building industry and how it was impacting the profession. The of import point stressed in this study was that QS ‘s needed to larn to pull off more efficaciously the clip and quality every bit good as the cost in an effort to add value into a clients concern and building undertaking. The study besides identified widening markets and variegation for the measure surveyor, proposing three cardinal countries of future activity: value direction, procurement direction, and installations direction. The thought of more research and development into better QS patterns was promoted as it was as another manner of adding value for the client ( Davis, Langdon, Everest, 1991 ) .
The RICS “ The nucleus accomplishments and knowledge base of the measure surveyor ” study released in 1992 affirmed a batch of the points raised in the 1991 Davis, Langdon and Everest study. It besides raised point that QS may necessitate to alter the manner they address clients and professionals to seek and do clear to clients the services they offer ( RICS, 1992 ) .
Constructing the squad was a study written by Sir Michael Latham in 1994 which had far making effects on the building industry and those employed in it, including measure surveyors. The study called for more standardization of design and building by set uping more functional and efficient supply ironss. More transparence in bing between the professionals and clients was seen to be needed ; this was of peculiar involvement to QS ‘s as mark of cut downing cost by 30 % was set by the study. The study besides encouraged more teamwork in all building squads to bring forth a merchandise that all, including the client, could be justifiably happy with. This point besides highlighted QS ‘s as they did at this clip hold a repute as hard to cover with professionals for the client ( Cartlidge 2006 ) .
Sir John Egan, a acute advocator of Sir Michael Latham ‘s study and known to be a individual to be a individual convinced of the demand of alteration in the industry was appointed as caput of the Construction Task Force ( Cartlidge, 2006 ) . It was Egan ‘s sentiment ; that while some of the building industry learned from the Latham study, non plenty was done to run into the marks set out within it. In 1998 Sir John Egan published his ain study titled Rethinking Construction. This study was seen as the design for the modernization of the systems used in the building industry to secure work. The Egan study revealed in a study of major UK belongings clients that many still dissatisfied with the services public presentations offered by both contractors and advisers. These clients revealed that:
More that a 3rd of them thought that advisers were missing in supplying a speedy and dependable service
They felt they were non having good value for money insofar as building undertakings did non met their functional demands and had high whole life costs
They felt that the design and building should be integrated in order to present added value
There was a failure to maintain within in agreement budgets and the completion agendas.
( Rethinking Construction, Sir John Egan, 1998 )
These points were damaging to advisers and in peculiar measure surveyors who a batch believe were one of the guiltiest of these weaknesss in the industry. Reacting to this study, in 1999 Building magazine published the article “ The QS: a profession on the threshold ” . The magazine conducted its ain study of over 12,000 QS ‘s and the overpowering feeling was one of anxiousness about their hereafter.
“ The study shows that QS ‘s are concerned about the rapid eroding of their traditional function, their inability to carry clients that they can significantly lend to their undertakings, and the menace posed by acquisitive challengers and by other professionals such as direction advisers and histories ”
75 % of QS ‘s asked believed at this phase that new package bundles were replacing their traditional cost modeling function ; in fact a senior spouse of Davis, Langdon & A ; Everest is quoted as stating that “ traditional measure surveying, particularly the computation of BoQ ‘s, is on the manner out ” . Many senior QS ‘s in big houses such as Cyril Sweet and Bucknall Austin believed the profession was heading into direction consultancy that specialise in building. The latter in fact now mentioning to themselves as building economic experts. This article seemed to spell the terminal for the QS as it was followed by more articles that sang from the same hymn sheet ( Building, 1999 ) . “ Adapt or Die ” ( 2000 ) called on QS ‘s to happen a new niche in the industry as their traditional function of mensurating and pulling up BoQ ‘S was melting fast. It referred to QS ‘s as an “ endangered species ” and that it was a instance of endurance of the fittest, the fittest being the surveyor who adapts and diversifies to a altering industry.
“ Many patterns have already evolved, reinventing themselves as cost advisers or building cost advisers, or diversifying to go undertaking directors, building directors or entire service suppliers offering professional direction services to the industry – non a word about cost in there at all. ” ( Building, 2000 )
A twelvemonth subsequently ( 2001 ) a farther article entitled “ What is the usage of QS ‘s ” stated through a study that the general populace had small or no thought of what a Q does. The writer proposing that building jurisprudence was an appropriate landing topographic point for diversifying QS ‘s mentioning that their cost expertness could be a valuable tool in difference declaration. The article besides followed the subject of others connoting that the traditional function was deceasing ( Building, 2001 ) .
A batch of the articles around this clip were in response to the 1999 study carried out by Building magazine, so in that respect their fright bring oning rubrics seemed to be on the grade. But five old ages on the same magazine was talking rather otherwise. From calculating that the QS profession may be on the threshold, they were now saying that non merely were QS ‘s in high demand, but that their services were on the rise all over the universe. The 2004 article “ Rocking All Over the World ” Tells of how some of the UK ‘s largest Q houses were spread outing into foreign markets such as the Middle East, China, North America, Europe and other Commonwealth Nations. Richard Steer, senior spouse of Gleeds a big QS house, commented “ Merely as we ‘re seeking to lose the name ‘quantity surveyor ‘ we are acquiring petitions for QS services ” . It should be highlighted from the article that while there was an addition in QS demand, it was non for the traditional QS services. “ The industry was interested in professionals with expertness in sustainable building, difference declaration and adjudication, cost control techniques, procurement advice and besides the demand for an independent voice in the building procedure ” ( Building 2004 ) .
It is non surprising that QS ‘s were in high demand in this epoch. The universe was on the head of edifice roar as belongings around the universe went up at a dizzying gait in topographic points like Dubai and Beijing ( for the 2008 Olympic games ) for illustration. What should be noted signifier this was the services they were offering. ‘Willis ‘s Practice and Procedure for the Quantity Surveyor 12th erectile dysfunction ( 2007 ) ‘ depicts how the function of a QS had evolved from the traditional in 1960 into the present ( see Fig. 1.1 )
Single rate approximate estimations
Measurement and quantification
Document readying, particularly measures of measures
Cost control during building
Interim ratings and payments
Final history readying and understanding
Colony of contractual claims
Fig. 1.1 Traditional measure surveying activities 1960
Advice on cost bounds and budgets
Whole life bing
Cost technology services
Environmental services measuring and costing
Planing and supervising
Evaluation for insurance intents
Administering care plans
Advice on contractual differences
Fig. 1.2 the evolved function of the measure surveyor, 2007
N.B. some of traditional activities may still be portion of a present twenty-four hours QS ‘s function such as procurance adviser or cost planning. ( Ashworth & A ; Hogg 2007 )
Willis ‘s book besides gave insight into what the hereafter may convey for the QS, all of which are spoken about today and are considered to be the most recent QS duties to hold developed. Activities such as:
Environmental and sustainability analysis
Supply concatenation direction
Automated measuring and quantification
Tax and investing advice associating to undertakings ( Ashworth & A ; Hogg 2007 ) ( Cartlidge 2009 )
When looking at the list of traditional of activities for measure surveyors compared to the present twenty-four hours function which the pattern, it shows up a profession that has immensely evolved in the sum of services that it has the possible to offer to the building industry. Yet still today QS ‘s are disputing themselves to take on more as to halt other professions poaching their concern. Stuart Earl of the RICS in this article in the Construction Journal speaks of the demand to accommodate to halt outside invasion. His article “ New tools for the trade ” covers the subject of the regulations of measuring issued by the RICS. The ‘new regulations of measuring: order of cost estimating and elemental cost planning ‘ is set of comprehensive regulations for ciphering the cost of the whole undertaking, non merely the edifice works which the Standard Method of Measurement ( SMM ) presently does. This enterprise is a command by the RICS to integrate whole life bing into the model of the QS function and to advance value for money thought. Stuart Earl describes the regulation as: “ our professions statement of the minimal proficient criterion required to transport out measuring at all phases in the life of a edifice. If we do non lift to the challenge, others may make it for us, or worse, we may happen ourselves losing out to comptrollers ” . ( RICS Construction Journal, Aug 2009 )
Michael Sullivan, the president of the QS & A ; Construction Professional Group of the RICS, inside informations a similar job for QS ‘s. His article from the Construction Journal, “ The critical nexus ” , he tells of QS ‘s demand to encompass sustainability in the industry so that it becomes a portion of the measure appraising model for the hereafter professionals to follow instead than another profession. “ the following coevals of QS ‘s will desire to cognize what you are making about sustainability, anticipating you to understand it more than others, like direction advisers ” ( RICS Construction Journal, Dec 2009 )
Ever since measure surveying ‘s traditional patterns were questioned in the aftermath of the Second World War, QS ‘s have been faced with the challenge of diversifying and warranting their profession. Although on the little to medium graduated table the traditional patterns are still alive ( with some modern invention, e.g. Information engineering promotion ) , the big scale undertakings and houses are really much different ( Cartlidge, 2009 ) . And it is no surprise that the companies that have done the best are those that have adopted the Egan ethos of value for money and became more client focussed therefore changed and added to the QS services they offer. It seems perchance that to win the QS industry flexible joints on the sum of services you can supply to carry through a broad assortment of client demands.