The Classification According To Structural System Construction Essay

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

The aims of this chapter will place and analyze into the inside informations and supply the literature reappraisal of Industrialized Building System ( IBS ) . In this literature reappraisal of edifice system will besides be covered in this chapter. The contents will concentrate on definitions of IBS, feature of edifice in Malaysia with application of IBS, advantages of IBS and disadvantages of IBS. The 5 types of widely used IBS in Malaysia undertaking will be study in this chapter. In add-on, the comparing of suggestion method which usage of IBS in different edifice in Malaysia will be carried out in this chapter. Besides that, the systematic solution by using IBS in current Malaysia undertakings which able to cut down waste during building undertaking life rhythm which able to make and heading toward friendly or eco environment comparison to conventional method will be carried out in this chapter.

2.1.1 Definition of IBS

“ Harmonizing to Dietz ( 1971 ) , in the early literature defined IBS as the whole procedure of all the subsystems and constituents make full utilized of industrial production, conveyance and assembly engineering. ” The IBS system is really use in building industry is chiefly to cut down input and bring forth more end product by maximize or to the full utilised the production, transit and assembly during building phase which indirectly save up a batch of clip and costs for the procedure of above. ( Dietz 1971 )

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“ Meanwhile harmonizing Warszawski ( 1999 ) , IBS defined as a set of interconnected elements, to take corporate action that the designated and public presentation of the edifice. In extra, IBS is defined as a procedure of investing in installations, engineering and equipment, to minimise the sum of labor in the site, to better the quality of edifice and to increase the velocity of building. ” From here we noticed that non lone clip and cost is being salvage up but so quality besides can be improve by using IBS. ( Warszawski 1999 ) .

“ Harmonizing to Parid ( 1997 ) , IBS defined as a industrialised production engineering used by the system, whether in component production or assembly of edifice. ” ( Parid 1997 )

“ The reading from Esa et Al ( 1998 ) , IBS as uninterrupted usage of the system, so that the fabrication usage end-user to cut down waste of resources and heighten the value of each edifice craftsmen ” . ( Esa etal 1998 )

Harmonizing to CIDB, IBS is a building procedure that reassigning the significant activities from site to mill where the edifice constituents are industry in mill so bringing to site and assembled at site. This is the procedure that involve prefabricated the elements of edifice in mill by utilizing machine or formwork and on-site installing.

2.1.2 Categorization of IBS

“ In early phases, Badir ( 1998 ) proposed four types in Malaya with Badir-Razali categorization. These edifice systems which is conventional system, dramatis personae in situ system, composite edifice system and the prefabricated system is shown in Figure 2.1. ” Each edifice system is composed of representatives of the several building methods, therefore farther through its building features of the engineering, characteristics and geometry. ( Badir 1998 )

Figure 2.1: Types of edifice system harmonizing to Badir-Razali categorization in Malaysia ( Badir 1998 )

IBS besides can be classified harmonizing to several facets:

Harmonizing to structural system

Harmonizing to stuff

Harmonizing to comparative weight of constituent

2.1.3 Classification harmonizing to structural system

Panel system

The tonss are distributes by the big floor and wall panel where the edifice tons is support by wall in panel system. This system is suited for those edifice are required big wall and this system is non suited to constructing with big span.

Frame system

In frame system, the edifice tonss are support by column and beam. The walls used is required light and easy to repair and concrete panels are introduces as flooring component.

Box system

The box systems is include those systems that make usage of 3-dimensional faculties or boxes for fiction of habitable units that are able of defying burden from assorted waies due to their internal stableness.

2.1.4 Classification harmonizing to stuff

Timber

The prefabrication of lumber consists of two types which are ready-cut plus shop fiction of articulations ( column and beam ) and structural panels merely consists of walls and floors without column and beam.

Steel

All the steel elements are prefabricated in mill so merely transport to site to articulations by welding or bolting at site. The big proportion of the strength to the weight allows a long-span or high-rise edifice.

Reinforced concrete

Reinforced concrete has high grade of handiness, lastingness, low stuff cost and fire opposition. There are two basic tendencies in development of strengthened concrete IBS constituents which are precast frame members such as columns and beams and panelised constituents such as walls and floors.

Brick and block

Brick and block for IBS are prefabricate and ballad in mill so merely transported to site and last erected at site. With this will ease the building works at site.

2.1.5 Classification harmonizing to comparative weight of constituent

IBS constituents can be classified harmonizing to comparative weight. Majzub explained that the comparative weight of constituents should be used as a footing for constructing categorization because the factor of weight has important impact on the transportability of constituents and has influence on the production method of the constituents and their hard-on method at site. Table 1 is shown the edifice systems categorization harmonizing to comparative weight of constituent. ( Majzub, 1977 )

Table 1: Categorization harmonizing to comparative weight of constituents ( Majzub, 1977 )

2.1.6 Types of IBS and use to constructing in Malaysia

“ Based on CIDB ( 2003 ) the categorization of IBS in Malaysia is broken down into five classs, which is a precast concrete frame panel and box system, steel formwork system, steel framing system, block work system and timber frame system “ . IBS is a building procedure that usage of engineering, merchandises, constituents and on-site installing of edifice system. From the structural categorization five of IBS show subdivision, which are chiefly classified harmonizing to some alterations, the chief groups in Malaysia by CIDB. ( CIDB 2003 )

2.1.6.1 Precast Concrete Framing, Panel and box system

Precast concrete constituents are the most common prefabricated elements in Malaysia. The precast concrete elements are the concrete merchandise that manufactured in a controlled environment and being transported to the building site for installing. There are precast concrete for columns, slabs, lightweight precast concrete, lasting concrete formwork, and beams. Besides that, it besides consists of 3-D constituents such as stairwaies, lavatory, balconies, lift chamber and etc.

High grade of flexibleness is one of the advantages of the system in respects of larger of larger clear span between column, ensuing in wider unfastened infinite and freedom of greater countries.

Precast concrete wall system dwelling og precast floor and supporting walls of edifice. The supporting walls and slabs are transportation to building site for erected. The system is preferred simple and easy flexibleness with due to the limitation of remotion of burden bearing will doing it a lesser grade of flexibleness. The carefully good coordination and design between builders and interior decorator, the hard-on procedure is really fast, and the figure of wet trade in the field can be reduced significantly.

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Figure 2.2 Precast concrete column and beams

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Figure 2.3 3-D Components

2.1.6.2 Steel Formwork Systems

This is the system formwork which is designed by maker to replace a conventional lumber formwork. The steel formwork is manufactured in the works and so assembled on building site. The steel support and service conduit will be installed on site before the steel formworks are installed. the installing is really easy by utilizing simple support system. It can be described as a mold which the moisture concrete can be poured into the mold and organize the needed form, these steel formwork systems are subjected to quality control.

This type of IBS method is considered as the aa‚¬A“low levelaa‚¬A? in the building industry. The steel formwork system that used in beams, lasting steel formworks, tunnel signifiers and column molding signifiers.

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Figure2.4 Beam and column molding signifiers

2.1.6.3 Steel Framing Systems

Steel is a strong stiff stuffs, suited for a high grade of flexibleness across the construction of long term building and rehabilitation of the architectural inside informations of the model building. The constituents of steel framing system are rolled into standardised sizes. The constituent are so manufactured which involves cutting, boring, changeable blasting, welding and picture.

Steel frames are erected, welding and the tightening of bolt after they are fabricated. The steel bordering systems has been a popular pick, and is widely used in fast path building undertaking, the system normally used with precast concrete slab, steel columns and beams.

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Figure 2.5 Portal Frames

2.1.6.4 Prefabricated Timber Framing System

In the early 1970s, individual floor low cost patio houses largely built of pure lumber frame and wood which sitting on three pess high plastered brick walls and taking advantages of simple raft foundation due to the high weight superstructure. These prefabricated lumber bordering systems is utilizing the lumber in the building industry for the edifice. Normally the lumber framing system are consists of lumber edifice frames and timber roof trusses. Steel home base is being used during prefabrication of lumber to fall in members of truss. All members demands to be treated with anti pest chemical.

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Figure 2.6 Prefabricated lumber framing system

2.1.6.5 Block Work Systems

The clip devouring traditional brick laying undertakings are by and large simplified by utilizing block work systems. Interlocking concrete masonry units ( CMU ) and lightweight concrete blocks are involved in block work system. Fabricated and cured of the constituents take topographic point in the works. The elements are usually used as bricks in constructions and meshing concrete block paving

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Figure 2.7 Lightweight concrete blocks used for wall building

2.1.7 Advantages of IBS for public lodging

There are many advantages of implementing IBS. harmonizing to CIDB ( 2003 ) , compares to conventional method. Following are brief descriptions on a figure of advantages where utilizing IBS for the public lodging: –

Advantages

Description

Reduce building clip

IBS will requires less building clip

Because both the site work and the fiction of component can take topographic point at the same time work at site merely the hard-on of IBS constituents.

So, this leads to earlier business of the edifice.

Save cost

Reducing on-site workers significantly labour cost for contractors. ( Wisam 2005 ) .

Minimizing cost of reassigning waste stuffs due to quality control and cut downing waste stuff. ( Noraini 2009 ) .

Exemption of the Construction Levy for lodging developers who utilize IBS constituents transcending than 70 % . ( CIDB 2005 ) .

Provides earlier business of the edifice, therefore cut downing involvement payment or capital spendings ( Peng, 1986 cited in Mian, A.T.E, 2006 ) .

Salvaging in labor

Because the IBS constituents are produced in mill and higher grade of utilizing machine so will cut down of labour dependence of labor and cut down the cost of labor.

Harmonizing to Abraham Warszawski

( 1999 ) , the labour nest eggs in prefabricated elements may amount to approximately 80 % of their conventional demand.

So, will cut down the entire foreign workers need in the building industry.

Optimized usage of stuffs

Higher grade of preciseness and truth in the production can be achieve by utilizing machine to bring forth IBS constituents and accordingly cut down material wastage.

So, the wastage at site will be reduced if utilizing the IBS.

High quality and better coatings

Quality control is an ever-increasing demand in all building.

Controlled environment in factor, superior stuff choice and high mechanized engineering lead to high quality controlled merchandises. ( Din 1984 ) .

High aesthetic terminal merchandises through the procedures of controlled prefabrication and simplified installings has maintained and ensured the quality of work in the building industry ( CIDB- ( 2 ) , 2003 cited in Mian, A.T.E, 2006 ) .

Better quality control since production in mill is under heltered environment.

Better quality will cut down the care disbursals because prefabricated constituents require less fix and preventative care.

Construction operation less affected by conditions

The fiction of IBS constituents will non be effected by clime alterations it is done in mill and lone hard-on of the constituents take topographic point on site

Faster undertaking completion due to rapid advancement under all conditions building.

Flexibility

Different systems may utilize different prefabrication building methods.

IBS will supply more flexibleness in the deign of precast component.

By the flexibleness in Architectural design ( Warszawski,1999 ) .

Increase site safety and spruceness

This method neater and safer site status can be obtain thru this method.

Promote safe and systematic mill working environment as minimum workers, stuffs and building waste is requires on site. ( CIDB 2003 ) .

Construction procedure can be less thru utilizing IBS constituents particularly for the wet work at site.

2.1.8 Disadvantages of IBS for public Housing

Although there are a batch of advantages of IBS, nevertheless there are restrictions for this system to be use excessively. Nothing in this universe is perfect, so as utilizing IBS. disadvantages of IBS are as follows: –

Disadvantages

description

High initial capital cost

The initial capital cost of IBS is normally higher than conventional method.

The initial cost is includes the casting beds, cost of building the mill and support machinery.

This method merely can be achieved when set abouting big demand for lodging undertaking.

Problem of articulations

These methods are really sensitive to the mistakes and sloppy work.

Water escape between articulations is frequently the major job when IBS is being used.

This job is clearer in Malaysia where raining occur quickly throughout the twelvemonth.

Sophisticated workss and skilled operators

The prefabrication system relies to a great extent on sophisticated works, when skilled operators are required to the fiction procedure co-ordinate and maintain.

The full undertaking would be on a base still if any of the subdivision dislocation.

Site handiness

One of the most of import factors of the execution of IBS is the site handiness.

IBS requires sufficient site handiness to transport IBS constituents from mill to the site.

Harmonizing to Warszawski ( 1999 ) , the transits cost of prefabricated elements from works to their building site, sum to 3 % to 5 % of their entire cost for distances non transcending 50kn to 100km.

Large working country

Constructing building utilizing IBS required a big on the job country for the tower Crane, mill, storage and dawdlers for the IBS constituents.

Most building in order countries are frequently congested and fail to supply the country required.

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