The concept of measurement in an accounting sense Essay

AASB 141 screens a narrower range compared to AASB 1037. From the Accounting Handbook 2008, AASB 141 excludes non human life animate beings and workss that are non agricultural activities from its range:

Forest which are invested for C sink, subsequently leads to carbon credits merchandising

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Rushing animate beings: Equus caballuss, greyhounds

Performing animate beings

Viruss, blood cells

Department of Treasury & A ; Finance Victoria ( n.d ) besides excludes the undermentioned point from agricultural activities:

Land in relation to agricultural activity ( AASB 116 & A ; AASB 140 )

Intangibles related to agricultural activity ( AASB 138 )

Measurement and Comparison


The undermentioned exhibit showed how the Australian companies measured their forestry plus in 1999 before AASB 1037 became operational. Inconsistently, each entity had its ain method of measuring.

Beginning: Deegan 2007

In 2001, AASB 1037 was introduced to standardize how the fiscal study of agricultural-related concern should be presented in order to raise the quality of information reported to stakeholders ( Williams and Wilmshurst 2008 ) .

Williams and Wilmshurst ( 2007 ) conducted a study of measurement method of biological assets of 17 houses keeping 20 biological assets uniting to a sum of 28 measurement methods. The NPV method was dominant 42.86 % in entire. This study showed that the comparison between houses is improbable to be achieved.

Beginning: Williams and Wilmshurst 2007

As quoted in Williams and Wilmshurst ( 2008 )

‘I attempt and compare myself to the other participants. It is hard though as everyone ‘s making it otherwise. Unless you know how people are really describing it, you are non comparing apples with apples ‘ . CEO Corporation A

‘If you had to come up with a value, . . . if you had four different valuers, you would come up with four different replies ( values ) ‘ CEO, Corporation BC

The solve this job, houses which provide fiscal study have to educate the populace by demoing how assets are valued including appropriate premises under AASB 141, parity 47. For illustration, Tassal Group Limited and Foster ‘s Group Limited showed their method of measuring in their one-year studies.

Foster ‘s Group Ltd is an Australian-based, planetary maker of alcoholic drinks including brewing beer and vino. In their 2008 one-year study, their measuring of just value less estimated point of sale costs vines and grapes was presented as below

Beginning: Foster ‘s one-year study 2008

Vines and grapes are besides determined with mention to independent ratings of vineries and market monetary value of purchased vines. In add-on, different assortments of grapes have different values. Following the measuring of AASB 141, a just value decrease of $ 24.8 million was recorded.

Tassal Group Limited ( TGR ) is a house bring forthing, selling and distribution of Atlantic Salmon in Australia. Its one-year studies have been purely followed the AASB 141 parity 47. In 2007 and 2008, any increase or decrease in the market value of Biological Assets during the twelvemonth to be recorded as gross or loss. This construct was the cause of an upheaval of $ 78.664 million in gross for the half-year to 31 December 2008 [ 2007: $ 62.734 million ]

Beginning: Tassal Group Limited ( 2009:20 )

( I ) Internet market value of inanimate green goods extracted: this figure was a consequence of just value of fish harvested during the half twelvemonth less point of sale costs at the point of crop.

( two ) : Increment / ( decrease ) in net market value of biological assets: cyberspace of estimated point of gross revenues costs less costs incurred in geting smolt ( juvenile fish ) .

The diagram below outlines the guideline of acknowledgment and measuring of agricultural plus harmonizing to AASB 141

Beginning Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu ( 2004 )

Walker and Booth ( 2003 ) rebutted that this measuring was volatile and sometimes inaccurate. Gay and Simnett ( 2007:200 ) defined built-in hazard as the susceptibleness of an averment to material misstatement given the inherent and environmental features regardless to internal controls.

Built-in hazard is one of the natures of the vino industry. Vines and grapes are capable to climate alteration and therefore the value of them could be increase or diminish dramatically, particularly in natural catastrophe or the application of new agricultural engineering.

Unrecognised addition

Williams and Wilmshurst ( 2008 ) argued that the intervention of AASB 1037 created unrecognized net income would misdirect one-year study users. For illustration, net income would be recorded when vino were sold, sometimes it could be taken up to 10 old ages ( bastioned vinos ) to be bottled and sold. This demand would make an unrealistic outlook of distributable net incomes. Firms needed to declare dividend even though there was no available fund.

In relation to livestock industry, Gettler ( 2000:63 ) mentioned that comptrollers would measure a calf that had non yet generated value. For industry point of position, the manufacturers needed to enter unfulfilled additions that may non be realised as net income for many old ages. Unrealised addition is defined as net income which consequences from keeping on an plus. In other words, it means if the cow gives birth but its calf have non yet been able to bring forth income, this unrecognized addition demand to be recorded.Mr Cunningham, Southcorp ‘s executive general director of corporate personal businesss claimed that this accounting intervention distorted the ‘real image ‘ in the history because the entity is describing its ‘future net income ‘ , farther off from the present cashflow.

The rating of harvests is really vol

the holders of harvest

SGARAs made this point forcefully utilizing strong linguistic communication,

long entries and a big volume of statistics.

They argued that the rating of harvests is really

volatile. The value can be affected by alterations in the

universe economic system, alterations in authorities policies, volatility

in universe trade good monetary values and natural events

such rain, hail, insects, drouth, deluging and disease.

The debut of volatility was considered unneeded

and misdirecting for SGARAs such as cotton harvests

and wheat harvests that have short production rhythms.

Herbohn ( 2006 )

Herbohn ( 2006 ) stated that ‘AASB 1037 SGARAs applied to non-human life assets held for net income irrespective of the length of production rhythm and the mode of their creative activity ‘ . In AASB 1037 ( para 5.2 ) , SGARAs would be measured at net market value at each coverage day of the month. In the usual and ordinary concern class, the sale of these assets generates gross and records as net market value. Under AASB 141: parity 8, the significance of just value is indistinguishable to the net market value under AASB 1037 Williams and Wilmshurst ( 2008 )

Problems arise when active markets are non ever available. To get by with this issue, Para 5.3.2 ( AASB 1037 ) mentioned that the most appropriate index of net market value should be used

For illustration, the most recent net market value of the same or similar assets or related assets or the NPV of SGARAs discounted at a current market-determined rate.

Grosss or disbursals should be recorded in the net income and loss statement of for current the fiscal twelvemonth if there were any alterations in the net market value ( cited in parity 5.4 AASB 1037, Herbohn,2006 ) . This demand which gave rise to the hereafter unrealised grosss and disbursals in the current fiscal period were criticised, particularly in the vino industry ( Walker R and Booth B 2003 ) . In AASB 1037, SGARAs were divided into two chief classs for works and animate being: Consumable and Bearer

Beginning: Tottenham 2009

Using this demand to the vinery, two types of assets are:

Carrier: Noncurrent plus ( long term ) : vine

Consumable: Current asse ( short term ) : grapes

The application of AASB 1037 consequences in false or mis-

prima statements and a decrease in the presenta-

tion of relevant fiscal information.

It is false to province in a fiscal study that vines

are measured at their cyberspace market value when

there is no issue or entry market value for mature


It is misdirecting ( and non a “ faithful representation ” ) to describe that the net incomes derived from a vinery are earned every bit shortly as the rhizome undergoes major biological alteration.

It is misdirecting to do an unreal differentiation between land, non-SGARA vinery substructure and bearer-SGARA, when these elements areinterdependent.

It is misdirecting to describe that all vinery prof itability is derived from the vine with none derived

from the land or non-SGARA substructure.

Reporting entities no longer hold to describe the inauspicious effects of conditions encountered duringa fiscal twelvemonth.

Stakeholders are now provided with fiscal informations which are claimed to be dependable, but which are based on subjective appraisals of market monetary values or net nowadays values, in an industry affected by such factors as climatic conditions, insect plagues, fungous diseases, displacements in consumer gustatory sensation and demand, market supply and foreign currency motions.

Arkey ( 2005 )


AASB 102 ‘Inventories ‘ does non use to biological assets related to agricultural activity and green goods at the point of crop ( AASB 102:2, cited in Accounting Hand Book 2008 ) . With carnal and workss, for illustration, non-human life animate beings and workss which are non agricultural activities or inanimate human assets ( blood cells ) , stock lists will be recognised as lower of cost and cyberspace realisable value ( Department of exchequer and finance Western Australia ( DTFWA ) ( n.d ) ) . The tabular array below sum-ups the old and current accounting criterion to step and record dealing of agricultural activity

Beginning DTFWA ( n.d )


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