The concepts of hierarchical and matrix structure in an organization Essay


In the present essay, the alteration procedure of the Police of a little European state is examined. The constructs of hierarchal and matrix construction in an organisation are studied taking at understanding the present and the proposed hereafter position of the Police.

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Hierarchical construction

The hierarchal construction of an organisation as represented in

an organisation chart, is characterized by:

– The perpendicular division of labor ( with the creative activity of sections ) and

– The horizontal division of labor ( with the creative activity of administrative

degrees ) .

The horizontal division of an organisation can be assumed that it divides

the direction at three degrees:

– The senior directors who form the strategic degree of the


– The in-between directors who form the tactical degree

– The low degree executives who form the functional degree

The perpendicular division of labor defines the assorted activities that are necessary for the operation of the concern ( production, gross revenues, research and development etc. )

A job caused by the perpendicular division is that there are activities that cross the boundaries of the assorted sections.

Matrix Organization

A managerial strategy that is frequently applied in pattern, particularly in advanced undertakings, is the matrix organisation. This organisation can be used either to develop a specific new merchandise or work out a specific technological job. The procedure of implementing a matrix organisation is based on the transportation of forces from other organisational units in order to put up a squad. A undertaking director is appointed who is responsible for taking a squad of experts that are seconded from assorted sections.

After developing the new merchandise ( merchandise direction ) or work outing the job the people who contributed to this undertaking return to the sections where they originally came from. In the instance of developing a new merchandise, the responsibilities of the undertaking director are chiefly the planning of work and coordination of actions among the sections that contribute to the production processes. On the contrary, in the instance of covering with a managerial job or production jobs, the undertakings of the undertaking director are more significant and include the duty for planing, researching, developing and optimising the production procedure.

This type of organisation is called matrix because it creates an horizontal construction in concurrence with [ normally ] the perpendicular organisation of more administrative constructions.

Change of the Police construction

These studies, peculiarly in the Anglo-Saxon country, have identified two theoretical accounts of pull offing the Police, the bureaucratic and the community.

The bureaucratic prevents political intervention in constabulary work and operation. The organisation of the Police seeks to better constabulary effectivity, gives accent to advancing the professionalism of the constabulary force and its action -aims at commanding offense and implementing the jurisprudence. The constabulary organisation is hierarchal and determinations are taken by the senior degrees of the hierarchy.

The community theoretical account is decentralized, it gives accent on specific ends and the constabulary officers are considered as employees who provide services to the citizens – clients. The theoretical account does non concentrate on the expertness of the members of the organisation as bureaucratic 1 does, but on capacity edifice and direct fulfillment of the specific undertaking or ends.

Patrols, little constabulary Stationss, constabularies intelligence bulletins are the agencies to guarantee the satisfaction of citizens.

In this context, there have been developed three theoretical accounts to depict the organisation of Police ( managerial methods, enlisting, staff preparation, describing lines etc ) that determine the type of policing.

The following tabular array summarizes the features, advantages and disadvantages of these theoretical accounts in order to find the most appropriate and realistic execution program.

& lt ; TABLE 1: Models of constabulary organisation & gt ;

MILITARY ( unafraid order and safety )
A«War against crimeA»

It equips the constabulary with power to defy high tenseness state of affairss

It is unable to capture the delicate nature of the profession

Centralized direction

It enables them to work as a squad when required

It ignores the of import function of lower-police force, particularly the constabulary patrol

Strict hierarchal organisation

It ensures the undisputed application of ordinances and orders

It fails to mobilise the constabulary in the battle against offense

The “ war mask ” produces a civilization with negative effects



Investing in extremely trained and skilled staff

It denies the liberty and self = control ability of the constabulary force

Managerial control

Trying to avoid the consequence of the constabulary from political relations

The officers who act limited are rewarded

Scientific Management

Rationalism and predictability

Authoritarian nature direction


Paradoxical and contradictory managerial system

Merely one mission: jurisprudence enforcement

Bureaucratic /semi military nature

Centralized direction

Specialization and work allotment

Police sub civilization

Imitation of private sector ‘s direction systems

COMMUNAL ( Service proviso to the citizen – client )
New doctrine and direction scheme of the Police

Engagement of the community to the constabulary work

Troubles of implementing constabulary work in the concern field

Authorized action by the community

Solving the jobs of the citizens / community

Trouble in implementing it in countries of high criminalism

Decentralized and personified constabulary

The constabulary force is apt to the local community

Transportation of offense in other countries

Direct but long term job solutions

Flexibility in altering the organisation and direction of the constabulary

Police inability to mobilise the community

Morality, legality, answerability and trust

Reducing offense and fright of victimization




Reluctance to affect citizens

Not purely limited constabularies authorization

Vulnerable to political intervention and use

Offering aid to those in demand

Creativity and support

Internal alterations

Making the futrue

The Police under survey is more antiphonal to the bureaucratic theoretical account of disposal, incorporating elements of the military and concern theoretical account of organisation. In recent old ages, with the offices of vicinity policing, the public information office and prose patrols within the plan “ Safe Cities, ” the Community with the local Councils for Crime Prevention are activated.

Based on the international experience, no organisation theoretical account excludes the possibility of work outing debatable state of affairss. The theoretical account of community policing could be a challenge for the Police under survey, if there was a community spirit in the local society. But this is non unluckily the instance. The same is true for most states in Europe. The community criterion in concurrence with the EU seems more appropriate for the Police under survey, and its operation within the European Union, since it responds to the demands of the state.

Execution of proposals

A specific undertaking director will be appointed for pull offing the whole alteration procedure. The alteration procedure is estimated to last two old ages. The director will be a high rank officer who will be in close cooperation with senior constabularies officers from assorted sections, societal workers and psychologists that work for the constabulary and an independent concern adviser. After the terminal of the alteration procedure, the members of the undertaking squad will return to their sections.

For the successful execution of this alteration the followers are needed:

Sing the constabulary officers:

The rational allotment of clip by the constabulary force.

Bettering the conditions and the organisation of their work.

Redefining the work of the constabulary force and their detachment from services accessory to their mission.

Provide uninterrupted scientific and professional preparation of constabulary officers.

An nonsubjective rating procedure of staff public presentation and relevant publicities.

Apart from the above undertakings, the undertaking director and his squad will be responsible for forming conflict direction. Before using the above alterations to the constabulary force, the undertaking squad should be prepared for struggle direction.

The ground for all struggles is hazard so conflict direction is really risk direction.

While struggle might impact beliefs, emotions ( feelings ) or behaviour,

Project Management trades with struggles originating from differences and struggles that arise when a individual or a group ( involved in a undertaking ) has different ends ( frequently incompatible ) from those of another individual or another group. The undertaking direction squad will seek to reassign the alteration demand to all degrees of the Police force and listen to their proposals whereas it will implement the 1s with the most value.

With respect to society the undertaking direction squad should concentrate on:

1. The effectual allotment of constabulary forces harmonizing to specific standards and staffing services and constabularies units where necessary.

2.The cybernation of the Police and its connexion to the other spouse governments and bureaus, for illustration, the Department of Justice, Foreign Affairs, Prefectures, etc.

3.To screen by precedence and stages of equipment deficits of the Police force, every bit good as edifice and logistics demands. In this context it is proposed to wash up the possibilities of settling the constabulary sections and Stationss in in private owned or jointly rented premises with other governments, tribunals, municipalities, companies protect ex-prisoners, etc.

4.The bar and non merely the suppression of offense.

5. In developing dealingss with the local community ( regular patrols, information, etc. ) .

6. The creative activity of countries of patroling based on specific standards ( e.g. offense, unemployment, population denseness, etc. ) .

7. In finding the per centum of people to be employed in authorities ministries, sections, protecting politicians etc.

8. The creative activity of efficiency standards and the uninterrupted monitoring of the constabulary force.

9. Awareness of constabulary on socially excluded groups.

10. Strengthen international cooperation to exchange experiences, cognition and supply more effectual services to citizens.

The modern organisation and operation of the constabulary should follow direction rules to be more effectual and closer to the citizen.


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