The parallel of ‘Cost be aftering ‘ is an action to suit cost-based intelligence into the design action and that of ‘Cost control ‘ is the disposal of the costs associated with the design action to carry through a predefined acclimatized basic budget.A
The planning and control of basic costs are a cardinal avowal of equal babe minding and should be priority for all basic works undertakings. The primary purpose of transporting out cost planning and cost control procedures in the disposal of basic undertakings are to guarantee that cost certainty and sum for money are achieved. By accommodating best conveyance processs in the disposal of basic sum through cost planning and cost control, the undertaking coordinator can understate the fiscal hazards composite in set abouting basic plants projects.A
The new railroad megaproject is a ‘Design & A ; Build ‘ undertaking where the contractor is responsible for the design, direction and bringing of the undertaking, on clip and within the contract amount, taking into history whole-life costs and fittingness for intent in conformity with a predefined end product specification provided by the client.A
For design-and-build undertakings, the agency may declare to discontinue design assignment at the surcease of any one of the activity reviews and to reassign complete design plants and statutory blessing accident from that point on to the acknowledged design-and-build contractor who emerges from the tendering. A
Here, all cost planning and control processs associating to plan ceases one time the design and statutory blessing hazard are transferred to the contractor. And therefore the cost planning and control would be more important.A
For design-and-build undertakings, the bureau will hunger the design squad it has appointed to stay in residence to accommodate stamp paperss for design-and-build tenderer, advise stamp designs and monetary values and advise building, administer the agreement and accomplish the concluding history. A
And the cost papers should include outline cost program, developed cost program, stamp cost analysis and analysis of output costs.
Q1 B ) Importance of “ Constructability Analysis and Improvement ” :
The abstraction of constructability was given by CII ( 1986 ) , in which it declared “ Constructability is the optimal usage of building cognition and familiarity in planning, design, procurance, and acreage operations to carry through all-embracing undertaking Scopess ” . Constructability is to boot reliable as measurings of the richness of advantage with which a installation can be completed ( Hugo et al. 1990 ) . Constructability is an “ attitude ” that must abound through conceptual planning, design and accumulation and field operations. If performed right, constructability has been evident to cut down building cost, by 10 to 20 times its accomplishing sum ( More 1983 ) .
For the conceptual phase, an analysis of the constructability cognition includes the undermentioned factors. First is the action aims, it means if these aims could be accomplished in understanding of building, such as whether the budget is abundant to piece the railroad ; whether the mileposts is accomplishable in specific building stage, whether the agreement types are acceptable to guarantee the acknowledged accomplishment of the undertaking. Second is the action range, provides alternation of specification and care & A ; operation demands for the architecture of the railroad undertaking. The design and demands which really resulted from building cognition and familiarity will introduce and change the building of railroad undertakings. Third is the site information, such as slaughter volume, dirt, conditions and bing installations will trip the credibility and trappingss of the path planning, design and building of railroad undertakings. Altered site information will progress to change optimal building for this specific undertaking. The after most one is varied pick of engineerings such as guideway construction, vehicle construction and control system will change the architecture methods. Better understanding different engineerings, better implementing constructability based on different undertaking conditions.
For the design stage, we should see the structural system, which includes station installation, aliment installation and guideway construction. It is of import for the design and building of railroad undertakings. It will do some effects on the efficiency, the complete cost, the docket and the aesthetics of this undertaking. Second is the building method, the undertaking will be advantaged from the optimal disposal of stuff and equipment, and advanced usage of equipments during land area operation, by cost decrease and efficiency addition. After most is the field layout, the status of building axilla such as the handiness influences the allocation of the building accommodation and engineerings. For illustration, the handiness for the large-scale building equipments should be considered.
In drumhead, constructability analysis and betterment can do the building planning easier, cut down both design and building costs, provide a better quality of work, increase invention in both design and building, maximise the benefits of contractor expertness, guarantee thoughts and enterprises are practical, and obtain contractor ownership and committedness within the undertaking squad, minimise the figure and magnitude of alterations, differences, cost upsets, and holds during building. Besides, shortening building clip and bettering undertaking direction by utilizing constructability is expected to diminish overall undertaking cost and therefore cut down capital investing hazard. Constructability represents the extent that the measurings of a installation return history of accessible building systems and techniques that affluence building activity and accept an absolute appulse on cost.
Constructability is an of import factor in the design procedure and should be discussed from the Aboriginal phases of undertakings. The early engagement and committedness of the building contractor in the design procedure should better constructability.
Q2 ‘Method Study ‘ and ‘Work measuring ‘
The major facets of ‘Method Study ‘ in Construction Project Management are to enter the processs and to analyze the method presently followed and it is when the ‘Work Measurement ‘ can come into the manner. For ‘Method Study ‘ , we are speaking about a more macroscopic position, the flow of work. In accommodation survey, based on some pre-identified operation or activity, present processs will be recorded with ASME symbols for the accretion of action charts, outline action charts, time-scaled charts, attach toing motion charts, multiple-activity charts, bicycling charts, cord diagrams or foreman adjournment studies. Recorded absolute accomplishment will be analyzed to see if they are every bit able as they are expected. Such farmer’s calendar will anatomy the base of options development and options choice, which will be conducted consistently by allurement assorted, inquiries on intent, topographic point, sequence, being and agencies. After accustomed by all stakeholders, another entree will be installed and maintained with affiliated betterments fabricated with advertency to absolute armpit conditions. There are all kinds of phases in a whole building undertaking or even an activity. Let ‘s pick the ‘concreting ‘ for the interest of treatment: In ‘Method Study ‘ , the flow diagram of a specific activity is being drawn, allow state concreting of a armored combat vehicle. There are a batch of activities involved for concreting: ( I ) Site Clearance- & gt ; Entrance of the concrete membranophone mixer- & gt ; Traveling in of the vehicle to the required position- & gt ; Pouring of concrete- & gt ; Tamping of concrete by workers- & gt ; Curing of concrete- & gt ; another rhythm of concreting. Detailss like the where the entryway is set, the path of the truck, the figure of workers, the clip continuance for each rhythm can all be modified in order to accomplish the highest efficiency possible.
‘Work Measurement ‘ intends to interrupt down the activity into elemental undertakings and comparison to the standard clip to finish such typical undertakings. For illustration, if the standard clip for a dump truck to despatch the concrete is 5 proceedingss but the existent clip is 10 proceedingss, so something ( stairss, the relay of bid, etc. ) must hold been gone incorrect or non in the highest possible efficiency. For those activities affecting human attempt, which is largely the instance in a building site, measure the public presentation is someway hard. However, it is the topic that has the most say for the finishing clip of a building undertaking. There can be great fluctuations in footings of ability and cognition from individual to individual. In ‘Work Measurement ‘ , the construct of ‘standard evaluation ‘ is introduced. By puting a ‘standard ‘ , that is, the rate which a quantified worker could execute in the undertaking, the undertaking director can establish on the mention figure to measure the evaluation of the existent workers in site. Then, the normal clip required for the same group of workers to execute another similar occupation can be estimated. This allows a more accurate opinion on the clip required to finish single undertakings and finally the coating day of the month of the undertaking. Subsequently, there could be better allotment and distribution of resources or alternation of flow which will heighten the efficiency of the building activity. For the above illustration, the evaluation of the workers associated with the dispatching of concrete is 50 ( half to the criterion ) , so they are likely to pass 20 proceedingss to pack the concrete if the activity has a standard clip of 10 proceedingss. The ‘Work Measurement ‘ reinforces the ‘Method Study ‘ as a more accurate continuance clip affecting human attempt can be obtained. Last but non least, if the public presentation of the workers in the undertaking is found to be unsatisfactory, so the company can cognize it needs to actuate, educate its workers so that their public presentation can be improved in the subsequent undertakings.