The Criticisms Of The Hofstedes Model Essay

Hofstede ‘s theoretical account indicates 5 dimensions, which are Power distances, Individualism, Uncertainty turning away, Masculine and Long-term orientation ( Hofetede, 1998 ), to separate civilization in different states. Many organizational directors claimed that Hofstefe theoretical account is successfully comparative different civilization in different states. However, some bookmans argued that it is hazard to use Hofstede theoretical account due to cogency and faithfully to distinguish civilization such as perceptual experience of civilization, methodological analysis, and his dimensions. Therefore, the intent of this study is to critic of Hofstede ‘s theoretical account and claim how far we agree of his theoretical account.

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2.0 National Culture vs. Non-Cultural factors

Culture is “ Customss and beliefs, art, manner of life and societal organisation of a peculiar state and group ” ( Hornby, 2009 ).However, Hofstede selected merely one company ‘s ( IBM ) staffs as sample to measure the state ‘s cultural measuring. This raises the study of how far each IBM portion can be measured culturally representative of the state in which it is based. ( Mcsweeney, 2002 ) A survey infatuated merely on a company can non likely offer deepness to a complete state ‘s civilization ( Sondergaard 1994 ).As William ( 2002 ) stated this can be considered to a trait of a company, the peculiar business, or the business in the peculiar company instead than to warrant a national civilization Trompenaar ( 1993 ) agrees with Williamson ( 2002 ). His research has successfully reduced Hofstede ‘s grounds, where he has tested of import differences among national civilizations for the consequence of irrelevant factors such as gender and business.

As a affair of fact, the theoretical account is non representative because it is merely drawn from one company affecting merely peculiar middle-class workers. However, Hofstede ( 1980 ) pointed out that the usage of a individual international employer eliminates the consequence of the corporate policy and direction patterns from different companies act uponing behavior otherwise, go forthing merely national civilization to explicate cultural difference. While Williamson ( 2002 ) argues that, national, organizational and work-related civilizations are non dependent issues. Hence, based on unfavorable judgments from the bookmans which show that, even after extinguishing corporate policy and direction patterns, there still exist different degrees of civilizations in a state. Therefore, Hofstede ‘s premise of civilization distinction of the state by appraising merely IBM Company ‘s materials can non be justifiable.

There are a wide assortment of factors which affect civilization including non cultural factors and human nature which are institutional influences, societal constructions and economic status ( Williamson, 2002 ). However, Hofstede tends to pretermit the significance of community, and the fluctuation of the community affects ( Papamarcos & A ; et. al., 2007 ). For illustration, Some European states like Britain, German, Italy and France holding common political positions and economical development demands formed European Union. As anA economicA andA political brotherhood with 27 member provinces, it has its ain council, committee, tribunal and bank which mean these 27 member states portion European Union ‘s civilization ( Europa, 2009 ).

It is able to be seen that civilization is a complex and subjective construct. However, Hofstede merely used limited study to explicate the values of the peculiar group or state. For case, the rank of tolerance for ambiguity besides can partly depict the general risk-taking inclination of business communities. ( Erdem, 2001 ). Therefore, diverse survey inquiries relied on cultural method need to be inquired on immense sample and comparative researches.

3.0 Critics of Homogeneity of Country Culture

On the other manus, Hofstede ‘s research supposes the domestic population as a homogeneous whole ( Jones, 2007 ). Hofstede ‘s theoretical account gives comparings between different national civilizations to accomplish 5 dimensions which are established on informations from 50 states and 3 parts ( Mead & A ; Andrews, 2009 ). However, the theoretical account ignores state is consisted of different cultural units holding different civilizations. It is non nonsubjective to state that one state has one civilization. For illustration, in China, there are 56 cultural minorities. Different cultural minorities have different linguistic communication, imposts and beliefs. It is far-fetched to believe there is one civilization in China, because they are all Chinese. (, 2009 ) In add-on, it is besides difficult to distinguish between the chief civilization and subcultures. For case, dealingss between chief civilizations and subcultures are switching by influence of political, economic, or historical factors. ( Mead & A ; Andrews, 2009 )

4.0 Dimension

4.1 Simplicity

It is critical that Hofstede ‘s dimension is excessively simple and few to distinguish the diverseness of civilizations in a state. For case, such as preparation chances, satisfactory on the job conditions and possibility of to the full utilizing accomplishments and abilities on the occupation in Bolshevism was non sufficient to obtain accurate state tonss for a concept. ( Papamarcos & A ; et. al., 2007 ). However, Williamson ( 2002 ) defended that Hofstede ‘s theoretical account has the beauty of parsimoniousness has shown the big portion of its entreaty and success within the functionalist paradigm. Yet, Mc Sweeney ‘s ( 2002 ) expostulation of Hofstede ‘s simplify theoretical account has pointed out the national civilization of an appropriate balance between parsimoniousness for powerful communicating and power of account.

4.2 Bilateral theoretical account

There are problematic of relevance in using a bilateral theoretical account used by Hofstede ‘s dimension to a planetary administration as a figure of civilizations are interacting and likely act uponing each other ( Mead & A ; Andrews, 2009 ). For illustration, there is merely high or low degree in power distance dimension of Hofstede ‘s theoretical account. Therefore, the ability of the dimension to step is restricted, which does non response the alterations of different civilization ( Papamarcos & A ; et. al., 2007 ). Baskerville ( 2003 ) continued that why the cogency of Hofstede ‘s dimensions of civilization had non been widely used in sociology and anthropology. In line with McSweeney ( 2002 ), the major contention over Hofstede ‘s work is that civilization does non compare with states. Hence, it could non generalize the civilization of a broad scope of state and it is sensible merely if human societies are isolated from each other. However, people live in societies with escalating webs of exchange and communicating ( Baskerwille, 2003 ). Therefore, it shows that the differences of civilization are to by mensurating of the grades instead than bilateral consequences.

4.3 Labeling Issues

Labeling issues of the Hofstede ‘s dimension is besides being concerned. Based on masculine and feminine dimension does non urge to the domination of sexual class and the indistinct labelling of the dimension may make confusion ( Jones & A ; Alony, 2007 ). It gives the degree to which masculine behaviors like power, belligerency and achieve are preferred to feminine characteristics like personal relationships, quality of life and public assistance ( Williamson, 2002 ). Hence, it is agreeable with Adler ( 1997 ) that these indexs should alter the dimension to career success or quality of life instead than utilizing the sexist indexs.

5.0 Methodology

From Hofstede ‘s method about informations aggregation, it is shown that the study he used is merely to cultivate the 5 dimensions. This has been argued that Hofstede used one study method to mensurate tonss of different national civilizations which is unrealistic and non dependable. McSweeney ( 2002 ) have besides agreed that roll uping day of the month from questionnaires is excessively limited and non dependable to find and mensurate cultural disagreement.

Hence, Hofstede ‘s cultural study fails to run into demand for nomothetic research where national civilization is non identifiable from his questionnaire ( Williamson, 2002 ). For case, ‘Individualism ‘ and ‘collectivism ‘ could non be efficaciously defined by 3 points each. The 3 points associated with Individualism were sufficient clip for household life and freedom to accommodate to one ‘s ain work manner, and for Collectivism it was developing chances, satisfactory on the job conditions and possibility of to the full utilizing accomplishments and abilities on the occupation. It was non sufficient to trust on these 6 points to obtain accurate state tonss for a concept ( Voronov, 2002 ) pointed out that such a process simply shows which points belong together but does n’t show concept cogency. However, Hofstede defends that study was the 1 but non merely method which was used ( Hofstede 1998 ).

It besides can be proven that Hofstede did all that might be expected of nomothetic cultural research, there are expostulations to utilize nomothetic methods for cultural research. This can be seen that Hofstede ‘s theoretical account is used widely for cross-cultural research ( Jones, 2007 ). Sondergaard ( 1994 ) found that Hofstede ‘s survey received 1,036 commendations in 1980, while another extremely regarded survey on scheme by Miles and Snow received merely 200 commendations. In add-on, Sondergaard ( 1994 ) made a research which is similar to Hofstede ‘s research and the most result of his research confirmed Hofstede ‘s anticipations. For illustration, it acknowledges that Hofstede ‘s findings in the power distance dimension are utile and dependable. A important facet of journalistic civilization is related to journalists ‘ place towards power ( Hanusch, 2008 ).

In most Western democracies, journalists, the rival of the imperativeness, are represented as the ‘fourth estate ‘ and ‘watchdogs ‘. They believe that they are an independent critic power. While in eastern states, such as in Asiatic states, an opposing place may conflict with values of harmoniousness, yet unfavorable judgment is possible in a covert signifier. Journalists see themselves as loyal to those in power, moving as a mouthpiece for the authorities ( Hanusch, 2008 ). In short, it ‘s doubtless true that merely used questionnaire study method is non dependable nevertheless Hofstede besides used homothetic cultural research method which means study questionnaire is merely one of the methods that Hofstede used to construct his theoretical account. Therefore, utilizing homothetic civilization research method has shown the robust of his theoretical account.

5.1 Language

The job of study inquiries is the restriction of linguistic communication interlingual rendition which has different significance in each civilization. Cultural beliefs changed in linguistic communications which influence managerial pattern straight.

Graham ( 1998 ) indicated that linguistic communication and cultural beliefs are correlated because of cross-cultural interaction which means similarity in cultural beliefs besides produces lingual similarity. In add-on, there are many different linguistic communication systems in some states such as Belgium, Canada, and Singapore. It is unrealistic to see a multi-lingual society holding one national civilization. Language is an of import constituent to step of cultural differences. However, Hofstede merely translated study inquiries straight without sing the affect from linguistic communications which were likely to do misinterpretation and ambiguity.

Another sentiment is that simple interlingual rendition from other linguistic communications is non sufficient sing that forms of communicating behaviors are profoundly rooted in linguistic communication civilization complexnesss ( Ulijin and Campbell, 2001 ). Different linguistic communications have different forms of discourse ( Fletcher, 2006 ). For illustration, in one linguistic communication, the cardinal point of communicating may be at the beginning of the sentence and the qualifiers follow. In other linguistic communications like Korean, the chief point comes at the terminal of the sentence. If the interlingual rendition does non include implicit in constructs, the significance will easy go deformed, and the accent of the message will be diminished.

5.2 Bias and dependability of Questionnaire

First, it is common that people do non cognize themselves. It is apparent that one individual ‘s unconscious is much more sensitive than witting head. Therefore, unconscious minded are easy affect people ‘s psychological science deeply ( Woodside, 2006 ). Sometimes, people can non give existent responses because the truth is non known. For case, if people do non cognize their life and work value, it is impossible to acquire existent replies about their values through analysing information from questionnaires. Furthermore, Mc Sweeney ( 2002 ) argues that the “ disposal of the study and the ownership of its consequences were IBM ‘s, some of the questionnaires were completed within groups and non separately. ” It means the information collected from questionnaire can non reflect persons ‘ existent outlook. In add-on, some employees had predicted company ‘s policies would be revised which based on the consequence of this study, so they did n’t give existent responses ( Mead & A ; Andrews, 2009 ). Therefore, the consequence of the study questionnaire has been doubtable.

6.0 Critical of Inconsistence of Research Outcome

Harmonizing to Hofstede ‘s research ( 1998 ), he stated that his manner of cross sectional analysis was seasonably because he was n’t bring forthing an absolute standard but was simply thinking cultural differences. For illustration, He mentioned that wealth and individuality are connected. The wealthier states tend to be more individualist, like UK and USA – both are wealthier and individualist than Panama and Guatemala. Harmonizing to his survey Japan which is a affluent state should fall in individualist class but it falls under leftist class ( Mead & A ; Andrews, 2009 ).

Besides, harmonizing to Hofstede ( 1980 ), Japan besides has a high power distance ; nevertheless some Nipponese houses, which bases on equality, frequently focus on the development of single employees. Therefore, it is inappropriate that utilizing these properties at opposite terminals of a continuum may reflect a western prejudice to research in the East ( Papamarcos, & A ; et. al., 2007 ). This shown that there is defective premise of his survey. He had a belief that a alteration in economic fortunes could convey displacement in the civilization and as a state develops, it shifts toward individuality. However clip has changed, and Japan, as an illustration, which proves his survey has ambiguity.

However, due to the political sensitiveness at that clip, arguably has immense bearing truth and utility of the study because the memories of the universe war two and old war has impacted everything, and people ‘s feelings run high. There was territory deficiency of informations from 3rd universe and socialist states due to the political state of affairs ( Jones, 2007 ). As a consequence, political influence is besides affected Hosftede ‘s informations aggregation which might change the dependability of the result of his research.

7.0 Time Changing

Today ‘s universe is an epoch of globalization, the engineering is modern. There has been a drastic alteration in the rate of development compared with the rate at Hofstede ‘s clip. Austrian economic expert Joseph Schumpeter claimed that “ globalization is besides a procedure of “ originative devastation ” ( Francoise, 2004 ). Peoples, who use modern engineering than of all time before, are modern and advanced. Because of E-communication, distances have become really short. When making concern with states abroad, communicating is easy with the usage of the facsimile, electronic mail, picture conferencing, etc. Technology is responsible for our manner of communicating and alterations in globalization are through the manner we trade.

In add-on, Hofstede ( 1980 ) stated that the cross-cultural results produced in centuries, most researches besides supported the fact that civilization will non alter overnight. He assumes that cultural values are stable over clip. However, some research workers besides claimed that the survey is excessively old to hold any modern value peculiarly in today ‘s quickly altering planetary environment. For case, based on Hofstede ‘s dimension of uncertainness turning away, there is a research about the rate of concern ownership across 22 OECD states which shows that in 1976 and 1988 uncertainness turning away is positively correlated with the prevalence of concern ownership, one of the ground for that, possibly, is the restrictive construction of big organisations. However, in 2000 this positive correlativity is changed, low uncertainness turning away states start to counterbalance their economic systems ( Wennekers, & A ; et. Al, 2004 ). Therefore, it is still arguable about his weakness to take into history of the plasticity of civilization over-time.

8.0 Decision

In decision, different bookmans have concrete point of position of defects of hofstede ‘s theoretical account peculiarly dependability and cogency such as national, occupational and organizational civilizations differentiate by Hofstede, five simple dimensions to distinguish the civilizations, labelling issues and bilateral dimensions, out of day of the month and his methodological analysis of his research. However, civilization is excessively complex and it is impossible to pull out a really comprehensive theoretical account to distinguish the state difference. In add-on, some of the bookman have successfully prove of his homothetic research is valid to distinguish the different civilizations.

In add-on, Hofstede ‘s work helped many concern people to develop their concern successfully in a new state because of his simple and comparative theoretical account during 1980s where there were many concerns come ining international market. Therefore, we decipher that Hofstede ‘s theoretical account has a strong nucleus useful for farther cultural survey and research. Though, with alterations in clip, there are legion alterations happening in a national ‘s civilization. Globalization has let to blend up of civilizations and hence, no civilization entails its all of its original features. It is suggests clip to clip amendments need to be made to his theoretical account to guarantee its suitableness with changing clip.


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