The Effect Of Carbohydrates On Blood Glucose Levels Biology Essay

The World Health Organization defines diabetes as a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does non bring forth adequate insulin, or when the organic structure can non efficaciously use the insulin it produces.

Diabetess mellitus, more normally referred to as diabetes affects around 250 million people worldwide, although this figure is expected to be well higher because “ at least 50 per centum of all people with diabetes are incognizant of their status ” ( Loughrey, 2008 ) .

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Previously, it was believed that “ more adult females have been affected by diabetes than work forces ” nevertheless, recent information has shown that these statistics are invariably altering ( Springhouse, 2006 ) .

As research has advanced and more information has become available on this topic, scientists have been able to place several types of diabetes: Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes.

Once called Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus ( IDDM ) , Type 1 diabetes is “ much less common and normally associated with kids and adolescents ” ( Elliot-Wright, 2005 ) with statistics proposing that it “ histories for between 5 to 15 per centum of all people with diabetes ” ( Loughrey, 2008 ) .

Type 1 diabetes is besides more likely to develop in “ Caucasians in northern climatesaˆ¦ that have a familial temperament toward the disease ” ( Rubin, 2008 ) , when exposed to other environmental triggers, for illustration deficiency of exercising or a hapless diet.

Considered an ‘autoimmunity ‘ disease, people diagnosed with Type 1 battle to command glucose degrees because their “ immune system destroys the beta cells ” ( Bradley et al, 2006 ) , after misidentifying “ aˆ¦the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas as foreign organic structures ” ( Hanas, 2004 ) .

The production of insulin within the organic structure is indispensable for “ aˆ¦maintaining stableness in the organic structure by forestalling dislocation of proteins ( found in musculus ) and fats ” ( Bilous, 1999 ) .

This is why it is critical for sick persons of Type 1 diabetes to take injections for the balance of their lives, to assist maintain sugar degrees within a normal scope ( Moran et al. , 2004 ) .

In contrast, Non Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus ( NIDDM ) now recognised as Type 2 which affects around 90 % of all sick persons of diabetes, was believed to happen in maturity ( Van de Graaff et Al, 1995 ) , although there is an of all time turning figure of kids being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes in this twenty-four hours and age.

Fleshiness is believed to be the major cause of Type 2 diagnosing although research has indicated that “ about 10 per centum of people with Type 2 diabetes are non fleshy ” ( Brill, 2008 ) .

Type 2 diabetes can happen when the organic structure produces excessively small insulin, doing it hard to change over the glucose into sufficient energy or if person is enduring from insulin opposition, which is when the organic structure is unable to utilize the insulin stored efficaciously. Insulin opposition usually occurs many old ages before farther symptoms of diabetes are identified. At the oncoming of Type 2 diabetes, “ intervention is with diet with or without tablets ” ; but a few old ages after the initial diagnosing, insulin is “ aˆ¦nearly ever used because of the progressive nature of this status ” ( Fox et al. , 2007 ) .

The concluding type of diabetes is known as gestational diabetes, which occurs when a pregnant adult female can non “ run into the demands of her turning organic structure and turning babe. ” This is because during the last three months of gestation, the organic structure needs to bring forth “ between three and four times every bit much insulin as it did before ” ( McCulloch, 2008 ) . Troubles bring forthing the needed degree of insulin can take a rise in blood glucose degrees, therefore doing diabetes. Gestational diabetes is much harder to observe since many of the symptoms such as experiencing lethargic, thirsty and frequent micturition are normal marks for most pregnant adult females.

Although hard to place, some surveies have shown that assorted factors can increase the hazard of a adult females enduring from gestational diabetes, for case, “ aˆ¦obesity ; a household history of diabetes ; holding given birth antecedently to a really big baby ; a stillbirthaˆ¦ or holding excessively much amnionic fluid ” ( National Institutes of Health, 1994 ) .

Unlike both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes “ affects less than 1 in 20 pregnant womenaˆ¦ ” and “ normally seems to vanish one time the babe is born ” ( The National Health Service, 2009 ) .

Probes have besides shown that people that suffer from gestational diabetes are at increased hazard of developing Type 2 diabetes subsequently on in life, when the production of insulin in the organic structure deteriorates.

Hypothesiss:

The two hypotheses under probe are: “ 40 proceedingss after consumption, blood glucose degrees from amylum are the same as for glucose ” and “ After 160 proceedingss, glucose degrees are at baseline values. ”

Purposes:

The chief intent of this assignment was to bring forth graphs from the antecedently collected consequences, before analyzing the information and either turn outing or confuting the two hypotheses stated.

Methods:

As outlined in the talk notes ( Ahmed, 2010 ) .

Consequences:

Glucose Concentration ( millimeter )

Absorbance ( 515nm )

0

0

1

0.09

2

0.19

3

0.32

4

0.42

5

0.43

6

0.55

7

0.68

8

0.77

9

0.82

10

0.98

Figure 1.1: Table 1 – Standard curve for Trinder ‘s Glucose Assay

Carbohydrate

Absorbance ( 515nm )

Glucose

White Bread

Subjects

Time ( Minutes )

Time ( Minutes )

0

40

80

120

160

0

40

80

120

A

0.60

0.88

0.74

0.70

0.44

0.52

0.65

0.67

0.55

Bacillus

0.48

0.79

0.51

0.44

0.46

0.50

0.55

0.66

0.56

C

0.56

1.00

0.52

0.78

0.41

0.51

0.67

0.65

0.74

Calciferol

0.48

0.57

0.48

0.42

0.46

0.60

0.61

0.60

0.55

Tocopherol

0.43

0.64

0.47

0.40

0.43

0.52

0.43

0.65

0.53

F

0.38

0.76

0.67

0.61

0.59

0.47

0.63

0.73

0.58

Gram

0.35

0.97

0.95

0.50

0.41

0.55

0.77

0.66

0.49

Hydrogen

0.56

0.80

0.65

0.60

0.53

0.48

0.56

0.58

0.60

Figure 1.2: Table 2 – Consequence of saccharide on blood glucose degrees.

Figure 1.3: This graph shows a standard curve for the consequences of Trinder ‘s Glucose Assay, mensurating how absorbance changed as the concentration of glucose increased.

Figure 1.4: This graph shows the alteration in optical density of two saccharides ( glucose and white staff of life ) over clip for Subject A.

Figure 1.5: This graph shows the alteration in optical density of two saccharides ( glucose and white staff of life ) over clip for Capable B.

Figure 1.6: This graph shows the alteration in optical density of two saccharides ( glucose and white staff of life ) over clip for Subject C.

Figure 1.7: This graph shows the alteration in optical density of two saccharides ( glucose and white staff of life ) over clip for Subject D.

Figure 1.8: This graph shows the alteration in optical density of two saccharides ( glucose and white staff of life ) over clip for Capable E.

Figure 1.9: This graph shows the alteration in optical density of two saccharides ( glucose and white staff of life ) over clip for Capable F.

Figure 1.10: This graph shows the alteration in optical density of two saccharides ( glucose and white staff of life ) over clip for Capable G.

Figure 1.11: This graph shows the alteration in optical density of two saccharides ( glucose and white staff of life ) over clip for Capable H.

Discussion:

The first graph used Trinder ‘s Glucose Assay to measure how the optical density changed as the concentration of glucose steadily increased. After pulling a line of best tantrum onto the standard curve, the consequences showed a strongly positive correlativity between the two variables measured.

Occasionally, the consequences did non increase significantly between the two points, for illustration between the glucose concentrations of 4mM and 5mM, the optical density merely increased by 0.01, whereas, the mean addition between the other sets of points was about 0.1.

The graph for Subject A ( see Figure 1.4 ) showed that the optical density for glucose is much higher throughout the experiment, when compared against the optical density of white staff of life. The optical density of glucose for this peculiar capable extremums at 40 proceedingss, with a value of 0.88, before rapidly diminishing and stoping with a value significantly lower than the baseline value. On the other manus, the values for the optical density of the white staff of life were lower than the several consequences for glucose right up until the terminal, when it rose to 0.72. This suggests that although it took much longer for the glucose to be absorbed into the organic structure, the white staff of life still provided a good beginning of energy.

The graph for Capable B ( see Figure 1.5 ) produced similar consequences with the chief difference being that the extremum in the consequences for the optical density of white staff of life was at 80 proceedingss. Unlike Subject A, the optical density for glucose decreased to its lowest value at 120 proceedingss ( 0.44 ) after making a extremum at 40 proceedingss, yet it started to lift once more at around 160 proceedingss, which would connote that the organic structure had likely stored the surplus glucose earlier, and now needed to utilize it as degrees were excessively low.

The graph for Subject C ( see Figure 1.6 ) produced fickle consequences for the glucose optical density, as the values fluctuated every 40 proceedingss when it was measured. This could mean jobs with retaining glucose in the organic structure such as Impaired Glucose Tolerance ( IGT ) , which is believed to be linked to a higher opportunity of undertaking Type 2 diabetes. The optical density of the white staff of life followed the expected form and rose slower than the optical density of glucose, but unlike the old two graphs, the value fell steeply at 160 proceedingss, merely like the optical density value for glucose.

The graph for Subject D ( see Figure 1.7 ) produced consequences that were incongruous to the consequences collected for the other topics. This is because the optical density degree for white staff of life remained higher than the optical density degree for glucose for the full period of 160 proceedingss ; nevertheless, the construction of the lines for both glucose and white staff of life were similar in form. These consequences suggest that the patient could be enduring from hyperglycemia, due to a higher sum of insulin in the organic structure hence doing the procedure of interrupting down polyoses to rush up.

The graph for Capable E ( see Figure 1.8 ) showed that after the consumption of 50 gms of white staff of life, the optical density degree dropped. After the following measuring at 80 proceedingss, the optical density degrees for white staff of life showed similarities to that of the glucose, although somewhat delayed.

The graph for Capable F ( see Figure 1.9 ) displayed features that resemble the bulk of consequences for the other topics, although the one chief difference is that the optical density degree for glucose did non return to the baseline value ( 0.38 ) after 160 proceedingss. In contrast, the optical density of white staff of life increased after consumption, reached its extremum at 80 proceedingss and so fell to 0.47 after 160 proceedingss, the same value that it started off as after fasting overnight.

The graph for Capable G ( see Figure 1.10 ) showed that the optical density values for both saccharides reached their extremum at 40 proceedingss, and so both steadily decreased. As the rate of optical density for glucose started to level off between 120 and 160 proceedingss, the value for white staff of life started to increase once more, although the concluding value was still significantly lower than the initial value.

The graph for Capable H ( see Figure 1.11 ) was different to the others since the optical density degree for white staff of life continually escalated from 0.48 at the start of the experiment to 0.59 after 160 proceedingss. Additionally, the optical density value for glucose was high, but returned to around the baseline value towards the terminal of the experiment.

Overall, the graphs tend to demo that out of the two saccharides, the glucose is absorbed into the blood stream much quicker than the white staff of life, although there are some exclusions ( Subject D ) . Similarly, the optical density degrees for the white staff of life besides increased between nothing and 40 proceedingss, albeit much slower. Unlike the consequences from the glucose measurings, Capable E was an exclusion to this regulation, as the optical density value for the white staff of life decreased between the period of the start of the experiment and after 40 proceedingss.

The ground behind the procedure of white staff of life being absorbed into the blood stream taking longer than glucose is because glucose is a monosaccharose, whereas white staff of life is a polyose, which is defined by the Collins English Dictionary ( 1999 ) as “ a saccharide which consists of a figure of linked sugar molecules, such as amylum or cellulose. ”

Monosaccharides like glucose are more easy absorbed into the blood stream as a beginning of energy as these are the simplest type of sugars, whereas, in order for polyoses such as white staff of life to be absorbed into the organic structure for energy, it needs to be broken down by the procedure of digestion into several simple sugars foremost.

Decision:

Overall, the experiment shows a clear indicant that saccharides are a good beginning of energy for the organic structure, and are utile to assist rapidly raise the blood sugar degrees for diabetics.

Factors such as diet and exercising mentioned earlier demand to be taken into consideration, as these increase the hazard of undertaking “ diabetes mellitus ” in both kids and grownups likewise.

The consequences confute the first hypothesis, as the blood glucose degrees for white staff of life tended to be lower than those for glucose. However, the 2nd hypothesis was proven to be true for the bulk of the topics. Future research would be necessary in this field to turn out once and for all that these are hypotheses and findings are entirely accurate.

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