Yurt is a type of brooding that originated in Mongolia, in Central Asia. It is a home that the Nomads used old ages ago and which is still being built to day of the month. The nomads were communities that travel from one topographic point to another systematically, with their several farm animal. Yurts are chiefly located on abandoned lands such as steppes and tundra.
Yurts were built in such a mode that they can be easy dismantled, built and carried around. An approximate of 30 proceedingss to three hours is required to piece and level such yurts. These are self-supported constructions with a strong model. In strong air currents it is likely that such constructions remain steadfast to the land due to the manner the structural elements act as a whole. The construction consists of a conelike roof system with a Crown on top which exerts a force on the walls beneath it. These walls are tied to the door frame so as to make a complete circle. The external top bed provides excess rigidness and soundness to the construction which aid in maintaining the yurt attached to the land. The stuffs used can be obtained locally and from their ain farm animal. This is due to the fact that willow subdivisions and felt are used. The felt will move as insularity and as a H2O proofing. Covers of around 6 metres in diameter can be produced with an approximative figure of 180 fleeces each. The preparing of these fleeces was by and large done by the adult females of the communities ; rubbing, turn overing and irrigating are some of the techniques applied to obtain the concluding merchandise.
The mean temperature in Mongolia varies from -400C in winter up to +400C in utmost summer yearss. Therefore, the yurt had to be designed in such a manner that thermic comfort is present in both utmost instances. To provide for this, a Crown, situated at the top and in the Centre of the roof was used so that air circulation is achieved by leting fresh air to go around on a regular basis. This is attained by holding cold air sinking downwards and hot air rinsing upwards. This system provides fresh air being distributed equally throughout the internal layout.
Yurts have a form that provides a really thermic efficient temperature on its ain. Thermal comfort is achieved by the manner it is constructed and is good for both the long, dry and cold winters and the warm summer yearss. In winter, fume from ranges utilizing wood can be used to maintain the internal program warm without farther insularity when the temperature goes down to -50C. When temperatures get below -400C, thicker felts are used to assist in maintaining the internal layouts warm. On the other manus in hot conditions, sides are lifted somewhat upwards with belts increasing air flow to make a pleasing environment. Furthermore, a screen is placed on top on the Crown so as to forestall heat from Sun radiating through it. With respects to rain periods, this screen will besides be used to maintain the internal layout of the yurt prohibitionist.
Tongkonen is the traditional house of the Toraja People who live in the Sulawesi Province in Indonesia. These are houses situated in a Tropical clime zone where comparative air humidness is high, 60 to 100 % , it is subjected to precipitation and the mean temperature is around 300C with low fluctuations between dark and twenty-four hours. Hurricanes and typhoons are common in such climate conditions. Tongkonen houses non merely function as a home for domestic intents but it is besides an enlightening Centre, ritual Centre, and the fable of households. Therefore merely rich baronial households and usage leaders can raise such constructions.
‘Tongkonen’ is ever facing towards the North, since the Toraja people believe that North symbolizes life. The rice barns besides referred to as‘alang’are so placed in forepart of these edifices confronting south. The infinite created in the center is known as parampa and it is the topographic point where harvests are left to dry, kids play, adult females work and work forces arrange prick battles. Some suites that are found in the tongkonen are called tangdo, Sali and sumburg. Stairs and kiping countries for in-married misss are found in the first room. On the other manus, sali is the chief life country for the whole household which besides serves as a dormant one-fourth to single work forces of the household and the retainers. A rectangular molded box known as the fireplace, is besides found in this room, and is used both for cookery and for warming intents. Finally there is the sumburg room which is the room dedicated to the maestro of the house and his married woman.
The construction is so divided into two parts ; the infinite construction, which is besides divided into two, and the edifice construction. The infinite construction consists of the user and the type of activities done by different users. This is illustrated on the latter study.
On the other manus each component of the edifice construction is named consequently. It has got a square base with a big saddleback roof. The forepart and rear sides of the roof are over hanging known aslonga. ‘Tulak somba’, are columns that are used to back up the longa on either side. Stone, wood and hastes are stuffs used to build such a edifice. Rock was used for the foundations of the edifice while the columns, walls and roofs were done by local lumber and the roof was covered with bamboo as the building was by and large found in native woods and nature. Carpentry tools and wood Carvers were besides used by the Toraja people to construct their places and they besides managed to build scaffolding made out of bamboo to finalize their work.
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Tulou Buildings are found in the Wuyi Mountains of Fujian situated in the South East of China. They are found in the semitropicss which are classified as an country that is capable to humid, hot summer and mild to cold winters.
The Hakka people were considered to be the first cultural group to construct such Tulou. However, grounds shows that these edifices were built manner before their reaching. This cultural group migrated from the North of China to the Southern portion between the fourteenth and the 15th century. Therefore they had to settle in the mountains and in less fertile lands due to their late reaching. Different cultural groups had assorted struggles and household feuds. Therefore, the Tulou had to function as munition that separated the groups consequently. This is the ground why Tulous are surrounded by walls of clay up to 1.5 metres in deepness and 18 metres in tallness with an Fe clad portal and besides with topographic points for arms.
There are two types of Tulou ; one is round in form while the other is rectangular in form. The building of such Tulou was done by provincials, and skilled workers were merely assigned to construct complex masonry and woodworking plants. The outer wall in both instances separates the small town pathways from the unvarying little suites overlooking a common courtyard. The walls’ thickness reduces with tallness and they are besides inclined inwards as the tallness additions. The bulk were built out of a composite stuff known as ‘sanhetu’ ; this consists of a mixture of Earth, calcium hydroxide and sand compacted together. Stomping is required to raise the wall requested ; therefore, a two meter wooden mold is needed to pack the stuff equally. To be successful maximal strength is required and besides each bed should be left to dry wholly between beds severally. The walls are reinforced by split bamboo canes between beds and L-shaped cedar subdivisions for the corners in order to minimise eroding. Whitewash was applied to frontages moving as sealing and besides it helps in reflecting solar heat cut downing indoor temperatures.
Xiao Sun, Quindi Li and Xudong Yang studied the indoor thermic environment in three of the Nanjing Tulou Buildings together with thermic comfort and the energy ingestion for both summer and winter. The consequences were as follows:
- Typical Summer Day: maximal out-of-door temperature was 350C while the maximal indoor temperatures were 280C, 28.60C, 28.90C severally
- Typical Winter Dar: minimal out-of-door temperature reached 9.90C while minimal indoor temperatures were 15.80C, 14.40C, 13.80C severally.
Consequences showed that when comparing Tulou edifices with rural edifices the thermic comfort in Tulou edifices was higher than those of the rural and mean ingestion per family was lower every bit good. Furthermore, a Tulou edifice theoretical account was done to analyze these consequences and in the terminal it was concluded that airing in summer and air stringency in winter together with midst walls help in making suited thermic comfort for different climes consequently.
The three instance surveies mentioned above are different and distinguishable from one another. Yurts and Tongkonen are still being built today with merely few stuff alterations. This shows how of import their building was back in old times. A rounded form is common in both the yurt’s instance survey and the Tulou 1. However, they are constructed in a wholly different mode. One is lightweight and can be portable and the other is lasting and monumental severally. They besides serve in their ain ways good thermal environment throughout the twelvemonth under different clime conditions. The midst walls used in the 3rd instance survey and the cloth used in the first 1, both aid in maintaining a changeless air temperature inside. Comparing the two together, one will detect that people tried to construct their occupants harmonizing to their demands. The nomads had to go a batch so they used lightweight constructions while the hakka people had to support themselves from their challengers and built immense houses to house big groups. Furthermore, for Tongkonen homes big roofs had to be built to protect occupants from their changeless hot climes. With regard to nomads, they had an gap in the center to let for sunshine in cold yearss to warm up the interior which could so be closed during hot yearss. . However, all homes were built for one ground that is to house persons from different climes with different stuffs found in several parts.