The emergence of gated communities Essay

In the medieval times, fosses surrounded palaces as a preemptive effort to forbid the enemy entree and guarantee the safety of the affluent household within ( Penelope, 1977 ) . Nowadays, this mechanism for defence can be normally associated with the constitution of gated communities. Gated communities are restricted residential parts that exclude the surrounding community through the usage of high walls and security steps ( Le Goix, 2005 ) . The outgrowth of gated communities has been identified in assorted developed states around the universe, stand foring a important part of the lodging market ( Aalbers, 2001 ) . Those of the upper category reside in the sole enclaves with attempts to protect themselves from the public kingdom, therefore excepting the lower income categories from this new civilization. The physical and societal walls created by the gated communities have formed a new representation of urban agglomeration. In add-on, sealing off the outside parts has led to a strain on the societal interactions within the community. Therefore, increasing societal segregation has become outstanding on the footing of demographics, entree to urban substructure and services, and societal networking in the communities of Seoul, Santiago de Chile and Southern California severally.

Increasing societal segregation on the footing of socio-economic demographics has characterized specific countries of Seoul ‘s urban development. Gated communities are non as common in Korea, as they are in other countries of the universe nevertheless, transmutations in the lodging territory have become evident over the last 20 old ages ( Aalbers, 2001 ) . While, in most countries around the universe, gated communities enclose individual detached places, in Korea the lodging industry is different. The constitution of “super-high luxury lodging complexes” has emerged in these sole communities ( Gelezeau, 315 ) . These province of the art estates offer forte services, such as individualized trainers, athletics patterns and rank to assorted high-end nines ( Gelezeau, 2008 ) . Bunchs of condominiums are fenced in, set uping a barrier to the populace.

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The occupants of the country are entirely of upper category position of Korean society, including successful professionals and socialites, while those of in-between and lower category position are isolated from such countries ( Gelezeau, 2008 ) . In add-on to, some gated parts tailor specifically to functioning the affluent retired people of Seoul, curtailing the immature and in-between aged from shacking in those communities ( Gelezeau, 2008 ) . Economic position and age are the chief features that define those associated with the gated communities, sealing off others who do non run into the standards. Besides, the ideals of exclusivity based on income and age have influenced the existent estate market to concentrate on segregation, household safety in an sole vicinity and entree to specialise installations in order to run into the desires of wealthy ( Gelezeau, 2008 ) . In fact, the “increasing development of extremely sole residential communities has lead to increasing defined socio-demographic dissimilarities” in the Seoul community ( Le Goix, 327 ) . Isolating groups of people based on their income and age disrupts the societal harmoniousness of Seoul where lodgers of demographic favoritism are established. Consequently, feelings of hatred and animus develop within the socially disadvantaged communities towards the wealthy, presenting as a hurt to the well being of the metropolis.

In Santiago de Chile, segregation can be identified as the exclusion from public infinite and entree to urban substructure. In merely two decennaries, the tendency to build gated communities has quickly emerged in this Latin American metropolis ( Borsdof & A ; Hidalgo, 2008 ) . The outgrowth of defined spacial division has been peculiarly identifiable in Santiago de Chile, where the “homogenous extremely exclusive” countries have now become the size of towns, dwelling of 150 or even 200 residential houses over 300 hectares of land ( Borsdof & A ; Hidalgo, 2008 ) . This spacial division no longer creates a rich and hapless country of town, alternatively an ‘island ‘ for the rich and an ‘island ‘ for the hapless has emerged ( Borsdof & A ; Hidalgo, 2008 ) . Due to the increasing size, developers have replaced the term barrio cerrado, intending “closed residential quarters” with ciudad vallada intending “fenced in towns” ( Borsdof & A ; Hidalgo, 154 ) .

The Pie Andino, a freshly constructed private main road, finished in 2003, was designed to fall in several sole metropoliss, “creating a direct and private interface with the flush residential gated communities” ( Borsdof & A ; Hidalgo, 157 ) . The authorities has permitted extra private roads to be constructed, accessible non to the populace, but instead merely the citizens of Chicureo, an upscale country in Santiago de Chile, and gated communities of the upper-class territories ( Borsdof & A ; Hidalgo, 2008 ) . In other gated parts, urban developers have planned to make lakes, rank nines, recreational services and specialised establishments sole entirely to the occupants of the gated communities ( Borsdof & A ; Hidalgo, 2008 ) . Powerful figures have besides expressed involvement in puting in the development of strip promenades and shopping Centres for the elite ( Borsdof & A ; Hidalgo, 2008 ) . The metropolis of Santiago de Chile has been segregated into defined countries, each country incorporating its ain specific physical geographics of urban infinite. Harmonizing to Norton, the term agglomeration “describes state of affairss in which locations ( normally activities related to production or ingestion ) are in close propinquity to one another” ( Norton, 64 ) . As countries outside of the Gatess are excluded from entree to urban substructures and specific installations, the marginalized become further distanced from the populace services available. Therefore, a new representation of urban agglomeration for Santiago de Chile is formed ( Borsdof & A ; Hidalgo, 2008 ) . The integrity and coherence of this metropolis has dissolved, ensuing in a re-shaping of the urban infinite and allotment of public comfortss and services.

Furthermore, segregation is demonstrated on the footing of societal networking between specific countries in California. Gated communities have become a common characteristic in the U.S. metropolitan country, specifically in Southern California. Nowadays, 12 % of Americans reside in gated communities ( Le Goix, 2005 ) . From 1954 to 2001, the distribution of gated communities has been widely documented. Figure 1 ( see Appendix I ) indicates the increasing spacial spread of gated enclaves with regard to the alteration in urban conurbation over four important clip periods. Obviously, there has been an increasing rate at which gated communities have been established in the lodging market, peculiarly in the Southern countries of the United States ( Le Goix, 2005 ) .

On the West Coast, gated communities stress a sense of ‘community life style ‘ ( Blakely & A ; Snyder, 1997 ) . This life style is based upon the thoughts where upper and in-between category citizens cohabit in secured and protected community, an ideal held among many Americans ( Le Goix, 2005 ) . The occupants become portion of a ‘club ‘ , possibly in effort to guarantee security and protection ( Webster, 2002 ) . They are provided with their ain security, substructure, and leisure facilitates in an effort to avoid negative outwardnesss from “urban residential and industrial development” ( Le Goix, 2005 ) . The enclosure causes the citizens to develop a web amongst those of their enclave, set uping a homogeneous entity. Yet, as the formal and informal societal networking between the occupants becomes confined, the interactions with those beyond the high walls and security steps are weakened ( Aalbers, 2001 ; Le Goix, 2005 ) . As the fright of spillovers, such as, increased offense rate, urban decay and decrease in land value escalates among those of the gated enclaves, the desire to tie in with the marginalized dwindles ( Le Goix, 2005 ) . Interaction, as described by Norton, is the “act of motion, trading, or any other signifier of communicating between locations” ( Norton, 64 ) . However, due to weakening dealingss, there is a diminution in the spread of information, public services, political engagement and communal activities between the gated and public communities ( Giddens, 356 ) . Consequently, the enclosure causes the marginalized countries to hold a higher incidence of offense, a lessening of belongings values, and handiness to fewer public services ( Le Goix, 2005 ) . The wealthier go even more degage from the issues the disadvantaged are confronting, ensuing in the socially isolated to be farther “deprived from agencies and resources to take part optimally in mainstream life” ( Aalbers, 11 ) . Therefore, since the countries of Southern California are unable to work in unison as a corporate community, the common good is non achieved.

In Korea, Latin America and the United States, societal segregation on the footing of demographical features, handiness to public services and comfortss, and societal interactions among countries, has emerged with the rise of gated communities. Economic position and age have become the major determiners of those that reside in the gated communities, set uping societal inequalities. Private main roads and public services have been designed for the elite, excepting the marginalized from the services they are most dependent on. Besides, gated communities weaken the societal webs present between vicinities, fracturing the communities ‘ coherence. The deficiency of governmental control over the publicity of sole vicinities is present within all three socially segregated countries. National lodging policies have permitted urban contrivers to privatise countries for the constitution of gated communities, while cut downing the public infinite for lower-income citizens ( Borsdof & A ; Hidalgo, 2008 ) . Therefore, if the authorities takes minimum action to command the rise of gated communities, societal segregation will be everlastingly in being.


Figure 1: Spatial spread of gated communities in Sothern California

Obtained From:

Le Goix, R. 2005. “Gated Communities: Sprawl and Social Segregation in Southern California.” Housing Studies 20:2, 323-343.


Aalbers, M. “The dual map of the gate: societal inclusion and exclusion in gated communities and security zones.” EUREX 2-27.

Blakely, E. J. and Snyder, M. G. 1997. Fortress America: Gated Communities in the United States. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.

Borsdof, A. and Hidalgo, R. , 2008. “New dimensions of societal exclusion in Latin America: From gated communities to gated metropoliss, the instance of Santiago de Chile.” Land Use Policy 25, 153-160.

Gelezeau, V. 2008. “Changing Socio-Economic Environments, Housing Culture and New Urban Segregation in Seoul.” European Journal of East Asian Studies 7:2, 295-321.

Giddens, A. 2006. Sociology. 5th edition. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Le Goix, R. 2005. “Gated Communities: Sprawl and Social Segregation in Southern California.” Housing Studies 20:2, 323-343.

Norton, W. 2007. Human Geography. 6th edition. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Penelope, D. 1977. Turning up in Medieval Times. London: B. T. Batsford.

Webster, C. J. 2002. “Property rights and the public kingdom: Gatess, green belts, and Gemeinschaft.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 29, 397-412.


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