The emergence of information systems Essay

Most of the directors ‘ clip spent chiefly in the aid of senior directors in determination devising, in the airing of strategic cognition to departmental directors, information to operational workers, reading and transmittal of facts and figures to other direction degree and in the communicating with external environment e.g. providers and clients. Above mentioned undertakings can be performed by directors with the assistance of resources. Management information system, executive support system and determination support system are good resources for directors. Executive support systems assist executive in determination devising procedure and determination support system assists in-between directors for doing determinations. Operationss of organisations are done now yearss by taking aid from computing machines and information system. For twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours operations companies are extremely dependent on information systems for the creative activity of utile information. Organizations are in the demand of utile and timely information accordingly computing machine based information systems are going critical and critical for organisations.

Literature Reappraisal:

Critical function of direction information system is to function the direction degree in maps of planning, determination devising and controlling. Detailed twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours drumhead and studies are provided to directors from these studies and sum-ups directors take aid and do their determinations consequently. Routine and agenda information is provided to all workers working in the organisation, this information helps the worker to make their occupations efficaciously and expeditiously. Management information system comprises of occupations, workers, information systems and information engineering. Number of studies and sum-ups are generated by direction information system. Internal information of the organisation can be retrieved from this system. ( Laudon & A ; Laudon, 2007 ) .

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Decision support system differs from the direction information system in many ways e.g. direction information system provides those information and information to directors that are already available. Information provided to directors helps them in executing their work expeditiously and do strategic determinations in better manner. ( Cecez-Kecmanovic, 1987 ; Motiwalla & A ; Aiken, 1993 ) .

Care, deployment and purchase of direction information system are really expensive and dearly-won processs. Management information system though provides the economic value as a consequence of this economic value cost is justified ( Thomas & A ; Fernandez, 2008 ) . Organizations are endeavoring for value maximization of the organisation and this value is provided through direction information systems. Management information system is really effectual in value coevals for organisation the more direction information system is used, the more its effectivity would be ( Plessis, 2005 ) . Effectiveness of MIS can be judged through the sentiment and attitude of workers and directors. Satisfaction degree of employees can warrant the cost of system. ( Terry Kidd, 2008 ) .

Dimension of range, dimension of measuring and dimension of societal paradigm are three dimensions for measuring and analysis of effectivity ( Damodaran & A ; Olphert, 2002 ) . Dimensions of effectivity for direction information system are described below.

Dimension of range describes the range of effectivity for direction information system. Effectiveness of MIS can be seen in the fact that it is applied merely to individual execution of individual application plan. This effectivity is increased by the multiple execution of individual application plan. ( Yu, Kim & A ; Kim, 2004 ) Scope of effectivity can be measured by detecting the impact of information system on the whole organisation. Measures of effectivity at organisational degree are related and interlinked to the company ‘s policies, regulations and ordinances, attitudes of workers and their sentiments, budget of company and direction information system execution in the company. ( Finkelstein, 2001 ) .

Types of facts, figures and informations to be collected all are focused in the dimension of measuring. Methods for aggregation of these facts, figures and informations and how they are analysed and interpreted all these are considered in the dimension of measuring ( Fahey et al. , 2001 ) . For informations aggregation studies are conducted, questionnaires are made, primary and secondary surveies are besides carried out. Performance steps and observations degree for the usage of direction information system are obtained and gathered through concern recording equipment ( Digman, 2006 ) . Ocular and electronic probes are besides done ensuing in the observation and decisions free from personal sentiment. ( Turban et al. , 2000 ) .

Dimension of societal paradigm emphasizes on the fact that non all activities in the organisation are explainable. Rational organisations ever find ways for the wealth maximization of proprietors. In other paradigm directors want to maximise their wealth alternatively of maximising the wealth of proprietors and investors ( Hastings, 1995 ) . Dimension of societal paradigm high spots the point that with in one organisation struggles exist between the involvements of workers, directors and stockholders. ( Kamara, Anumba & A ; Carrillo, 2002 ) .


Research Methodology:

Primary and secondary research information was acquired for this research through literature reappraisal, design of questionnaires, studies, interviews and focal point groups. Choice population sample of MIS professionals and stakeholder ‘s was used for acquisition primary informations. The reviewed literature was synthesized and digested before fixing the study questionnaires and following the research methodological analysis. The sample population chiefly consisted of Information Technology professionals in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Middle East. The questionnaires and Surreies were prepared in Arabic and sent to IT focused mail groups consisting chiefly Middle Eastern and Arab information engineering professionals. These consequences of this research will hence supply an penetration into the positions and penchants of Middle Eastern and Arab perspective on Management Information Systems.

Research Consequences:

On footing of the research conducted, the utility of the Management Information Systems for a company can be based on the undermentioned cardinal success factors ordered harmonizing to the penchants given by the sampled population.

Long term determinations are taken by senior directors with the aid and aid of strategic determination support system.

In-between directors take aid from the tactical system. This system provides support and co-ordinates in day-to-day concern activities.

Knowledge systems are used in planing of merchandises, in reorganising the services and to get by with the boring paper work by cognition workers.

Routine based activities and services are supported by operational systems.

Key success factors of a direction information systems as voted by the sampled population are:

  1. Fully structured and semi structured determinations are supported by direction information system. These structured and semi structured determinations are implemented at direction and operational degree for control intents.
  2. Management information system is designed chiefly to supply studies on twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours footing. It helps in the operational control by bring forthing sum-ups on predominating operations of company.
  3. Existing informations and flow of informations is used by MIS and its efficient working is based on this information and information flows in the organisation.
  4. Analytic capablenesss of direction information system are non good.
  5. Decision doing procedure is easy with the aid of direction information system. It uses past and present informations to back up determinations.
  6. Management information systems are non flexible.
  7. This system focuses on the internal orientation and ignores the external orientations.
  8. Planing and analysis procedure in the execution of direction information system is rather drawn-out.

Key success factors for a determination support substructure system as voted by the sample population are:

  1. Decision support system provides the user with more flexibleness. DSS version is easy and speedy response is another feature of determination support system.
  2. End user can command the inputs and end products through determination support system.
  3. Decision support system is user friendly. User can run and command DSS without any aid of professional.
  4. DSS is helpful for strategic determination devising intents it provides solutions for jobs that can non be predictable.
  5. Decision support system is powerful analyzing and system patterning tool.


Management information system is considered to be indispensable tool in today ‘s concern universe. Companies are gaining more grosss and net incomes by utilizing MIS. MIS serves at tactical and operational degrees of concerns. Main focal point of direction information system is on what is go oning in the company and what is present state of affairs and advancement of concern operations. It provides structured and semi structured determinations to directors. Monitoring and control is cardinal characteristic of direction information system. Reports generated by direction information system are largely based on simple analytical techniques.


Cecez-Kecmanovic, D. 1987, ‘Organizational cognition systems: An probe on cognition communicating uncertainness ‘ , Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 14 ( 2-5 ) , pp. 221-30.

Damodaran & A ; Olphert, W. 2002, ‘Barriers and facilitators to the usage of cognition direction systems ‘ , Behaviour and Information Technology.

Digman, L. A. 2006, Strategic direction: Competing in a planetary information age, 8th erectile dysfunction, Thomson Custom Solutions, Mason, OH.

Fahey, Srivastava, R. , Sharon, J. & A ; Smith, D. 2001, ‘Linking e-business and operating procedures: the function of cognition direction ‘ , IBM Systems Journal.

Finkelstein, S. 2001, ‘The myth of managerial high quality in Internet startups: an necropsy ‘ , Organizational Dynamics, 33 ( 6 ) , pp. 11-21.

Hastings, C. 1995, ‘Building the civilization of organisational networking: Pull offing undertakings in the new organisation ‘ , International Journal of Project Management, 13 ( 4 ) , pp. 259-63.

Kamara, J. , Anumba, C. & A ; Carrillo, P. 2002, ‘A Clever attack to choosing a cognition direction scheme ‘ , International Journal of Project Management.

Laudon, K. C. & A ; Laudon, J. P. 2007, Management Information Systems: Pull offing the Digital Firm, 10th Edition erectile dysfunction, Prentice Hall.

Motiwalla, L. & A ; Aiken, M. 1993, ‘An organisational communications perspective on knowledge-based mail systems ‘ , Information & A ; Management, 25 ( 5 ) , pp. 265-72.

Plessis, M. d. 2005, ‘Drivers of cognition direction in the corporate environment ‘ , International Journal of Information Management, 25.

Terry Kidd, I. C. 2008, Social information engineering: connecting society and cultural issues, Premier Reference Source Series, dea Group Inc ( IGI ) .

Thomas, G. & A ; Fernandez, W. 2008, ‘Success in IT undertakings: A affair of definition? ‘ , International Journal of Project Management, 26 ( 7 ) , pp. 733-42.

Turban, E. , Lee, J. , King, D. & A ; Chung, H. M. 2000, Electronic commercialism: A managerial position, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

Yu, S.-H. , Kim, Y.-G. & A ; Kim, M.-Y. 2004, Associating Organizational Knowledge Management Drivers to Knowledge direction Performance: An Exploratory Study.


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